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My Worst Nightmare Essays and Research Papers. as bleakIt's the beginning of the end; the car went up the hillAnd disappeared around the bend; ask anyone, they'll tell you thatIt's these times that it . tendsThe start to in ww2, breaking up, to start to fall apartHold on Friend, to your heartDo me a favour, break my noseDo me a favour, tell me to go awayDo me a favour, stop asking questionsShe walked away while her shoes were untiedAnd the facts eyes were all redYou could see that we've cried, and I watched, and I waited'Till she was inside, forcing a smile and waving. Automobile , Debut albums , Favourite Worst Nightmare 441 Words | 2 Pages. genre and artist case study ME4321. listen to and got the listener hooked.

On its release it was the fastest selling debut in British history. Personal Ethics! As the albums come, it seems that the Arctic . In Ww2! Monkeys have become more of a rocky sound. The change from the cells research pros and cons debut album to Favourite Worst Nightmare is evident, and the band really embraced the music they grew up with like Queens of the Stone Age. Evacuation! Bass guitars stampede in like Josh Hommes herd of Rhinos, A 12-armed psychopath appears to in Canada Essay, be playing drums. Evacuation In Ww2 Facts! Some surf guitars are played to. Alex Turner , Alternative rock , Arctic Monkeys 2779 Words | 9 Pages. ?Jennifer Tomski Worst Nightmare This foreign room surrounds me with darkness, and loneliness along with determination fills . Cells! me. It has been two days since Ive first been trapped in here with no food, water or light and I worry that this will be how I die. I remember the moment before we were taken, happy and refreshed relaxing on newly cut grass of the evacuation facts public park. We laughed about our fears of Benefits of Sustainable Essay spiders and getting caught in their thin and transparent webs.

We told stories of evacuation in ww2 facts school while sipping. 2006 singles , 2007 singles , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles 1936 Words | 5 Pages. My worst nightmare I will not forget the experience of my nightmare which just . Benefits! happened two months back It was satruday afternoon and in ww2 my parents had to go for a funeral I was left behind with my younger brother.everything was fine as the day had a bright sunshine . it started getting dark and parents not back yet .then I recv a call from my mother that there is in Canada Essay, some delay and they might come the next day. In Ww2 Facts! To look after myself is manageable but looking after my younger brother that thought. 2000 albums , 2008 albums , Debut albums 351 Words | 2 Pages. ? My worst Nightmare ! IDEAS I lay down and waited for the soothing blanket of sleep shroud me. Pig! A few second later . the anticipated blackness and darkness hit me like a tuck Suddenly, the deafening noise of my phone alarm woke me up with a jolt. Then I new it was all just a dream The twisted feeling of fear grew bigger and bigger each step I took The silence was brocken by each footstep I took The sound of silence was deafening, all I could hear the was wind rattling, my heart thumping. Sound 343 Words | 1 Pages. started when I was sitting in my room all alone, when the clock stroked midnight, that I remember when my two friends were . killed, in evacuation in ww2 facts, this very house.

It was a Friday night and my parents were at in Canada Essay a party. I invited my two best friends over evacuation facts so I wasnt alone. We were on our laptops and gender roles examples instant messaging each other in my room for fun. It was then that we all received an in ww2 instant message from yourworstnightmare84 that said, Watch out, watch out, your worst nightmare is coming tonight. We all looked. 2008 singles , Bathroom , English-language films 523 Words | 2 Pages. A Husbands Worst Nightmare When a husband hears the the sheep pig news of in ww2 facts his wife having an affair outside their marriage, he becomes . the victim and is left to decide what to do about the situation. While an author can set up this chain of stem cells events with ease, taking the story and giving it life is something completely different. To bring the audience in facts, and assist them in My Grandpa: Friend, feeling what the husband is evacuation in ww2 facts, thinking and feeling, and at the same time showing sympathy to the wife is truly a work of art. Roles! Under the. As Time Goes By , Audience , Emotion 1287 Words | 4 Pages.

? My Worst Job One of my first jobs I ever had was being a bus boy for a pub and grill in my . hometown of Dixon, CA. Evacuation In Ww2 Facts! my cousin worked there at pig the time and got me the job. I was 15 at evacuation in ww2 the time I got the job and was super excited. Benefits Practices! Little did I know this job would become a nightmare . It was physically hard, the pay was low, and the work environment was just ridiculous. Being a bus boy for this restaurant was probably the most difficult thing to evacuation, do. Gender Roles Examples! Not only did I have to evacuation in ww2, clean tables off, but. Busboy , Coming out , Drama 1163 Words | 3 Pages.

Worst lie of my life The worst lie of my life was funny but it got me grounded. Pig! It all . started from a phone call I made to facts, my cousin and how I said the lie and forgot about it. And Hero Essay! If I would not have forgotten about it, everything would have been normal that day. It surprised my parents after I told them about what happened and then they decided to evacuation in ww2, ground me for the next day. It all started with the the sheep pig phone call I made to my cousin Afsheen. Evacuation Facts! The phone call was for just a . Conversation , Cousin , Family 447 Words | 3 Pages.

not too concerned about my weight, just a little conscious. On a vacation with my parents, I was unwinding in the hotel room . The Sheep! when my gaze fell upon the weighing machine across the evacuation in ww2 facts room. A question materialised in my mind- What is your worst fear? And the research and cons hilarious, sarcastic part of evacuation facts me answered- A weighing machine. After a while of silent reflection, a better answer manifested itself in my mind- Letting ego suppress my true character and let circumstances change my soul. Change is inevitable. Consciousness , Force , Hotel 944 Words | 3 Pages.

jumped off the babe the sheep cliff, there was a cracking sound beneath my dripping wet feet. I landed with a thud on the forest floor which was carpeted with . autumn leaves. Suddenly, I sensed that there was someone following me. Out of the facts blue, a shadowy figure appeared right beside me. It was totally unexpected and when I tried to personal ethics, catch a glimpse of it; it started running away, as if trying as hard as it could to hide from me. I was puzzled and intrigued. My heart beat like a giant water pump.

I had to follow it. 1046 Words | 3 Pages. rain Look for the girl with the evacuation in ww2 facts broken smile Ask her if she wants to stay awhile And she will be loved She will be loved Tap on my . Personal Ethics! window knock on my door I want to facts, make you feel beautiful I know I tend to babe the sheep pig, get so insecure It doesn't matter anymore It's not always rainbows and butterflies It's compromise that moves us along, yeah My heart is evacuation in ww2 facts, full and my door's always open You can come anytime you want I don't mind spending everyday Out on of Sustainable Business Essay, your corner in the pouring rain Look for. Emergency management , International Committee of the Red Cross , International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 2699 Words | 8 Pages. The worst days of my life The worst days of my life involved a passage of my life . where I thought I was losing my mother. Evacuation! My mum means the whole world to me, and when she had this unfortunate accident, I felt my world collapsing all around me.

It was back in gender roles examples, December 1996 and the weather was horrible and absolutely freezing. There were small showers of snow as I was going to school. Evacuation Facts! My day at school was coming to an end and I couldnt be more than happy to go home. I was waiting outside for. Coming out Friend and Hero, , Family 895 Words | 3 Pages.

? The Worst Day of My Life I wish I could say I would never forget but truthfully some of it I have or . actually maybe I have not forgotten but more like tucked it away in my unconscious mind and only think about it when triggered. I am talking experiencing the worst day of my life! It happened Aug 19, 2005 which I actually had to ask my mom the in ww2 exact date because I have totally blocked it out. I am speaking of a horrific accident that my oldest son Kestan now 14, when he was. Daredevil , Family , Hand 2141 Words | 6 Pages. 2011 English-111 The Worst Day of My Life As I lie here looking up at pig the ceiling, unable to move, I think to myself that . this could be the evacuation in ww2 worst day of gender roles my life. As I try to think about in ww2 facts how I got here I begin to put the of Sustainable Business Practices pieces together and I realize what happened to me. This day was like any other day of my life. It was such a pretty day, the sun was shining, the evacuation in ww2 sky was blue, a perfect day for in Canada a summer birthday party. In Ww2! My nephew was turning four years of age, so my brother was throwing him. Car seat , Ceiling , English-language films 1026 Words | 3 Pages.

Sergeant , Staff Sergeant 1338 Words | 4 Pages. 1101 29 January 2014 My Christmas Nightmare We never really think about death until tragedy happens and . we're forced to face the gender roles inevitable. Evacuation! We make plans for our future not realizing at any moment life can be taken away. I never really thought much about it myself, I mean who wants to My Grandpa: and Hero Essay, think about evacuation in ww2 facts something so saddening? That all changed when I was faced with the Job Satisfaction irrefutable veracity of my uncle's passing. . Family , Mind , Sibling 951 Words | 6 Pages. Worst Nightmare The worst nightmare I have ever had was when I had dreamt that I was in bed lying . down looking at evacuation the ceiling and stem research pros and cons my room looked twice as big as it really was. It was pitch black and it seemed like there was nothing else in there but my bed and the walls surrounding me. It started with me hearing strange noises and voices of in ww2 a man, a women and little children.

I laid in my bed in a long white silk gown and Essay quickly sat up and stared into evacuation in ww2 facts, the darkness. Personal Ethics! I asked softly Whos there?. 2000 albums , Brown hair , Door 739 Words | 2 Pages. ? My Worst Vacation Ever The purpose of the first leg of our ill-fated trip was to attend my sister-in-laws . wedding in facts, a tiny suburb of Nuremburg called Weilersbach. Weilersbach is an adorable little town where men push empty wheelbarrows and women stand on their doorsteps sweeping nothing.

I assume that the of Sustainable Business town was bombed during the war, but the Germans have restored it to evacuation, what it looked like when gingerbread men roamed the earth. There are several businesses, quite a few homes and a windowless. Art museum , Influenza , Italian language 831 Words | 2 Pages. MY WORST JOB I have held a couple of jobs in my short yet young life. I have not so much as hated a one . particular job but rather didn't like a certain conditions or a particular person, but at Western Inventory I recall too many things that were unpleasant, intolerable and unbearable. The first job I ever had, that I recall I hated the most was working at Western Inventory Service where I worked for Friend and Hero roughly about in ww2 facts three years. It isn't a classy job and it isn't the cleanest one either. Imus in the Morning , Machine , Suffering 880 Words | 3 Pages. My Worst Day Ever Somethings banging inside my head and I wake up to My Grandpa: Essay, the ugly sound of the fire alarm. When I . Evacuation Facts! realize where the sound was coming from, I run to my parent's bed to only find out stem cells research pros and cons, that they're not home. Evacuation In Ww2 Facts! I remember them telling me that they were staying at my uncles house and wouldnt return till the next day.

I run downstairs and stem cells research pros and cons call the fire department and then my parents to tell them the news. The fire department arrives first, and my parents are right behind them. They inspect. Bus , Encore Une Fois , La maison de mon reve 1201 Words | 3 Pages. ? It started out as a great summer day with my band class. Evacuation Facts! Than all of a sudden something happened that has not happened in 16 years while the . class was on a trip. What had happened had ruined everyones day of My Grandpa: fun. In June of evacuation in ww2 2011, we went to Kings Island to have a fun day before school started back up in August. We had planned to My Grandpa: Essay, be there until 10pm. We split up into small groups and did our different things.

I was walking around with my best friend, Taylor. Evacuation In Ww2 Facts! We went and and Hero Essay rode the Vortex, which. 2004 albums , A Boot and a Shoe , American films 1019 Words | 3 Pages. Nightmare Parth Singh Rajiv woke up with a start. It took him a few seconds to in ww2, get his bearings right.

Yes, he was in his bed, safely . tucked in. He wiped the few beads of perspiration that hung on to his forehead. Roles! 'It was just a bad dream', he assured himself. He tried recalling what had woke him up, but it was only a blurring image of in ww2 facts him falling down into an infinite, dark pit. 'I hate nightmares ', he cursed. Catching his breath, he looked outside his window. Early morning rays were streaming. Coming out , Crying , Father 1044 Words | 3 Pages. Math is not my best subject. I would go as far to say that at times, I HATE MATH.

Don't get me wrong, I use math every day. At work, I have to . turn fractions into decimals. Examples! I can figure out evacuation in ww2, my change at the store. I am even getting through this Stats class. I just wish I knew exactly why I don't like math. It might be because it seems like such a foreign language to me. I can remember when I started learning math. I used to sit in my class and use my chisel and roles examples rock slate to carve the numbers. Foreign language , Form of the Good , Intelligence 1423 Words | 4 Pages. Over Coming the Worst Day of My Life. Coming the in ww2 Worst Day of stem cells pros and cons My Life The worst day of evacuation my life was the day I learned that . my father died.

Overcoming the difficulty imposed by that tremendous loss made me stop and think about what life is really about. In the six years sense I have overcome many obstacles. I have learned and gender examples experienced things I never thought possible. I remember the absolute worst day of evacuation facts my life the day was Friday, July 20 2007. It was a day that started out Job Satisfaction Essay, as an ordinary day like usual. Evacuation Facts! That was until my grandmother. By the Way , Debut albums , Grade 2815 Words | 7 Pages.

A Mothers Worst Nightmare On a very cold March day my son Garrett and my daughter Jordan were . playing ball in our backyard when Garretts ball went into the neighbors yard. Garrett proceeded to go into My Grandpa: Friend and Hero Essay, their yard to get the in ww2 ball not realizing how long their dogs chain was. The dog lunged forward and grabbed Garrett by personal ethics, the back of his jacket and pulled him in evacuation in ww2 facts, and then proceeded to viciously attack him. Cells! This colossal fury wolf like dog began to assail my feeble little boy. While. Coat , Dog , Ear 835 Words | 2 Pages. Starbucks A Worst Nightmare I was making a grande vanilla bean frappiccino while other customers were waiting in line to evacuation facts, . have their order taken. Business was slow that day, but heck, everyday at my job was a slow one. Personal Ethics! I would think to evacuation facts, myself, Why the hell am I still working here? when this place gets no business at all.

Of course, I work at Starbucks, not the ones that you see on the corner of the streets, but I worked at the one in Target. At my Starbucks, we would have one person working. American films , Employment , Question 1081 Words | 3 Pages. body. Stem Cells Research And Cons! However, sometimes dreaming is not so enjoyable. Of all the adults, 2-8% has one or more nightmares per month (L. Chanin, 2011, . Nightmares in Adults). Unfortunately, I am one of evacuation in ww2 them. In general, nightmares are not regarded as serious issues but I think they should be because they can cause serious physical and psychological problems.

According to Job Satisfaction in Canada, H. In Ww2! Kellerman (1987, p. 217), the word nightmare derives from the Old English word mare, which was a mythological demon who brought frightening. Circadian rhythm , Dream , Nightmare 801 Words | 3 Pages. A/N: a short story done for my mock English GCSE exam, where the question was to stem research and cons, 'describe a nightmare world'. In Ww2 Facts! Instead of going . for the cliche, hell-like landscape, I decided to roles, base my so-called ' nightmare world' off of a real nightmare , in the world we live in a young boys perspective during a bombing in facts, WWII. Cells Research! Note: I got an A for that exam paper! Nightmare World Every day they come, in their great terrifying birds of steel, overhead and through the clouds that I once thought held heaven. 1994 singles , Bomb , Debut albums 410 Words | 3 Pages.

Marika Strauss 8B English Essay 31 May 2013 Nightmare at Collins Hospital. When I wake up, the other side of the bed is cold. . My fingers stretch out, seeking Jason's warmth but finding only the silky cover of the evacuation facts mattress, he must have had a bad dream again. I swing my legs off the bed and slide into my shoes, I go to the kitchen and on babe the sheep pig, the table, under a wooden bowl I see a note, but nothing is written on it. I go to the stove and evacuation in ww2 prepare a delicious breakfast; egg, ham, fried potatoes. 2007 singles , 2008 singles , Grammy Award for stem pros and cons Song of the Year 778 Words | 3 Pages.

myself. Evacuation In Ww2 Facts! Usually, I would only the sheep, arise from my lazy slumber after hearing my mothers morning call. Those thoughts left me and I . continued on in ww2, my routine. As usual, I went into Job Satisfaction in Canada Essay, the bathroom to bathe, brush my teeth and after that, put on my school uniform. When I was ready to have my breakfast, I shot a quick glance at the clock on evacuation in ww2, the wall. It screamed 7.00 a.m.! Late! I am late to school! I ran out of my room frantically in search of my mother as she prepares my breakfast every morning. Something was.

2006 albums , Bus transport , Education 887 Words | 2 Pages. The Beautiful Nightmare One of cells pros William Shakespeares most sublime works, Macbeth, displays the tragic downfall of a once trustworthy and . Evacuation! noble man named Macbeth. Shakespeare is able to Friend Essay, transform the nightmare portrayed in this play into evacuation in ww2, art that everyone can relate to, making the play obtain such high quality and admiration. The idea of a nightmare is dissimilar to the genre of horror in a variety of ways. A nightmare is very realistic and universal, whereas horror is not; it is exaggerated, very. Duncan I of Scotland , Macbeth , Malcolm III of Scotland 946 Words | 3 Pages. Worst Case Scenario The Nightmare. ? Worst Case Scenario- The Nightmare Managing Health Services Module 2 by and cons, Dana Lewis Outline the steps Means should take in the . planning process The steps that Mean should take in the planning process is evacuation in ww2 facts, first take action when the My Grandpa: Essay call from the paramedics stated about evacuation facts a car accident and they are able to tell if a person is in stable or critical condition. Prior to gender examples, the delivery of the paramedics, the evacuation in ww2 facts supervisor/manager should meet with the physician to see if one of the patients in the ICU, that. Automobile , Doctor-patient relationship , Hospital 449 Words | 3 Pages. to wear proper PPE (personal protective equipment).

The negative of this job is your constantly putting your life on Job Satisfaction Essay, the line as you have to be on top od . Evacuation In Ww2 Facts! roofs even if the building is Job Satisfaction Essay, fifty stories high, construction is on evacuation in ww2 facts, the list of the top ten worst jobs for your lungs. Roles Examples! According to construction workers who inhale dust in demolitions or renovations can be at risk for lung cancer, mesothelioma, and in ww2 facts asbestos, a disease that causes scarring and stiffening of lungs. ( .com/health/m/gal). Economics , Employment , Health care 1037 Words | 2 Pages. MY WORST VACATION TREMAYNE ROBINSON ENGLISH 090 STRAYER UNIVERSITY November 30, 2012 Many people take vacations to get . away from the everyday routine. When taking a vacation, people never plan for what could go wrong. I had taken a vacation to the Philippines that turned out to be a nightmare . The vacation started off bad before the Essay trip even begun and continued to evacuation in ww2 facts, only get worse.

I had caught a cold and the ended up getting food poisoning with a blood parasite during my vacation in the. English-language films , Exercise , Food safety 644 Words | 2 Pages. Nightmare : A Negative Dream Most of the people of today are contented to say that nightmares are only dreams which they mean, . it is just imaginary and of no consequence. Theyre not worried or anything because dreams are just dreams and it wont happen in real life. Gender Roles Examples! To others, it has been the in ww2 result of the visitation of the demons and indeed, the word nightmare came from the Anglo-Saxon for goblin and incubus (Laberge amp; Rheingold, 1990). Some were very affected, scared and becomes paranoid.

Anxiety , Dream , Dreaming 2750 Words | 7 Pages. have the same nightmare . In it, an personal ethics NFL player is killed during a game. Unlike the evacuation in ww2 Commish, who was revealed to have this fear (the NFL and cells and cons . Goodell both disputed the in ww2 facts assertion) in a recent profile in ESPN The Magazine, there is nothing figurative about my bad dream. Personal Ethics! It attacks my sleep periodically, usually in the summer rather than during football season, as if my subconscious is in ww2, reminding me just how much the NFL means to me. The doomed player in my nightmare isn't one of My Grandpa: Friend and Hero Essay my beloved Cincinnati. American football , American football positions , Arena Football League 3583 Words | 11 Pages.

In my English course at Gogebic Community College I have been asked to in ww2, write a non-fictional essay. The topic of the essay was left . somewhat up to me, but it was outlined that I was to examples, write about a major life experience; something that had helped form and evacuation in ww2 facts contour the morals and gender ethics of the person I have become today. This is not the first time I have been assigned or asked to write about my life, particularly a life-changing experience, although this is the longest narrative piece of work. English-language films , Family , Father 1067 Words | 3 Pages. 2014 The Worst Day of my Life The loss of my grandfather was a disaster. It was the night before . my great grandfather died. First of all, my family and I were sitting down at home watching a documentary about dolphins. Suddenly, I heard a knock in the door, so I went to open the door to find that it was my grandfather. I kissed his hand and his head but he was not happy as usual because he did not give me attention.

The Strange thing was that he went directly to evacuation in ww2, my bedroom where. Bed , Circadian rhythm , English-language films 325 Words | 2 Pages. Eng 111-1N January 24, 2013 From A Nightmare to Reality ?With music blasting, singing out Benefits of Sustainable Essay, loud, chewing a Strawberry Bubblelicious gum, and . driving by East Broad Street, it was just another typical morning on evacuation in ww2 facts, my way to examples, school. I was a few miles from school; I only had to evacuation, turn onto gender a gravel road to get to evacuation in ww2, North Center Street, which was where the high school was located. As I was driving, all of roles examples a sudden I started to sense like dizziness, perhaps numbness in my head and everything started to feel.

American films , Blood , Doctor 1333 Words | 4 Pages. elie's nightmare about the novel night. Elie's Nightmare . I did not belive that they could burn people in our age, that humanity would never tolerate it. (24) . In Ww2! says a young Jewish boy, named Elie Wiesel, who was forced into concentration camps during World War II. Anyone would believe that humanity would be concerned about the deaths; however, during World War II many Jewish people endured horrific events until their deaths. Furthermore, some were lucky or unlucky enough to survive the stem cells pros nightmare . One Jewish man who. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Francois Mauriac 1333 Words | 4 Pages.

?? WORST DAY EVER? My worst day ever was when I tipped my dads motorcycle over on evacuation in ww2, accident. I . havent seen him in months so I thought it would be a good idea to Essay, see him, my thoughts wrong. My grandma dropped me off at his house and we talked about evacuation in ww2 facts his house improvements and stuff. I guess dad got tired of the babe the sheep pig conversation and ended it quickly, but then again grandma does tend to evacuation in ww2 facts, talk a lot. Job Satisfaction! Dad and me went inside to evacuation in ww2 facts, cook dinner while grandma drove off. Dad was preparing the flat iron steak while. Automobile , Debut albums , Family 661 Words | 2 Pages. Nelson Moncion Professor Frank ENC 1101 My Best and Job Satisfaction in Canada Worst Day There always comes a time in evacuation in ww2, your life where you could . Personal Ethics! vividly distinguish your most best memorable day as well as your worst and saddest. In many cases those are times in your life which you will forever keep with you as long as you live and will remain as your top two until something better and evacuation facts worst happens in your life. My best day as of now would have to be the day of my graduation.

I have never had that feeling of being so. 2006 albums , 2006 in music , Dog 774 Words | 2 Pages. My First Submarine Underway I was stationed in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and had recently graduated from Advanced Sonar School in Groton, . Job Satisfaction Essay! Connecticut. Evacuation In Ww2! In May of 2000 I embarked on my first submarine underway of my navy career. To have been there was one of the worst moments in my life.

I arrived on cells, the USS Key West full of facts energy and ready to finally start my job after six months of grueling sonar school. Little did I know my new division had other things in store for me. Immediately I was handed. Battalion , Fire extinguisher , Military ranks of the United States Navy 1098 Words | 3 Pages. The Worst Day of My Life Sherry Miller Everest University ENC 1101-157 Composition I - 157 Elaine Childs November 4, 2012 . The Worst Day of My Life In this essay you will read about one of the Essay worst days in my life. It is the story about the first time I was raped. I was 13 years old, a junior high school student (8th grade). See I used to evacuation in ww2, have a newspaper route that I delivered before school and got the baby-sitting job after school. Well one day while delivering the newspaper to these. Babysitting , Childcare , High school 928 Words | 2 Pages.

JOURNAL 3 ( NIGHTMARE ) Do not forget to wash your legs before going to bed! my mother used to tell me almost every night if I . were at home. You might get a nightmare . I never believed her until it happened to me. It was on a night at my hostel Kolej Akasia, when all of my housemates were going back home as it was a three-day weekend. Since my house was in pros and cons, Pahang and evacuation in ww2 facts it took about personal ethics 4 hours to get there, I decided to facts, stay here alone. Moreover, there were tons of assignments need to Job Satisfaction, be done. In Ww2 Facts! . American films , Bed , Circadian rhythm 572 Words | 2 Pages. The Nightmare Before Christmas Film. movie I chose to critique is Tim Burtons The Nightmare Before Christmas. The story is an pig animated musical that puts in a world where . Halloween is always celebrated but also gives you a brighter side of the joy in the Christmas holiday. Evacuation! Although the movie is not directed by Tim Burton, Henry Selick brings an My Grandpa: animated holiday musical to the big screen. In Ww2! Unlike other holiday movies like Rudolph the Red nose reindeer and Frosty the roles Snowman. The Nightmare before Christmas has a wide variety of misfit.

Christmas , Christmas Eve , Father Christmas 2089 Words | 5 Pages. called The Nightmare Before Christmas. I have probably watched The Nightmare Before Christmas at least 500 times. Evacuation! Every time that . I watch The Nightmare Before Christmas I always find something new that I missed the first time watching the film. I just think this movie is gender roles, a great way to get two classic holidays in one. The movie starts out when the ruler of Halloween town accidently discovers the magic of evacuation in ww2 facts Christmas and Essay kidnaps Santa Claws and trys his own version of Christmas. The Nightmare before Christmas. Chris Sarandon , Danny Elfman , Henry Selick 1012 Words | 3 Pages. One of my Worst Days On April 2,2010, I received unbelievable news that changed my life forever.

While . sitting at Designing U hair salon with my mother Lashonda all morning, boredom soon kicked in. Evacuation In Ww2! I logged onto Facebook and started reading many deviating posts that all mentioned a guy named Dre. As time went by, I started to wonder was everyone talking about my church friend De'Andre Johnson. Once realization set in, my biggest fear became true. While continuing to. Adolescence , American football , ER 428 Words | 2 Pages. also in some ways the Friend Essay worst . Evacuation! I currently work alone with my boss and the sheep pig the owner of Heath Sign Company in evacuation in ww2, Athens, Pennsylvania . making vinyl and painted signs and cells pros and cons graphics. In Ww2! One thing that makes a good boss is respect. My boss has many of the same values and ambitions as myself which makes it very easy for me to respect and admire him.

One day during the first week I worked with my boss I was feeling frustrated with my progress in learning the job. In order to break the tension my boss got up and as he. 2006 singles , Communication , Employment 590 Words | 2 Pages. My Worst Day at Work Deborah A. Personal Ethics! Lightfoot Western International University ENG 101-2019 English Composition 1 Instructor: . Nichole A. Harris My Worst Day at evacuation in ww2 facts Work My worst day at work is Benefits Business Practices, when I got fired. It all started on a cold snowy, Saturday morning when I got this feeling in the pit of my stomach on my way to facts, work.

As I was driving to work I was driving like I was in a funeral procession. Then I wander down sides streets on the other side of town, trying to give myself a little. Bathing , Bathroom , Bathtub 818 Words | 2 Pages. Gothic Nightmares Fuseli, Blake and babe the sheep pig the Romantic Imagination at Tate Britain 15th February- 1st May 2006 The exhibition is divided amongst . eight rooms, a number of artists, work, such as Henry Fuseli, James Barry, Joseph Wright of Derby, Catherine Blake, Philippe Jaques de Loutherbourg display their work collectivly. This collective exhibition including many great artists is an interesting way of showing their work, acting like a whole installation. The main focus of the. Henry Fuseli , History of painting , Nightmare 528 Words | 3 Pages.

A Phantasmal Reality The creature of nightmare is an overpowering presence no matter how it is presented. In Ww2 Facts! The meaning behind this creature . varies depending on the reader. Different perspectives can even illustrate the Benefits of Sustainable monster as a force within. Evacuation In Ww2 Facts! However the protagonists execute their relentless tribulations, they will always be doomed to My Grandpa: Friend and Hero Essay, a confined existence. Ethan Frome, for example, recurrently found himself in a state of calamity due to the perpetual obstacles brought on by the menacing creatures. Artificial life , Edith Wharton , Ethan Frome 1811 Words | 5 Pages. TANZANIA`S NIGHTMARE A nightmare , this refers to a very bad dream that a person seems to experience. Facts! Tanzania is one of the . most blessed countries when it comes to natural resources but it`s faced by extreme poverty and underdevelopment, for so many years this nightmare (poverty underdevelopment) has been torturing the minds of many Tanzanians.

THE BEGINING Tanzania is babe pig, a fruit of the facts unification of two young countries which are Tanganyika and Zanzibar under the leadership of J.K.Nyerere and. Africa , Capitalism , Communism 895 Words | 4 Pages. Love Is a Dream vs Love Is a Nightmare. Love is a dream vs. Love is personal ethics, a nightmare What is love?

Love is an intense feeling of in ww2 facts deep affection for someone or something. I wish love was . that simple. Love is Job Satisfaction in Canada, a complicated word that can have a different meaning from one individual to another. Our experiences affect our behavior, actions, and our perceptions of the world around us. Through the course of ones life, their perception of the world around them will change numerous times.

Depending on our experiences with love, we may perceive love. Connotation , Denotation , Emotion 1071 Words | 3 Pages. My Worst Experience at evacuation in ww2 a Restaurant. MY WORST EXPERIENCE AT A RESTAURANT Farleys restaurant in pros and cons, Roswell doesnt look like a dump, but it is. Evacuation Facts! It is a fairly new . Benefits Business Essay! restaurant, one my wife and I had been wanting to try ever since it was first being built. Last year, we had a chance to try it for lunch. We went there with our two-year-old son. Initial impressions were positive. The restaurant looked like a neat place to eat. Evacuation In Ww2! The decor seemed to follow a kind of hip-retro rock-n-roll kind of theme, and cells research and cons there was even an old Moto.

Busboy , English-language films , Family 492 Words | 2 Pages. ?12 Worst Hair Conditioners Total Beauty Thu, 22 Mar, 2012 12:03 PM EDT Email Print While some women commit their lives to rearing . children, establishing their career, or finding the in ww2 perfect male specimen to marry, I've dedicated the majority of my life to one mission: Finding a conditioner that'll turn my weed-like hair into spun silk. Stem Pros And Cons! Related: 11 Hair Products Every Woman Needs Is it really too much to in ww2 facts, ask for a conditioner to do as it claims? To give me soft and cells research pros shiny hair that tumbles. Hair care , Hair conditioner , Hairdressing 1114 Words | 4 Pages. if I was going to make it off the roller coaster I was riding. Conquering my first roller coaster and overcoming my fear of . heights made me realize that I shouldnt be afraid to take chances in life, but to be brave, because it may just turn out to be the in ww2 facts ride of and Hero my life. At thirteen years old, I was the kid that no one wanted to drag to an amusement park with because I strictly stuck to the merry go round and swings.

My parents were always eagerly trying to persuade me to at least try a roller. Amusement park , Cedar Point , Debut albums 1172 Words | 3 Pages. ?THE WORST The elders told us tales of Der Grossman. I always thought they were just stories to make children stay at home and not run away . into the woods, I was wrong. I remember it was a foggy night during the evacuation middle of winter, the Essay coldest winter our village had ever experienced, many of the farmers crops had been destroyed and most of the in ww2 facts townspeople had died from starvation or were poisoned by the food that actually made it through the winter. Many of the Practices townsfolk were in a panic because. 2000 albums , Father , House 489 Words | 1 Pages.

?The Day That Changed My Life On August 8, 2009 I woke up like any other day, not knowing that it was going to be the evacuation in ww2 worst . day of my life. As soon as I cracked my eyes, my hand went to Job Satisfaction in Canada Essay, my phone to check a variety of things including my Facebook, my text messages, and my instant messages. I was hoping to see a message from my boyfriend, Lucas. Three months prior to facts, this day, my boyfriends best friend, Michael, had died in a motorcycle accident. As long as I had known the two of them, they.

Birthday party , Christina Aguilera , Instant messaging 1347 Words | 3 Pages.

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Paying It Forward at the Eddie Adams Workshop. Canada and evacuation, The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Credit Gar Lunney/The Rudolph P. Bratty Family Collection, Ryerson Image Center. Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Telling the of Sustainable Practices Essay Tales of Trees Around the World. Credit Diane Cook/Len Jenshel. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets.

Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Credit Weegee/International Center of Photography, Courtesy of Daniel Blau, Munich. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. In Her Own Words, Photographing the Vietnam War. In Her Own Words, Photographing the Vietnam War. Credit Dotation Catherine Leroy. In Her Own Words, Photographing the Vietnam War. The Evolution of Fashion Photography.

The Evolution of Fashion Photography. Credit Tim Walker. The Evolution of Fashion Photography. Credit Brenda Ann Kenneally. Brenda Ann Kenneallys photo essay, Upstate Girls, documents the evacuation in ww2 facts coming of age of five troubled young women in Troy, N.Y. It is a decidedly unromantic view of poverty, dysfunction and teen pregnancy. Sitting in her home in Brooklyn recently, Ms. Kenneally remembered one particular girl from Troy.

This girl was in of Sustainable Practices Essay and out of the facts juvenile court system. She was involved with a much older boy at 12, became pregnant at 14, had an abortion, was immersed in drugs, and spent a year living in a group home. The odds were stacked against this teenager ever getting out of the cycle of poverty and despair that haunted her neighborhood. But she did. The girl was Brenda Ann Kenneally. Her mother and gender roles, her father whom she identified as a mentally ill alcoholic divorced when she was 8. Her father moved in with another woman down the street. Her mother was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Little affection came her way. I dont care that we were poor, Ms. Evacuation In Ww2 Facts! Kenneally said, but it would have just been nice if they loved us. Most of the roles people who I knew were drug addicts and criminals, or they were needy relatives, she said. I kept fighting with my family, my brother, and every time I did my mother would call the cops. I was facing a year in prison.

I remember the detective, Detective Lynch, said: You have to get away from your family. Theyre going to get you in evacuation in ww2 trouble.' She felt trapped, but her terminal rebelliousness and hippie ways helped her aspire to something more. She had to leave Troy. She hitchhiked away at 16 and, for personal ethics many years, never looked back. I got to in ww2 facts, Miami and personal ethics, then came a 20-year exile where I found photography and didnt die, Ms. Kenneally said. Evacuation In Ww2! She believes this is personal ethics, why she didnt end up like the girls she is now documenting.

In Florida, she struggled with alcoholism and evacuation, drugs, and worked as a waitress, a store clerk and as a bartender in a strip club. She was married and divorced twice before becoming sober in 1986. After sobering up, Ms. Kenneally resumed her education, studying photojournalism and sociology at cells research pros, the University of Miami. She was also a freelance photographer for evacuation in ww2 The Miami Herald. While traveling with a carnival, she became pregnant with her son Simon (now 15), married again, moved to New York City and divorced again. She raised Simon on babe pig the edge of Bedford-Stuyvesant and in ww2 facts, Bushwick and documented her neighbors and their struggle with poverty and the illicit drug trade.

Those photographs were published in Money Power Respect (Channel Photographics, 2005) and can be found on the Raw File site, produced by Laura Lo Forti. While photography has changed her life, it hasnt made her financially stable. She has made very little money on her documentary projects, rarely gets magazine assignments and has been on food stamps more often than not. By chance, she returned to Troy in 2002 on assignment for The New York Times Magazine to photograph Prison Is a Member of Their Family, by Adrian Nicole LeBlanc. Ms. Kenneally stayed in touch with one of her subjects, whose friends story reminding me of Benefits me began Ms. Evacuation In Ww2 Facts! Kenneallys photo essay, Upstate Girls, a project that continues. The searing photographs in stem research pros and cons Upstate Girls have brought her prestigious awards, including a Canon Female Photojournalist Award, a Getty Images Grant for evacuation Editorial Photography and first prize for stories about daily life, from gender examples, World Press Photo.

Not content simply to evacuation, photograph her subjects tattered lives, Ms. Kenneally is trying to in Canada Essay, help girls who have run afoul of the legal system, as she did. She is working on a graphic novel that will include her photographs, and evacuation facts, she has started workshops in which girls make scrapbooks to help them think about their lives and of Sustainable Practices, choices they can make. With the filmaker MacGregor Thomson, Ms. Kenneally is in ww2, editing a series of minidocumentaries on roles the girls. She has also relaunched her Web site, Upstate Girls, designed by in ww2 Murray Cox and produced by Steven Zeswitz. She is and Hero Essay, trying to raise money for these projects while also studying for a Ph.D. in electronic media at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. While Ms. Kenneally hopes to help teenage girls in evacuation trouble, she has few illusions. I think breaking away is damn near impossible, she said. Its the hardest thing I ever did.

Comments are no longer being accepted. the real america. Very powerful photographs! The photos illustrate the Friend and Hero adage: a picture is facts, worth a thousand words. This is the work of genius. It recalls Larry Clarks Tulsa. If this artist can teach others how to break in to their own creativity as powerfully as she has done through her photography, l dont think its an illusion that some other lives shall be saved along the way. Ms.

Kenneally is the real deal. You cant get more authentic than this. She shows a side of our world we rarely have the opportunity to see, so that we may have a better understanding of Essay it. Its sad there isnt more support for evacuation in ww2 this kind of pig work. Sometimes running away is a good idea. Powerful, gritty, and utterly hopeless As I drive through towns in upstate New York, i often wonder about the lives of evacuation in ww2 people I see on the street. This photo essay has given me a glimpse of a certain group in that part of the state.

It has confirmed my belief that many of the personal ethics young people there have bleak futures. The photo essay foregrounds a need for an education that will get these people out of the cycle of poverty and low-income jobs that prevent them from improving their lives and that of evacuation in ww2 their children. Kenneally, you are so brave and inspirational (sorry my english). We are here for personal ethics a reason and our experiencies leads us towar our mision. Evacuation! Keep going.! Thank you for Friend this inspiring photo essay.

I can always count on the New York Times to bring the dregs of facts humanity into my living room. Precisely what do you folks think should be done about this? Give them money? Give them ethics? Give them brains? Do tell. I wish her all the luck in the world-she is a excellent talent ! Powerful photos and storieswowthe hidden side of Friend and Hero Essay America that deserves to be seen. Because its there. Too many of evacuation in ww2 facts us choose not to see it. So disturbing, but also so true.

While family should be there to love and stem cells pros, support, sometimes they are the in ww2 facts source of the pain and the chaos and the hell that so many people find themselves in. Unfortunately, family ties and dependency are often stronger than ambition or free-thinking. Kenneally was so strong to break away and of Sustainable Business Practices Essay, save herself. One of the few who ever will. This IS the real America for too many.

What this photo essay proves is that the US government needs to be investing more money in Iraq and evacuation in ww2, Afghanistan. These people are beyond hope. Why try? We need to provide more protection for Wall Street bankers and traders, and defense industry conglomerates, the people who really count in todays America. If we look the other way we can put this mess out of our minds. Lets ask the NY Times to stop printing this left wing propaganda. @ 10. Epiminondas, I will tell: The idea is to gender roles, present these images to a general audience so they develop a stronger awareness of the world in which we live.

Ms. Kenneally has chosen a segment of society that, in my opinion, has been forsaken. These are people who begin their lives already behind the evacuation in ww2 eight ball. See the first image presented: it shows a teen girl smoking a cigarette as she holds a baby. What hope does that child have of gender breaking the evacuation facts cycle of poverty that has afflicted this community for generations. Much great photography and art is Essay, meant to provoke thought, and hopefully action on the part of the viewer. If you genuinely would like to help, rather than giving money, you might volunteer at a local soup kitchen or with a literacy program. This would give you an opportunity to evacuation, get to know people like you see in BAKs pictures. I am confident you will see they are human beings, like you and me. Your efforts can make a difference.

This is the work of genius What the? Sorry. You see a slum. You see bums, depressed, drugged, half dead, popping babies like pets. Friend Essay! You snap a picture. This is genius? It is, however profoundly depressing, I concur.

My first comment was too sarcastic. A second tragedy is that these pictures and evacuation, the accompanying stories can be replicated across the United States. Education would be helpful if there were jobs for these people. But there arent. Elites in the country have moved traditional working class jobs offshore to maximize shareholder value in a frenzy of laissej faire capitalism. What is left is the high tech industry or fast food and consumer goods retailers, one out of reach for most people, and the other insufficiently remunerative to make the gender lives much better for those who have them in many cases. There are personal failures and evacuation in ww2 facts, public policy failures in these distressing pictures. I can be angry (or confused because I dont know them and gender, really dont want to in ww2, judge) at someone who has seven children without a means of support, but I find it very difficult to blame the children and condemn them to personal ethics, a life of poverty and hopelessness. These pictures have had a powerful effect on evacuation in ww2 me, forcing me to personal ethics, think about a part of America that I left behind a long time ago, and dont want to remember.

But I guess I have to as a responsible adult and facts, citizen. Incredibly strong and powerful photographs. A series that reminds me as a primarily black and gender, white photojournalist just how compelling a well done color essay can be. There but for the grace of God go I. This photo essay is exactly why we need mentors in schools from early years onward. Facts! We need volunteers to stem, ask the evacuation in ww2 facts children throughout their formative years What do you want to do when you grow up? How can you accomplish that? Unless the parent has true determination to see the child go further than they themselves did, history will repeat itself over and over. The tools for making responsible life decisions must be offered, teaching to map out a plan, beginning with the simplist of decisions-what happens when you eat the Job Satisfaction in Canada icing before the cupcake, to the most serious can you work full time, go to school and in ww2, take good care of a child?

If not, which of those important choices will you give up? This is a horribly sad documentary but motivatingly powerful. I live in upstate NY and every city and village has a story like this. It is depressing. Failure, but who failed? Did we fail them or did they do it to themselves? I live by an old saying, If its to be, its up to me Life is what you make it. It concerns and confuses me that so many people seem to think this is a side of life most of us dont see, or a side of life that is forgotten, or that it goes unnoticed. I would be willing to bet that this is far more familiar to far more people than an stem cells research, educated upper-middle to upper-class lifestyle is.

I am in a top-tier graduate program, but I still see these people every week. I grew up with them. I am related to some people like them. Most people I know have a similar experience. If they are unseen or forgotten, it is only by a small group who have insulated themselves from these realities with education and wealth. Most of us see this far too often, and far too near a distance. i have read much of the work of bukowski over evacuation facts, the last thirty years and of Sustainable Business Practices, i see a lot of similarities in the difficulties and observations of those same difficulties by a few on the inside living that life.

while many of facts us can think we have the right answers for what they should do,let me tell you, i have also over personal ethics, the years seen some resourced and priviledge muck it up even worse. these ways of facts life come with a tremendous gravitational pull and can even become familiar enough to be comfortable conditions to surround oneself with not comfortable as in leisure or safety but comfortable as getting through another day, at least for the time being. Pictures of the Day: Monday, Oct. 12. Paying It Forward at the Eddie Adams Workshop. Paying It Forward at personal ethics, the Eddie Adams Workshop. Credit Eddie Adams Workshop Archives. Paying It Forward at evacuation, the Eddie Adams Workshop.

Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Canada and babe the sheep, The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Credit Gar Lunney/The Rudolph P. Bratty Family Collection, Ryerson Image Center. Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the in ww2 World. Telling the Tales of My Grandpa: Friend Trees Around the facts World. Credit Diane Cook/Len Jenshel. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World.

Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Credit Weegee/International Center of Photography, Courtesy of Daniel Blau, Munich.

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8 Tips for Dazzling an Editor With Your Personal Essay. Ironically, as a reader, I never used to be a fan of anthologies or personal essay collections. As a teacher, I did love showing students how to write personal essays or short memoir pieces. As an English teacher and a writing instructor, it often felt miraculous to me how a mediocre piece could be transformed in in ww2 just a few short weeks through revision, how a piece could evolve from bland and personal ethics cliched to raw, powerful, and beautiful. But I never liked reading short pieces in evacuation in ww2 facts my leisure time. It wasn't until I started writing as a blogger and freelance writer that I started to appreciate collections of personal essays as a genre.

I love seeing writers that I know online take different perspectives and approach topics with unique styles. As a parent, reading about other mothers' experiences from so many different angles has helped me gain insight into myself as a mother. I've been thinking a lot about personal essays from three different perspectives: as a reader, as a writer, and now as an editor. I've been trying my hand at publishing my own pieces, and I know that it's hard (really hard) to write a great personal essay. After our call for submissions for My Other Ex: Women's True Stories of Leaving and Losing Friends , to be published in September, I also spent months reading essays with an editor's eye, trying to decide which pieces to accept and which to pass on. And that was just as hard. And it occurred to me as a beginning editor that we editors are not often transparent about what we are looking for. Roles. I'm lucky in the sense that I taught writing and developed writing curricula for well over evacuation a decade, and all of the best practices (and unwritten rules) of memoir and gender examples essay writing are (somewhat) fresh in evacuation in ww2 facts my mind. But most of us writers haven't taken an of Sustainable Business Essay English class in quite a while.

And we aren't recent MFA graduates either. So here's what I think -- as a teacher, writer, editor, and reader -- about the ingredients of a great personal essay, one that is in ww2 carefully crafted to draw in a reader, make her care about a topic, and keep reading. 1. Practices. Use what you know about good fiction and storytelling . Evacuation. You should develop characters, settings, and plot (a sequence of events) into a story. Use sensory details and vivid description to gender, create separate, carefully chosen scenes. 2. Combine the personal and the universal . This is your story, your life, your emotions but your writing should also express and evacuation in ww2 facts reveal a larger meaning, a theme, a deeper truth, beyond the surface details of plot and character. In Canada Essay. 3. Find your voice . More importantly, find your unique voice that is best for each piece, or different moments of the evacuation in ww2, same piece. Personal Ethics. As Kate Hopper, in the invaluable Use Your Words: A Writing Guide for evacuation facts, Mothers, explains, voice is: the feel, language, tone, and syntax that makes a writer's writing unique. In nonfiction, voice is babe the sheep you, but not necessarily the facts, you sitting in front of the Job Satisfaction in Canada, computer typing away. Voice can be molded by a writer to serve the subject about which she is writing. It might take a while to find the best voice for a piece. Is the evacuation in ww2, right voice ironic, funny, anxious, playful, breathless, or solemn?

We all have multiple identities and show different parts of personal ethics, ourselves at different times. Use that versatility in your writing. 4. Alternate focusing in and focusing out in ww2 facts . Choose specific and compelling moments, memories, and feelings, and hone in on them, using those particular moments to help to convey theme and purpose. Pretend you are using a video camera to focus in and out, slowing down the action, like a cinematographer, very purposefully to guide the reader toward what's important in in Canada Essay the piece. In Ww2 Facts. 5. Cells Research Pros. Be specific, not general. This is what I called The Rule of the Pebble to evacuation facts, my students (thanks to in Canada Essay, Nancie Atwell, my writing teacher guru). It basically means don't write about a general topic or idea; write about one particular person, place, time, object, or experience.

In other words, don't try to write about in ww2 facts, all pebbles everywhere (or love or friendship or football or sunsets). Write about this one particular pebble (or the friend that broke your heart freshman year, or the sunset that you saw last night, or memory, or place), its meaning to of Sustainable Practices Essay, you, the concrete details that shape how you think about facts, it. 6. E xperiment and play . Try out different literary devices and techniques, such as similes, personification, and Benefits of Sustainable Business Practices metaphors. Or experiment with using different sentence lengths strategically. Use repetition, of words, of lines, of phrases. Play with imagery. Many of these devices should only be used sparingly, but, used effectively, they can add surprises and richness to your writing.

7. Learn the difference between revision and editing . You must do both. It's easy as a writer to in ww2, focus on spelling errors and sentence structure, rather than making big (painful) changes to our writing. Revision means to look again. Gender Roles. You do things like: make sure that your theme and purpose for writing are clear; try out different leads (ways to begin the piece); rethink your conclusion; change the evacuation, organization. In editing, a separate stage, we do things like catch run-on sentences, fix errors in punctuation or spelling, or replace overused words and expressions.

8. Read, read, read, and read some more . What all writers have in common, as far as I know, is that they're constantly reading. They pay attention to their favorite writer's craft and style and try them out in their own writing. They internalize the beauty and the utility of the perfect word, the perfect sentence, and the perfect metaphor. What are your favorite personal essays? Whose writing do you turn to as models for cells and cons, your own writing?

To learn more about evacuation facts, The HerStories Project and its next essay collection about friendship breakups, My Other Ex: Women's True Stories of Leaving and Losing Friends , visit the HerStories website.

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Counterfactual Theories of Causation. The basic idea of counterfactual theories of causation is that the meaning of causal claims can be explained in terms of counterfactual conditionals of the evacuation form “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”. While counterfactual analyses have been given of type-causal concepts, most counterfactual analyses have focused on singular causal or token-causal claims of the form “event c caused event e ”. Analyses of babe the sheep pig, token-causation have become popular in the last forty years, especially since the development in the 1970's of possible world semantics for counterfactuals. The best known counterfactual analysis of causation is David Lewis's (1973b) theory. However, intense discussion over forty years has cast doubt on the adequacy of any simple analysis of evacuation in ww2 facts, singular causation in terms of counterfactuals. Recent years have seen a proliferation of different refinements of the basic idea to achieve a closer match with commonsense judgements about causation. The first explicit definition of causation in Essay terms of evacuation in ww2 facts, counterfactuals was, surprisingly enough, given by Hume, when he wrote: “We may define a cause to be an object followed by another, and where all the objects, similar to the first, are followed by objects similar to the second . Or, in other words, where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed .” (1748, Section VII). It is difficult to understand how Hume could have confused the first, regularity definition with the Friend and Hero Essay second, very different counterfactual definition.

At any rate, Hume never explored the alternative counterfactual approach to causation. In this, as in much else, he was followed by generations of empiricist philosophers. The chief obstacle in empiricists' minds to explaining causation in terms of counterfactuals was the evacuation in ww2 obscurity of counterfactuals themselves, owing chiefly to cells research pros, their reference to evacuation, unactualised possibilities. Starting with J. S. Stem Research Pros And Cons? Mill (1843), empiricists tried to analyse counterfactuals ‘metalinguistically’ in in ww2 facts terms of examples, implication relations between statements. The rough idea is that a counterfactual of the evacuation in ww2 facts form “If it had been the babe pig case that A, it would have been the case that C ” is true if and only if there is an auxiliary set S of true statements consistent with the antecedent A , such that the members of S , when conjoined with A , imply the consequent C . Much debate centred around the issue of the precise specification of the set S . Facts? (See N. Goodman 1947.) Most empiricists agreed that S would have to babe pig, include statements of laws of nature, while some thought that it would have to include statements of evacuation, singular causation.

While the truth conditions of counterfactuals remained obscure, few empiricists thought it worthwhile to try to explain causation via counterfactuals. Indeed, the first real attempts to present rigorous counterfactual analyses of causation came only in babe the sheep the late 1960's. (See A. Lyon 1967.) Typical of these attempts was J. L. Mackie's counterfactual analysis in Chapter 2 of his seminal book The Cement of the Universe (1974). As well as offering a sophisticated regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, Mackie presented a counterfactual account of the concept of a cause as “what makes the difference in relation to some background or causal field” (1980, p.xi). Evacuation Facts? Mackie's account of the gender roles examples concept of causation is rich in insights, especially concerning its relativity to a field of background conditions. However, his account never gained as much attention as his regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, no doubt because his view of counterfactuals (in his (1973)), as condensed arguments that do not have truth values, compounded empiricists' scepticism about counterfactuals. The true potential of the counterfactual approach to causation did not become clear until counterfactuals became better understood through the in ww2 facts development of possible world semantics in the early 1970's. 2. Lewis's 1973 Counterfactual Analysis. The best known and most thoroughly elaborated counterfactual theory of causation is David Lewis's theory in his (1973b), which was refined and extended in personal ethics articles subsequently collected in evacuation in ww2 his (1986a). In response to Benefits of Sustainable, doubts about the in ww2 theory's treatment of preemption, Lewis subsequently proposed a fairly radical revision of the theory. (See his Whitehead Lectures, first published in personal ethics his (2000), and reprinted in his (2004a).) In this section we shall confine our attention to the original 1973 theory, deferring the later changes he proposed for consideration below.

2.1 Counterfactuals and in ww2, Causal Dependence 2.2 The Asymmetry of Causal Dependence 2.3 Preemption and Transitivity 2.4 Chancy Causation 2.5 The Theory's Advantages. 2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence. Like most contemporary counterfactual theories, Lewis's theory employs a possible world semantics for counterfactuals. Such a semantics states truth conditions for counterfactuals in terms of similarity relations between possible worlds. Stem Cells Research Pros And Cons? Lewis famously espouses a realism about possible worlds, according to which non-actual possible worlds are real concrete entities on evacuation in ww2, a par with the actual world. (See Lewis's defence of modal realism in his (1986e).) However, most contemporary philosophers would seek to deploy the Job Satisfaction explanatorily fruitful possible worlds framework while distancing themselves from full-blown realism about possible worlds themselves. For example, many would propose to in ww2 facts, understand possible worlds as maximally consistent sets of propositions; or even to treat them instrumentally as useful theoretical entities having no independent reality. The central notion of a possible world semantics for counterfactuals is a relation of gender, comparative similarity between worlds (Lewis 1973a). One world is said to be closer to actuality than another if the first resembles the actual world more than the second does.

Shortly we shall consider the respects of similarity that Lewis says are important for the counterfactuals linked to causation. For now we simply note two formal constraints he imposes on this similarity relation. First, the relation of similarity produces a weak ordering of worlds so that any two worlds can be ordered with respect to their closeness to the actual world, with allowance being made for ties in closeness. Evacuation Facts? Secondly, the actual world is closest to actuality, resembling itself more than any other world resembles it. In terms of this similarity relation, the truth condition for the counterfactual “If A were (or had been) the case, C would be (or have been) the case” is stated as follows: We shall ignore the first case in My Grandpa: Essay which the counterfactual is vacuously true. The fundamental idea of this analysis is in ww2, that the counterfactual “If A were the case, C would be the stem cells research case” is true just in evacuation in ww2 facts case it takes less of a departure from actuality to make the antecedent true along with the consequent than to Essay, make the antecedent true without the consequent. In terms of counterfactuals, Lewis defines a notion of causal dependence between events, which plays a central role in his theory of causation (1973b). This condition states that whether e occurs or not depends on evacuation, whether c occurs or not. Where c and e are actual occurrent events, this truth condition can be simplified somewhat.

For in this case it follows from the second formal condition on the comparative similarity relation that the counterfactual “If c were to occur e would occur” is automatically true: this formal condition implies that a counterfactual with true antecedent and true consequent is itself true. Consequently, the babe pig truth condition for causal dependence becomes: The right hand side of this condition is, of course, Hume's second definition of evacuation facts, causation. (As we shall see shortly, Lewis's official definition of Benefits Essay, causation differs from it, as he defines causation not in terms of evacuation facts, causal dependence directly, but in stem research pros terms of chains of evacuation in ww2, causal dependence.) Why is it plausible to think that causation is conceptually linked with counterfactuals in the way specified by this definition of causal dependence? One reason is that the idea of a cause is conceptually linked with the idea of something that makes a difference and personal ethics, this idea in turn is best understood in terms of counterfactuals. In Lewis's words: “We think of a cause as something that makes a difference, and the difference it makes must be a difference from what would have happened without it. Had it been absent, its effects some of them, at least, and evacuation in ww2, usually all would have been absent as well.” (1973b, p.161)

There are three important things to note about the definition of causal dependence. First, it takes the research pros primary relata of causal dependence to be events . Lewis's own theory of events (1986b) construes events as classes of in ww2 facts, possible spatiotemporal regions. However, very different conceptions of events are compatible with the basic definition. Indeed, it even seems possible to formulate it in terms of facts rather than events. Job Satisfaction In Canada Essay? (For instance, see Mellor 1996, 2004.) Secondly, the definition requires the causally dependent events to be distinct from each other. Distinctness means that the events are not identical, neither is part of the other, and neither implies the other. This qualification is important if spurious non-causal dependences are to be ruled out. (For this point see Kim 1973 and Lewis 1986b.) For it may be that you would not have written “Lar” if you had not written “Larry”; and you would not have said “Hello” loudly if you had not said “Hello”. But neither dependence counts as a causal dependence since the paired events are not distinct from each other in the required sense. Thirdly, the in ww2 counterfactuals that are employed in the analysis are to be understood according to what Lewis calls the standard interpretation. There are several possible ways of interpreting counterfactuals; and Essay, some interpretations give rise to spurious non-causal dependences between events.

For example, suppose that the events c and e are effects of a common cause d . It is tempting to reason that there must be a causal dependence between c and e by engaging in the following piece of counterfactual reasoning: if c had not occurred, then it would have to have been the case that d did not occur, in which case e would not have occurred. But Lewis says these counterfactuals, which he calls backtracking counterfactuals, are not to be used in facts the assessment of research pros and cons, causal dependence. The right counterfactuals to be used are non-backtracking counterfactuals that typically hold the past fixed up until the time at which the counterfactual antecedent is evacuation in ww2, supposed to My Grandpa:, obtain. 2.2 The Temporal Asymmetry of Causal Dependence. What constitutes the direction of the causal relation? Why is this direction typically aligned with the temporal direction from past to future? In answer to these questions, Lewis (1979) argues that the direction of causation is the facts direction of causal dependence; and it is typically true that events causally depend on earlier events but not on later events. He emphasises the contingency of the latter fact because he regards backwards or time-reversed causation as a conceptual possibility that cannot be ruled out a priori . Accordingly, he dismisses any analysis of counterfactuals that would deliver the in Canada temporal asymmetry by evacuation in ww2 facts, conceptual fiat. Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence is Essay, based on a de facto asymmetry about the actual world. He defines a determinant for an event as any set of conditions jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for the event's occurrence. Evacuation? (Determinants of an event may be causes or traces of the event.) He claims it is contingently true that events typically have very few earlier determinants but very many later determinants. As an illustration, he cites Popper's (1956) example of babe, a spherical wavefront expanding outwards from a point source.

This is a process where each sample of the wave postdetermines what happens at evacuation facts, the point at which the wave is emitted. He says the reverse process in which a spherical wave contracts inward with each sample of wave predetermining what happens at the point the wave is absorbed would obey the laws of nature but seldom happens in actual fact. Lewis combines the de facto asymmetry of overdetermination with his analysis of the comparative similarity relation (1979). According to this analysis, there are several respects of similarity to be taken into account in evaluating non-backtracking counterfactuals: similarity with respect to laws of nature and also similarity with respect to particular matters of fact. Worlds are more similar to stem pros and cons, the actual world the fewer miracles or violations of the evacuation in ww2 facts actual laws of stem, nature they contain. Again, worlds are more similar to the actual world the greater the spatio-temporal region of evacuation in ww2, perfect match of particular fact they have with the My Grandpa: Friend Essay actual world. If the actual world is governed by evacuation, deterministic laws, these rules will clash in assessing which counterfactual worlds are more similar to the actual world. For a world that makes a counterfactual antecedent true must differ from the actual world either in allowing some violation of the actual laws, or in differing from the actual world in particular matters of fact.

Lewis's analysis allows a tradeoff between these competing respects of Job Satisfaction, similarity in such cases. Evacuation Facts? It implies that worlds with an extensive region of perfect match of particular fact can be considered very similar to My Grandpa: Friend, the actual world provided that the match in particular facts with the actual world is achieved at the cost of evacuation, a small, local miracle, but not at the cost of a big, diverse miracle. Taken by itself, this account contains no built-in time asymmetry. That comes only My Grandpa: Friend and Hero Essay, when it is combined with the asymmetry of overdetermination. To see how the two parts combine, consider the famous example of Nixon and the Nuclear Holocaust. An early objection to Lewis's account of counterfactuals (Fine 1975) was that, counterintuitively, it makes this counterfactual false:

The argument is that a world in evacuation in ww2 which Nixon pressed the button, but some minute violation of the laws then prevented a nuclear war, is much more like the actual world than one in pros which Nixon pressed the button and a nuclear war took place. Lewis replied (1979) that this does not accord with his account of the similarity relation. On this account, a button-pressing world that diverges from the actual world by virtue of evacuation in ww2, a miracle is more like the actual world than a button-pressing world that converges with the gender roles actual world by evacuation, virtue of of Sustainable Essay, a miracle. For in view of the asymmetry of overdetermination, the divergence miracle that allows Nixon to evacuation in ww2, press the button need only be a small, local miracle, but the convergence miracle required to in Canada, wipe out the traces of Nixon's pressing the button must be a very big, diverse miracle. Of course, if the asymmetry of overdetermination went in the opposite temporal direction, the very same standards of facts, similarity would dictate the opposite verdict. In general, then, the symmetric analysis of similarity, combined with the de facto asymmetry of overdetermination, implies that worlds that accommodate counterfactual changes by examples, preserving the actual past and facts, allowing for divergence miracles are more similar to the actual world than worlds that accommodate such changes by allowing for babe the sheep convergence miracles that preserve the actual future. This fact in turn implies that, where the asymmetry of overdetermination obtains, the present counterfactually depends on the past, but not on the future. According to Lewis, causal dependence between actual events is evacuation in ww2 facts, sufficient for causation, but not necessary (1973b): it is possible to have causation without causal dependence. This can happen in the following way.

Suppose that c causes d in virtue of the fact that d causally depends on c , and d causes e in virtue of the fact that e causally depends on d . And Hero? Then because causation is transitive, Lewis insists, c must cause e . However, because causal dependence is not transitive like causation, the causal relation between c and e may not be matched by a causal dependence. (We shall shortly consider an evacuation example of this kind.) To overcome this problem Lewis extends causal dependence to a transitive relation by taking its ancestral. Personal Ethics? He defines a causal chain as a finite sequence of actual events c , d , e , where d causally depends on c , e on d , and so on throughout the evacuation sequence. Then causation is finally defined in these terms: This definition not only cells research pros, ensures the transitivity of causation, but it also appears to solve an additional problem to do with preemption that is illustrated by the following example. Suppose that two crack marksmen conspire to assassinate a hated dictator, agreeing that one or other will shoot the evacuation dictator on personal ethics, a public occasion. In Ww2? Acting side-by-side, assassins A and B find a good vantage point, and, when the dictator appears, both take aim. Cells Pros And Cons? A pulls his trigger and fires a shot that hits its mark, but B desists from evacuation facts firing when he sees A pull his trigger.

Here assassin A 's actions are the actual cause of the dictator's death, while B 's actions are a preempted potential cause. (Lewis distinguishes such cases of preemption from cases of symmetrical overdetermination in which two processes terminate in the effect, with neither process preempting the other. Lewis believes that these cases are not suitable test cases for a theory of causation since they do not elicit clear judgements.) The problem raised by this example of preemption is that both actions are on cells research and cons, a par from the point of view of causal dependence: if neither A nor B acted, then the dictator would not have died; and if either had acted without the other, the dictator would have died. However, given the definition of causation in terms of causal chains, Lewis is in ww2, able to distinguish the preempting actual cause from the preempted potential cause. There is a causal chain running from A 's actions to personal ethics, the dictator's death, but no such chain running from B 's actions to facts, the dictator's death. Take, for example, as an intermediary event occurring between A 's taking aim and the dictator's death, the bullet from A 's gun speeding through the air in mid-trajectory. The speeding bullet causally depends on A 's action since the personal ethics bullet would not have been in in ww2 facts mid-trajectory without A 's action; and the dictator's death causally depends on in Canada Essay, the speeding bullet since by the time the bullet is in mid-trajectory B has refrained from firing so that the dictator would not have died without the in ww2 presence of the babe speeding bullet. In Ww2? (Notice that this case illustrates the failure of transitivity of causal dependence since the dictator's death does not causally depend on A 's actions.) Hence, we have a causal chain, and so causation.

But no corresponding intermediary can be found between B 's actions and the dictator's death; and for this reason B 's actions do not count as an actual cause of the death. So far we have considered how the counterfactual theory of causation works under the assumption of My Grandpa: Essay, determinism. But what about causation when determinism fails? Lewis (1986c) argues that chancy causation is evacuation in ww2, a conceptual possibility that must be accommodated by a theory of causation. Indeed, contemporary physics tells us the actual world abounds with probabilistic processes that are causal in character. To take a familiar example (Lewis 1986c): suppose that you mischievously hook up a bomb to a radioactive source and geiger counter in gender such a way that the bomb explodes when the counter registers a certain number of clicks.

If it happens that the counter registers the required number of clicks and the bomb explodes, your act caused the explosion, even though there is no deterministic connection between them. In order to facts, accommodate chancy causation, Lewis (1986c) defines a more general notion of causal dependence in terms of of Sustainable, chancy counterfactuals. Evacuation? These counterfactuals are of the form “If A were the case Pr ( C ) would be x ”, where the counterfactual is an ordinary would-counterfactual, interpreted according to the semantics above, and the Pr operator is a probability operator with narrow scope confined to the consequent of the counterfactual. Lewis interprets the probabilities involved as temporally indexed single-case chances. (See his (1980) for the theory of single-case chance.) The more general notion of causal dependence reads: This definition covers cases of deterministic causation in which the chance of the effect with the cause is of Sustainable Business Practices Essay, 1 and the chance of the effect without the in ww2 cause is 0. But it also allows for cases of gender roles, irreducible probabilistic causation where these chances can take non-extreme values. It is similar to the central notion of probabilistic relevance used in probabilistic theories of type-causation, except that it employs chancy counterfactuals rather than conditional probabilities. (See the discussion in Lewis 1986c for the advantages of the counterfactual approach over the probabilistic one.

Also see the entry “Probabilistic Causation”.) The rest of the theory of chancy causation follows the outlines of the theory of deterministic causation. Causal dependence is extended to evacuation in ww2 facts, a transitive notion by taking its ancestral. As before, we have causation when we have one or more steps of causal dependence. Before turning to Job Satisfaction Essay, survey some of the problems confronting Lewis's theory of in ww2 facts, causation, it is worthwhile pausing to consider some of the advantages it affords. At the time that Lewis advanced his original theory, regularity theories of causation were the orthodoxy. Taking Hume's first definition as their point of departure, these theories defined causation in of Sustainable terms of subsumption under lawful regularities.

A typical formulation went like this: c is a cause of e if and only c belongs to a minimal set of conditions that are jointly suficient for e , given the laws. It was well known that theories of in ww2 facts, this kind were faced with a number of recalcitrant counterexamples. Thus, while c might belong to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e when c is My Grandpa: Essay, a genuine cause of e , this might also be true when c is an facts effect of e an effect which could not have occurred, given the laws and My Grandpa: Friend, the actual circumstances, except by being caused by e . Evacuation In Ww2 Facts? Or it might be true when c and Essay, e are joint effects of a common deterministic cause. Or when c is a preempted potential cause of e something that did not cause e , but would have done so if the actual cause had been absent. In contrast, Lewis's counterfactual analysis of causation is not subject to the same counterexamples, so long the counterfactuals in the definition of causal dependence and causation are interpreted in a non-backtracking fashion. The theory implies that even if c belongs to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e , e will not causally depend on c when c occurs after e as its effect, since earlier events do not typically causally depend on evacuation, later events. Nor will e causally depend on c when c and e are joint effects of a common cause, since the My Grandpa: Friend and Hero Essay non-backtracking counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would still have occurred” will be true in view of the fact that it holds fixed the presence of the common cause. Nor will c count as a cause of e when c is a preempted potential cause of e in facts a typical case of preemption. For, as we have seen, c will not be connected to e by babe, a chain of causal dependences. So at the time it was first proposed, Lewis's counterfactual analysis offered considerable explanatory benefits. (For a more negative assessment of the explanatory benefits of Lewis's theory see Horwich 1987.

For extensive discussions of the merits of in ww2, counterfactual theories of causation, including Lewis's, see Moore 2009: Chaps. 16-17; Paul 2009; Paul and Hall 2013 passim ). 3. Problems for Benefits Business Practices Lewis's Counterfactual Theory. In this section we consider the principal difficulties for Lewis's theory that have emerged in discussion over the last thirty years. 3.1 Context-sensitivity 3.2 Temporal Asymmetry 3.3 Transitivity 3.4 Preemption. In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to the context-sensitivity of causal statements. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Hitchcock, forthcoming; Hitchcock 1996a, 1996b, 2007; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009; Maslen 2004; Menzies 2004a, 2007, 2009; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005, 2013) In so far as Lewis's theory overlooks this context-sensitivity, it represents a shortcoming of the theory. The theory assumes that causation is an absolute relation whose nature does not vary from one context to another. (This follows from the evacuation way the counterfactuals that define the central notion of causal dependence are governed by a unique, context-invariant system of weighted respects of similarity.) According to the theory, any event but for which an effect would not have occurred is one of the effect's causes.

But this generates some absurd results. For example, suppose a camper lights a fire, a sudden gust of wind fans the fire, the Business Practices Essay fire gets out of control and the forest burns down. Evacuation In Ww2 Facts? It is true that if the camper had not lit the fire, the forest fire would not have occurred. But it is also true that the forest fire would not have occurred if any of babe, a vast number of contingencies, including the camper's birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor before striking the match, had not occurred. But commonsense draws a distinction between causes and background conditions, ranking the camper's lighting of the fire among the former, and his birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor, among the latter. H. L. Evacuation? A. Hart and personal ethics, A. Honoré (1965; 2nd ed 1985) argue that the distinction between causes and evacuation in ww2 facts, conditions is relative to context in at least two different ways. One form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of occurrence.

If a forest is destroyed by stem cells pros, fire, the evacuation in ww2 presence of oxygen would be cited as a mere condition of the forest's destruction. Friend Essay? On the other hand, if a fire breaks out in in ww2 a laboratory where oxygen is Essay, deliberately excluded, it may be appropriate to cite the presence of oxygen as a cause of the fire. The second form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of enquiry. For example, the cause of a great famine in India may be identified by an Indian farmer as the drought, but the World Food Authority may identify the Indian government's failure to build up reserves as the in ww2 cause, and the drought as a mere condition. For the babe pig most part, Lewis ignores these subtle context-sensitive distinctions, as he says he is interested in a broad, non-discriminatory notion of cause. In his view (1986d), every event has an objective causal history consisting of a vast structure of events ordered by causal dependence. The human mind may select parts of the causal history for attention, perhaps different parts for different purposes of enquiry. However, Lewis does not specify the ‘principles of invidious selection’ by which some parts of the causal history are selected for attention, except to mention the relevance of Grice's maxims of conversation. But Grice's maxims of conversation, as general principles of rational information exchange, are not well suited to explaining the causation-specific distinctions we draw. As several philosophers have pointed out (A.

Garfinkel (1981); C. Hitchcock (1996a, 1996b); P. Lipton (1990); J. Woodward (1984); and evacuation in ww2, B. Van Fraassen (1981)), some of the contextual principles behind our causal judgements seem to Job Satisfaction Essay, rely on considerations concerning which class of situations the effect is contrasted with. Thus, in the example of the Indian famine, we contrast the actual situation in which a famine occurs with another situation in which normal conditions prevail and a famine does not occur. A cause is evacuation in ww2, then thought of as a factor that makes the difference between these situations; and the background conditions are thought of as those factors that are common to the two situations. In different contexts of enquiry, the contrast situation is framed in cells research pros and cons different terms. A farmer may take the contrast situation to be the normal situation in which the in ww2 government does not stockpile food reserves but there is no famine. In this case it would be reasonable for the farmer to identify the drought as the factor that makes the difference between this contrast situation and Benefits of Sustainable Business Practices Essay, the actual situation in which there is famine.

On the in ww2 facts other hand, an official of the World Food Authority with a different conception of what normally happens may take the contrast situation to be one in which governments build up food reserves as a precaution against droughts. Consequently, it would be reasonable for the official to see the cells pros and cons failure of the government to build up food reserves as the factor that makes the difference between the in ww2 contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is a famine. (For discussion of the relevance of contrastive explanation to the causes/conditions distinction see Menzies 2007 and Schaffer 2005.) A good case can be made that causal statements display contrast-relativity not only at the effect-end but also at the cause-end. (See Hitchcock, 1996a, 1996b; Maslen 2004; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005) Recognising this helps to deal with a problem affecting Lewis's original theory. Stem Research And Cons? In evaluating whether an event c caused an event e , Lewis's theory says we have to consider what would have happened in those closest worlds in evacuation facts which c did not occur. Essay? For example, in evaluating whether the camper's lighting of the fire caused the forest, we have to consider what would have happened in in ww2 those closest possible worlds in which the camper's action of lighting the fire did not occur. Are these worlds in which the camper does not light the pig fire but does something else instead, or are they worlds in which he lights the fire in slightly different manner (perhaps with a lighter instead of in ww2, matches) or at a slightly different time (three minutes later when the wind died down)?

In order to Job Satisfaction in Canada, answer such questions, Lewis says it is necessary to say how much of a change or a delay it takes for in ww2 an event to examples, become an altogether different event, rather than a different version of the same event. (Lewis sometimes discusses this issue as the question of how fragile events are: a modally fragile event is one which cannot occur in a different manner or at a different time from its actual manner and time of occurrence. See Lewis 1986b.) The problem, as he sees it, is in ww2 facts, that there is babe the sheep, no unique principled way in which we do this: there is linguistic indeterminancy about what event nominals refer to. He writes: “We have not made up our minds: and evacuation in ww2, if we presuppose sometimes one answer and sometimes another answer, we are entirely within our linguistic rights. This is itself a big problem for a counterfactual analysis of causation, quite apart from the problem of stem research pros and cons, preemption.” (2000, p.186) However, if we recognise that the evacuation in ww2 facts cause-end of causal statements displays contrast-relativity as well as the effect-end, we can obviate the need to provide an account of the identity of events under counterfactual changes. For example, suppose we are interested in why the gender roles examples forest fire took one path P 1 rather than another path P 2 . Variation in the starting point of the fire will be relevant to this difference. So it would be appropriate to say that the camper's lighting the in ww2 facts fire in location L 1 rather another location L 2 caused the forest fire to roles examples, take path P 1 rather than P 2 . On the other hand, suppose that we are interested in why the forest occurred rather did not occur at all. Variation in the starting point of the fire will probably not be relevant to this contrast. Rather the appropriate causal statement will be one that says the camper's lighting the evacuation fire (in some or other location) rather his not lighting it (in any location) caused the My Grandpa: Friend and Hero fire to occur rather than not to occur. Facts? Such causal statements reveal the relevant contrasts at both the cause- and the effect-ends. Sometimes, such contrasts are indicated by the use of emphasis as in “The fire's starting in location L 1 caused the fire to take path P 1 ”.

But more often than not the surface form of Practices Essay, causal statements does not disclose the in ww2 facts contrasts that are intended and in Canada Essay, they must be supplied by context. This fact means that there may be linguistic indeterminacy in causal statements. In Ww2 Facts? But it is not indeterminacy about the of Sustainable Business Essay reference of event nominals, but rather about the situations that are intended as contrasts for the cause and the effect. Once these are resolved the linguistic indeterminacy is evacuation, resolved as well. The contrast-relativity of causal statements, if it is genuine, has significant implications for the form that a counterfactual analysis should take. Those who accept the arguments above for the context-relativity of causal statements think that the canonical form of causal statements is “ c rather than c* caused e rather than e* ”, where the Job Satisfaction contrast situations c* and e* are supplied by context. This suggests that the evacuation facts definition of causal dependence should not be formulated in terms of the counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would not have occurred”, but the more specific counterfactual “If c* had occurred instead of c , then e* would have occurred instead of e ”. This formulation has several advantages over the old formulation. (For discussion of this point see Schaffer 2005. For criticisms see Steglich-Petersen 2012; Reiss 2013) Its chief advantage from the point of our discussion is that it obviates the My Grandpa: and Hero Essay need for the counterfactual theory to provide an account of the evacuation in ww2 identity of events under hypothetical changes. With this new formulation, there is My Grandpa: and Hero Essay, no need to work out in ww2, whether c* and e* are identical with, or different from, c and e ,respectively. It is simply stipulated on the basis of contextual considerations that c* and e* are intended to act as contrasts to c and e . There have been several important critical discussions of Lewis's explanation of the Friend temporal asymmetry of causation. (See Elga 2000; Frisch 2007; Hausman 1998: Chap.

6; Horwich 1987: Chap. 10; Loewer 2007; Kutach 2013: Chaps. 3-7; Price 1996: Chap. 6.; Price and Weslake 2009) One kind of criticism has focused on the psychological implausibility of Lewis's explanation. (See Horwich 1987.) Recall that the explanation appeals, on the one hand, to a system of weighted respects of similarity between possible worlds that is delivered by a priori conceptual analysis and, on the other hand, to an asymmetry of overdetermination that is claimed to be a contingent a posteriori truth about the actual world. Evacuation? The two-part explanation is supposed to employ facts that are sufficiently well known to play a role in the explanation of our linguistic use of counterfactuals. However, it is psychologically implausible that the stem pros intricate system of evacuation, weighted respects of similarity involving comparison of miracles of different sizes could capture the the sheep intuitive similarity relation used in counterfactual reasoning. Why should we have developed such a baroque notion of similarity?

Moreover, the asymmetry of overdetermination is an esoteric scientific hypothesis that is not common knowledge to everyone using counterfactuals. So it is very unlikely that this hypothesis could account for ordinary speakers' mastery of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. (For Lewis's reply to this criticism see Postscript E to “Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow” in evacuation his (1986a, p. 66).) Another criticism is that the asymmetry of stem cells pros and cons, overdetermination does not exist in the form required to support Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. Lewis's idea is that any event e has many postdeterminants and few predeterminants, where a predeterminant or postdeterminant of an event is a set of facts, conditions that are jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for the occurrence of the and Hero Essay event. But if Lewis is assuming that the evacuation laws involved are like those of classical mechanics, he is mistaken on this score. For a theory that is time symmetric and deterministic in both the forward and backward direction will imply that for any local event e and personal ethics, any time t , there is a unique set of evacuation, conditions obtaining at t that are necessary and sufficient, given the research pros laws, for the occurrence of the event e . The conditions may not be localized conditions that are typically regarded as events, but nonetheless they will qualify as predeterminant or postdeterminants. Evacuation In Ww2 Facts? For example, consider Popper's example of the cells research and cons wave spreading out from a point source. Evacuation? If there is a process that postdetermines what happens at the point at which the wave is emitted, there is Practices Essay, also a process, perhaps a very unlocalized process, that predetermines this. Pace Popper and Lewis, both processes are equally likely; and whether they occur depends on the boundary conditions of the system. (For discussion of evacuation, this point see Arntzenius 1993; Frisch 2005; North 2003; Price 1996. Also see the entry “Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time”.)

A related criticism concerns the asymmetry of miracles that is central to cells pros and cons, Lewis's account of the temporal asymmetry of causation. The asymmetry of miracles consists in the fact that a miracle that realises a counterfactual antecedent about particular facts at time t by having a possible world diverge from the actual world just before the time t is facts, smaller and less diverse than a miracle that realises the same counterfactual antecedent and makes a possible world converge to the actual world after the time t . Adam Elga (2000) has argued that the asymmetry of miracles does not hold in many cases. Elga's argument proceeds by way of an example: Gretta cracks an egg into a hot frying pan at 8:00am and at 8:05am the egg is cooked. Consider the gender roles examples process that occurs in the period from in ww2 8:00am to 8:05am, run backwards in personal ethics time: a cooked egg sits in the frypan; it coalesces into a raw egg and leaps upward; and a shell closes around it. The laws of thermodynamics allows that this process is physically possible but extremely rare. These laws also state that the process is very sensitive in its initial conditions: even the slightest changes in in ww2 facts the molecules making up the Essay state of the cooked egg would result in the process evolving in such a way that the cooked egg continues to sit in the pan rather than coalescing into a raw egg and leaping upwards. But this is, Elga points out, exactly the kind of change that would make for a “convergence miracle”. Take the state of the actual world at 8:05am, holding fixed its future after this point; make some small changes to the molecules making up this state; and in ww2 facts, then run the laws of thermodynamics backwards in time, and Practices Essay, we will almost certainly arrive at a state in facts which the egg sits in the pan growing colder.

This state will be one in personal ethics which Gretta does not crack the egg. The small change in the state of the actual world at 8:05am is evacuation facts, a “convergence miracle” that yields a possible world that realises the counterfactual proposition that Gretta does not crack the egg at 8:00am while holding fixed the actual future after 8:05am. But this miracle is not the large, diverse miracle that Lewis claims a convergence miracle would have to be. As we have seen, Lewis builds transitivity into causation by Job Satisfaction, defining it in evacuation in ww2 facts terms of chains of causal dependence. The transitivity of causation fits with some of our explanatory practices.

For example, historians wishing to explain some significant historical event will trace the explanation back through a number of causal links, concluding that the event at the beginning of the causal chain is responsible for the event being explained. On the other hand, a number of counter-examples have been presented which cast doubt on transitivity. (Lewis 2004a presents a short catalogue of these counterexamples.) Here is pig, a sample of two counterexamples. First, an example due to Ned Hall (2004). A person is walking along a mountain trail, when a boulder high above is dislodged and comes careering down the mountain slopes. The walker notices the boulder and in ww2 facts, ducks at the appropriate time. The careering boulder causes the cells research walker to duck and this, in turn, causes his continued stride. (This second causal link involves double prevention : the duck prevents the collision between walker and boulder which, had it occurred, would have prevented the evacuation in ww2 facts walker's continued stride.) However, the careering boulder is the sort of thing that would prevent the walker's continued stride and so it seems counterintuitive to say that it causes the stride. Second, an Essay example due to Douglas Ehring (1987). Jones puts some potassium salts into a hot fire.

Because potassium compounds produce a purple flame when heated, the flame changes to a purple colour, though everything else remains the same. In Ww2 Facts? The purple flame ignites some flammable material nearby. Here we judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the in Canada Essay purple flame, which in turn caused the flammable material to ignite. But it seems implausible to judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the flammable material to ignite. Various replies have been made to these counterexamples. The second counterexample seems the most easily deflected. Evacuation Facts? For example, Maslen (2004), who endorses the contrast-relativity of causal statements, has argued that this example is misdiagnosed as a counterexample to transitivity, as the contrast situation at the effect-end of the Essay first causal statement does not match up with the contrast situation at the cause-end of the second causal statement. Thus, the first causal statement should be interpreted as saying that Jones's putting potassium salts in the fire rather not doing so caused the flame to turn purple rather than yellow ; but the second causal statement should be interpreted as saying that the evacuation facts purple fire's occurring rather than not occurring caused the flammable material to ignite rather not to Job Satisfaction, ignite. Where there is a mismatch of this kind, we do not have a genuine counterexample to transitivity.

L. Paul (2004) offers a similar diagnosis of the second example, though her diagnosis proceeds in terms of event aspects, which she takes to be causation's primary relata. She argues similarly that there is evacuation in ww2, mismatch between the stem and cons event aspect that is the effect of the first causal link (the flame's being a purple colour) and the event aspect that is the cause of the second causal link (the flame's touching the flammable material). The first example cannot be handled in the same way. Some defenders of transitivity have replied that our intuitions about the intransitivity of evacuation facts, causation in these examples are misleading. Personal Ethics? For instance, Lewis (2004a) points out that the in ww2 facts counterexamples to pros, transitivity typically involve a structure in facts which a c -type event generally prevents an e -type but in the particular case the c -event actually causes another event that counters the personal ethics threat and evacuation in ww2, causes the e -event. If we mix up questions of what is generally conducive to what, with questions about of Sustainable Business, what caused what in this particular case, he says, we may think that it is reasonable to deny that c causes e . But if we keep the focus sharply on the particular case, we must insist that c does in fact cause e . The debate about the transitivity of causation is not easily settled, partly because it is tied up with the issue of how it is best for a counterfactual theory to evacuation, deal with examples of preemption. As we have seen, Lewis's counterfactual theory relies on the transitivity of causation to handle cases of preemption. If such cases could be handled in some other way, that would take some of the theoretical pressure off the theory, allowing it concede the persuasive counterexamples to transitivity without succumbing to the difficulties posed by preemption. (For more on this point see Hitchcock 2001.

For an extensive discussion of the issues around transitivity see Paul and Hall: Chap. 5.) As we have seen, Lewis employs his strategy of defining causation in terms of chains of gender roles, causal dependence not only to make causation transitive, but also to deal with preemption examples. However, there are preemption examples that this strategy cannot deal with satisfactorily. Difficulties concerning preemption have proven to be the biggest bugbear for Lewis's theory.(Paul and Hall 2013: Chap 3 contains an extensive discussion of the problems posed by preemption and other kinds of redundant causation for counterfactual theories.) In his (1986c), Lewis distinguishes cases of early and late preemption . In early preemption examples, the process running from the evacuation in ww2 preempted alternative is cut short before the main process running from the roles examples preempting cause has gone to completion. The example of the two assassins, given above, is an example of this sort. The theory of causation in terms of chains of causal dependence can handle this sort of example.

In contrast, cases of late preemption are ones in evacuation in ww2 which the process running from the preempted cause is cut short only after the main process has gone to personal ethics, completion and brought about the effect. The following is an example of late preemption due to Hall (2004). Billy and Suzy throw rocks at a bottle. Suzy throws first so that her rock arrives first and shatters the glass. Without Suzy's throw, Billy's throw would have shattered the bottle. In Ww2? However, Suzy's throw is the Job Satisfaction actual cause of the in ww2 shattered bottle, while Billy's throw is merely a preempted potential cause. This is a case of Job Satisfaction in Canada, late preemption because the alternative process (Billy's throw) is cut short after the main process (Suzy's throw) has actually brought about the effect. Lewis's theory cannot explain the judgement that Suzy's throw was the actual cause of the shattering of the bottle. For there is no causal dependence between Suzy's throw and the shattering, since even if Suzy had not thrown her rock, the bottle would have shattered due to Billy's throw. Nor is there a chain of stepwise dependences running cause to effect, because there is no event intermediate between Suzy's throw and the shattering that links them up into a chain of dependences.

Take, for instance, Suzy's rock in mid-trajectory. In Ww2 Facts? Certainly, this event depends on Suzy's initial throw, but the problem is that the shattering of the bottle does not depend on it, because even without it the bottle would still have shattered because of personal ethics, Billy's throw. To be sure, the bottle shattering that would have occurred without Suzy's throw would be different from the bottle shattering that actually occurred with Suzy's throw. For a start, it would have occurred later. This observation suggests that one solution to the problem of late preemption might be to insist that the evacuation facts events involved should be construed as fragile events. Accordingly, it will be true rather than false that if Suzy had not thrown her rock, then the Friend actual bottle shattering, taken as a fragile event with an essential time and manner of occurrence, would not have occurred. Lewis himself does not endorse this response on the grounds that a uniform policy of construing events as fragile would go against our usual practices, and would generate many spurious causal dependences. For example, suppose that a poison kills its victim more slowly and painfully when taken on a full stomach. Then, the victim's eating dinner before he drinks the evacuation in ww2 facts poison would count as a cause of his death since the stem research pros time and manner of the death depend on the eating of the dinner. Evacuation Facts? (For discussion of the Job Satisfaction in Canada limitations of this response see Lewis 1986c, 2000.) When we turn from preemption examples involving deterministic causation to those involving chancy causation, we see that the problems for in ww2 facts Lewis's theory multiply.

One particularly recalcitrant problem is described in Menzies 1989. (See also Woodward 1990.) Suppose that two systems can produce the same effect, perhaps at gender roles, the same time and in the same manner. (It does not matter whether this is an example of early or late preemption.) However, one system is much more reliable than the other. The reliable system starts and, left to in ww2, itself, will very probably produce the effect. But you do not leave it to itself. You throw a switch that shuts down the reliable system and turns on the unreliable one. Stem Pros? As luck would have it, the unreliable system works and brings about the effect. This kind of example presents a problem for the probabilistic generalisation of the counterfactual theory because the preempting actual cause decreases the chance of the effect while the preempted potential cause increases its chance. In addition to the problem of explaining how the preempting cause qualifies as a cause when the effect does not causally depend on evacuation in ww2, it, the probabilistic counterfactual theory faces the problem of My Grandpa: and Hero Essay, explaining how the preempted cause is not really a cause when the effect does causally depend on it.(Examples of this kind have been the subject of extensive discussion in facts the context of both counterfactual and probabilistic theories of Practices, causation. For discussions about facts, how best to deal with them within theories admitting of indeterminism, see Barker 2004; Beebee 2004; Dowe 2000, 2004; Hitchcock 2004; Kvart 2004; Noordhof 1999, 2004; Ramachandran 1997, 2004.) In this section we shall consider some recent developments of the counterfactual approach to Job Satisfaction, causation, which have been motivated by in ww2, the desire to overcome the deficiencies in Friend and Hero Lewis's 1973 theory, especially with respect to preemption. 4.1 Lewis's 2000 Theory 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

In an attempt to deal with the various problems facing his 1973 theory, Lewis developed a new version of the counterfactual theory, which he first presented in evacuation his Whitehead Lectures at Harvard University in cells and cons March 1999. In Ww2? (A shortened version of the lectures appeared as his (2000). Personal Ethics? The full lectures are published as his (2004a).) Counterfactuals play a central role in in ww2 the new theory, as in the old. But the counterfactuals it employs do not simply state dependences of whether one event occurs on and Hero Essay, whether another event occurs. The counterfactuals state dependences of whether , when , and evacuation in ww2 facts, how one event occurs on whether , when , and how another event occurs. A key idea in the formulation of these counterfactuals is babe the sheep pig, that of an alteration of an event. This is an actualised or unactualised event that occurs at a slightly different time or in a slightly different manner from the evacuation facts given event. An alteration is, by definition, a very fragile event that could not occur at a different time, or in a different manner without being a different event. Lewis intends the terminology to Business Practices, be neutral on evacuation in ww2, the issue of whether an alteration of an event is a version of the same event or a numerically different event.

The central notion of the new theory is that of Essay, influence. Where one event influences another, there is a pattern of counterfactual dependence of whether, when, and how upon whether, when, and how. In Ww2? As before, causation is babe pig, defined as an ancestral relation. One of the points Lewis advances in favour of this new theory is that it handles cases of late as well as early pre-emption. (The theory is restricted to deterministic causation and so does not address the example of probabilistic preemption described in section 3.4.) Reconsider, for instance, the evacuation in ww2 example of late preemption involving Billy and stem cells pros and cons, Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle. The theory is supposed to explain why Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, is the cause of the shattering of the bottle. If we take an alteration in which Suzy's throw is evacuation facts, slightly different (the rock is lighter, or she throws sooner), while holding fixed Billy's throw, we find that the shattering is the sheep pig, different too. But if we make similar alterations to Billy's throw while holding Suzy's throw fixed, we find that the in ww2 facts shattering is unchanged. Another point in favour of the new theory is that it handles a type of preemption Lewis that have come to stem, be called trumping . (Trumping was first described by Jonathan Schaffer(2000).) Lewis gives an example involving a major and in ww2, a sergeant who are shouting orders at the soldiers. The major and sergeant simultaneously shout “Advance”; the soldiers hear them both and advance. Since the soldiers obey the superior officer, they advance because the major orders them to, not because the sergeant does.

So the of Sustainable Business Practices major's command preempts or trumps the sergeant's. Where other theories have difficulty with trumping cases, Lewis's argues his new theory handles them with ease. Altering the in ww2 major's command while holding fixed the sergeant's, the soldier's response would be correspondingly altered. In contrast, altering the sergeant's command, while holding fixed the major's, would make no difference at roles, all. There is, however, some reason for scepticism about whether the new theory handles the evacuation facts examples of My Grandpa: Friend and Hero Essay, late preemption and trumping completely satisfactorily.

In the example of late preemption, Billy's throw has some degree of influence on the shattering of the bottle. For if Billy had thrown his rock earlier (so that it preceded Suzy's throw) and in a different manner, the bottle would have shattered earlier and in a different manner. Evacuation Facts? Likewise, the sergeant's command has some degree of influence on roles, the soldiers' advance in facts that if the sergeant had shouted earlier than the major with a different command, the soldiers would have obeyed his order. In response to gender roles, these points, Lewis must say that these alterations of the facts events are too-distant to be considered relevant. But some metric of personal ethics, distance in alterations is evacuation, required, since it seems that similar alterations of Suzy's throw and the major's command are relevant to their having causal influence. It has also been argued that the new theory generates a great number of spurious instances of causation. (For discussion see Collins 2000; Kvart 2001.) The theory implies that any event that influences another event to of Sustainable Practices, a certain degree counts as one of its causes. But common sense is more discriminating about causes. To take an example of Jonathan Bennett (1987): rain in December delays a forest fire; if there had been no December rain, the forest would have caught fire in in ww2 facts January rather than when it actually did in February. The rain influences the and cons fire with respect to its timing, location, rapidity, and so forth.

But common sense denies that the rain was a cause of the fire , though it allows that it is evacuation, a cause of the delay in the fire . Benefits Of Sustainable Business? Similarly, in the example of the poison victim discussed above, the victim's ingesting poison on a full stomach influences the time and manner of evacuation in ww2, his death (making it a slow and painful death), but common sense refuses to countenance his eating dinner as a cause of Job Satisfaction in Canada Essay, his death , though it may countenance it as a cause of its being a slow and painful death . Pace Lewis, common sense does not take anything that affects the time and manner of an event to be a cause of the event simpliciter . 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation. One way of treating preemption that has been recently discussed departs from a purely counterfactual analysis of causation. It has been argued that preemption examples highlight the intuitive idea that causation is an intrinsic relation between events, which is to say it is evacuation, a local relation depending on the intrinsic properties of the babe pig events and what goes on between them, and nothing else. The proposed treatments of preemption marry this intuitive idea with a crucial deployment of counterfactuals. At one time Lewis himself resorted to evacuation in ww2, this way of treating late preemption examples when he invoked the Practices notion of quasi-dependence . (See his (1986c).) To explain this notion consider a case that resembles the case of Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle.

Suzy throws a rock and shatters the bottle in exactly the evacuation same way in which she does in the original case. But in in Canada Essay this case Billy and evacuation in ww2, his rock are entirely absent. Lewis argued that since the process in the original case and the process in the comparison case are intrinsically alike (and also obey the same laws), both or neither must be causal. Personal Ethics? However, the comparison process is surely a causal process since, thanks to Billy's absence, it exhibits a causal dependence. Accordingly, the process in the original case must be a causal process too, even though it does not exhibit a causal dependence. In such examples Lewis has said that the actual process that does not exhibit causal dependence is, nonetheless, causal by courtesy: it exhibits quasi-dependence in virtue of evacuation in ww2, its intrinsic resemblance to the causal process in babe the sheep pig the comparison case.

A related idea is pursued in Menzies (1996; 1999). Menzies argues that there is an element in our concept of causation that resists capture in in ww2 facts purely counterfactual terms. This element consists in the idea that causation is a structural relation that underlies and supports causal dependences. This idea can be captured by treating the concept of causation as the concept of a theoretical entity. Applying a standard treatment of theoretical concepts, he argues that causation should be defined as the unique occupant of a certain characteristic role given by the platitudes of the folk theory of causation. One platitude is that causation is an intrinsic relation between events. Another platitude is that it is typically , but not invariably, accompanied by causal dependence.

Accordingly, causation is defined in the following way: On this account, causation is not constituted by causal dependence. It is, in fact, a distinct relation for which causal dependence is, at best, a defeasible marker. The relation may be identified a posteriori with some physically specifiable relation such as energy-momentum transfer. It may, indeed, be identified with different relations in different possible worlds. This definition is supposed to explain common sense intuitions about preemption examples.

For example, Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, caused the in Canada Essay shattering of the bottle, because the intrinsic relation that typically accompanies causal dependence connects Suzy's throw, but not Billy's throw, with the evacuation shattering of the bottle. Lewis later rejected the approach to preemption via quasi-dependence in favour of his 2000 theory in terms of influence. In Lewis 2004a and 2004b, he claims that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation do not do justice to the full range of our intuitions about causation. Essay? (For related points see Hall 2002, 2004.) He offers several reasons, but one reason will suffice for our discussion. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic matter does not apply to cases of double prevention. Suppose that billiard balls 1 and 2 collide, preventing ball 1 from continuing on its way and hitting ball 3. If the facts collision of balls 1 and 3 had occurred, ball 3 would not have later collided with ball 4. So, we have double prevention: the collision of balls 1 and 2 prevented the collision of balls 1 and 3, which would have prevented the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Here it seems reasonable to stem cells, say that the collision of balls 1 and 2 was a cause of the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Lewis observes that the causation in such cases of evacuation facts, double prevention is personal ethics, partly an extrinsic matter. If there had been some other obstruction that would have stopped ball 1 from hitting ball 3, the collision of 3 and 4 would not have depended on the collision of 1 and 2. Moreover, he notes that much of the spatiotemporal region between the collision of balls 1 and 2 and the collision of balls 3 and 4 is simply empty so that there is in ww2 facts, no chain of events to Job Satisfaction in Canada Essay, serve as a connecting process between cause and effect. The intuition that causation is an in ww2 intrinsic relation does not apply in Job Satisfaction this case. More generally, he argues that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation are overhasty generalisations of one specific kind of causation, and they fail to do justice to our intuitions about causation involving absences (as causes, effects or intermediaries). 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

A number of contemporary philosophers (Hitchcock 2001, 2007; Woodward 2003; Woodward and Hitchcock 2003) have explored an alternative counterfactual approach to causation that employs the structural equations framework. This framework, which has been used in the social sciences and evacuation, biomedical sciences since the 1930s and 1940s, received its state-of-the-art formulation in Judea Pearl's landmark 2000 book. Hitchcock and Woodward acknowledge their debt to personal ethics, Pearl's work and to the related work on evacuation facts, causal Bayes nets by Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and Richard Scheines (1993). However, while Pearl and Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines focus on issues to do with causal discovery and inference, Woodward and Job Satisfaction, Hitchcock focus on issues of the meaning of causal claims. For this reason, their formulations of the facts structural equations framework are better suited to the purposes of this discussion.

The exposition of this section follows that of Hitchcock 2001, in particular. While philosophical work using this framework has only just begun, it would seem that this framework looks likely to rival Lewis's framework in terms of its theoretical richness and fruitfulness. The structural equations framework describes the causal structure of a system in terms of a causal model of the system, which is Benefits of Sustainable Practices, identified as an ordered pair V , E , where V is a set of evacuation facts, variables and E a set of structural equations stating deterministic relations among the variables. (We shall confine our attention in this section to deterministic systems.) The variables in V describe the different possible states of the stem cells pros and cons system in question. While they can take any number of values, in the simple examples to be considered here the variables are typically binary variables that take the value 1 if some event occurs and the value 0 if the event does not occur. For example, let us formulate a causal model to describe the system exemplified in the example of late preemption to do with Billy and Suzy's rock throwing. We might describe the evacuation in ww2 facts system using the Practices Essay following set of variables: BT = 1 if Billy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; ST = 1 if Suzy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; BH = 1 if Billy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; SH = 1 if Suzy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; BS = 1 if the bottle shatters, 0 otherwise. Here the variables are binary. But a different model might have used many-valued variables to represent the different ways in which Billy and Suzy threw their rocks, their rocks hit the bottle, or the bottle shattered.

The structural equations in a model describe the evacuation facts dynamical evolution of the system being modelled. There is a structural equation for each variable. The form taken by a structural equation for a variable depends on which kind of variable it is. The structural equation for an exogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors outside of the model) takes the form of Y = y , which simply states the actual value of the variable. The structural equation for Job Satisfaction an endogenous variable (the values of in ww2, which are determined by factors within the model) states how the value of the variable is determined by the values of the other variables.

It takes the form: What does this structural equation mean? There are in fact competing interpretations. Pearl (2000) regards the structural equations as the conceptual primitives of his framework, describing them as representing the Essay basic mechanisms of the system under investigation. However, for the purposes of exposition, it is more convenient to follow the interpretation of Woodward (2003) and Hitchcock (2001), who think of the structural equations as expressing certain basic counterfactuals of the following form:

As this form of counterfactual suggests, the structural equations are to be read from right to left: the antecedent of the counterfactual states possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n and the consequent states the corresponding value of the evacuation in ww2 endogenous variable Y . There is cells pros and cons, a counterfactual of this kind for every combination of possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n . It is important to note that a structural equation of this kind is evacuation in ww2, not, strictly speaking, an identity since there is a right-to-left asymmetry built into it. This asymmetry corresponds to the asymmetry of non-backtracking counterfactuals. For example, supposing that the actual situation is one in which neither Suzy nor Billy throws a rock so the bottle does not shatter, the non-backtracking counterfactual “If either Suzy or Billy had thrown a rock, the cells research pros and cons bottle would have shattered” is true. But the counterfactual “If the bottle had shattered, either Suzy or Billy would have thrown a rock” is in ww2, false. As an illustration, consider the Friend set of structural equations that might be used to model the late preemption example of Billy and Suzy. Given the variables listed above, the structural equations might be stated as follows: In these equations logical symbols are used to represent mathematical functions on binary variables: X = 1 − X ; X v Y = max X , Y ; X Y = min X , Y . The first two equations simply state the actual values of the exogenous variables ST and BT . The third equation encodes two counterfactuals, one for each possible value of ST . It states that if Suzy threw a rock, her rock hit the bottle; and if she didn't throw a rock, her rock didn't hit the facts bottle. Job Satisfaction Essay? The fourth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for BT and. SH . It states that if Billy threw a rock and Suzy's rock didn't hit the bottle, Billy's rock hit the bottle; but didn't do so if one or more of these conditions was not met.

The fifth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for evacuation facts each possible combination of values for SH and BH . It states that if one or other (or possibly both) of Suzy's rock or Billy's rock hit the personal ethics bottle, the bottle shattered; but if neither rock hit the bottle, the bottle didn't shatter. The structural equations above can be represented in terms of a directed graph . The variables in the set V are represented as nodes in the graph. An arrow directed from evacuation one node X to gender roles examples, another Y represents the fact that the variable X appears on the right-hand side of the structural equation for Y . In this case, X is said to be a parent of Y . Exogenous variables are represented by nodes that have no arrows directed towards them. A directed path from X to Y in evacuation in ww2 facts a graph is Practices Essay, a sequence of evacuation in ww2, arrows that connect X with Y . The directed graph of the model described above of Billy and stem research and cons, Suzy example is depicted in Figure 1 below: The arrows in this figure tell us that the bottle's shattering is a function of Suzy's rock hitting the bottle and facts, Billy's rock hitting the bottle; that Billy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of Billy's throwing a rock and Suzy's rock hitting the bottle; and personal ethics, that Suzy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of her throwing the evacuation in ww2 rock. As we have seen, the structural equations directly encode some counterfactuals. However, some counterfactuals that are not directly encoded can be derived from them. Consider, for example, the counterfactual “If Suzy's rock had not hit the bottle, it would still have shattered”.

As a matter of fact, Suzy's rock did hit the bottle. But we can determine what would have happened if it hadn't done so, by replacing the structural equation for the endogenous variable SH with the equation SH = 0, keeping all the babe pig other equations unchanged. So, instead of having its value determined in the ordinary way by the variable ST , the value of SH is evacuation in ww2, set “miraculously”. Examples? Pearl describes this as a “surgical intervention” that changes the value of the variable. In terms of its graphical representation,this amounts to wiping out the facts arrow from the variable ST to personal ethics, the variable SH and treating SH as if it were an exogenous variable. After this operation, the value of the variable BS can be computed and shown to be equal to 1: given that Billy had thrown his rock, his rock would have hit the bottle and shattered it. So this particular counterfactual is true. In Ww2 Facts? This procedure for My Grandpa: Friend Essay evaluating counterfactuals has direct affinities with Lewis's non-backtracking interpretation of counterfactuals: the surgical intervention that sets the variable SH at facts, its hypothetical value but keeps all other equations unchanged is similar in of Sustainable its effects to Lewis's small miracle that realises the counterfactual antecedent but preserves the past. In general, to in ww2 facts, evaluate a counterfactual, say “If it were the case that X 1 ,,X n , then ”, one replaces the original equation for each variable X i with a new equation stipulating its hypothetical value,while keeping the other equations unchanged; then one computes the values for the remaining variables to see whether they make the Benefits consequent true. This technique of replacing an equation with a hypothetical value set by a “surgical intervention” enables us to capture the notion of counterfactual dependence between variables:

How does the structural equations framework deal with examples of late pre-emption that pose such problems for Lewis's counterfactual theory? Can this framework deliver the evacuation in ww2 facts intuitively correct verdicts in the example about Suzy and Billy? Halpern and in Canada, Pearl (2001,2005), Hitchcock (2001),and Woodward (2003a) all give roughly the same treatment of in ww2 facts, examples of late preemption. The key to their treatment is the employment of a certain procedure for testing the existence of a causal relation. The procedure is to look for an intrinsic process connecting the putative cause and pros, effect; suppress the influence of evacuation, their non-intrinsic surroundings by “freezing” those surroundings as they actually are; and then subject the putative cause to a counterfactual test. So, for example, to test whether the cells pros and cons variable Suzy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter, we should examine the process running from ST through SH to BS ; hold fix at its actual value the variable BH which is extrinsic to this process; and then wiggle the variable ST to see if it changes the value of BS . The last steps involve evaluating the counterfactual “If Suzy hadn't thrown a rock and Billy's rock hadn't hit the bottle, the bottle would not have shattered”. It is easy to see that this counterfactual is true. In contrast, when we carry out a similar procedure to test whether Billy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter,we are required to consider the counterfactual “If Billy hadn't thrown his rock and Suzy's rock had hit the bottle, the bottle would not shattered”. This counterfactual is false. It is the difference in the truth-value of evacuation facts, these two counterfactuals that explains the fact that it was Suzy's rock throwing, and not Billy's, that caused the bottle to shatter. (A similar theory is developed in Yablo 2002 and 2004 though not in the structural equations framework.) Hitchcock (2001) presents a useful regimentation of the sheep pig, this reasoning.

He defines a route between two variables X and Z in the set V to be an ordered sequence of variables X , Y 1 ,, Y n , Z such each variable in evacuation in ww2 facts the sequence is in the sheep V and is a parent of its successor in the sequence. A variable Y is intermediate between X and Z if and only if it belongs to some route between X and Z . Then he introduces the new concept of an active causal route: This definition generalises the informal idea sketched in the example of Suzy and evacuation in ww2, Billy. There is an Benefits active causal route going from Suzy's throwing her rock through her rock hitting the bottle to the bottle shattering: when we hold fixed Billy's rock not hitting the bottle, which is the actual value of the only intermediate variable BH that is not on this route, we see that the bottle's shattering counterfactually depends on Suzy's throwing her rock. There is, however, no active causal route between Billy's throwing his rock and in ww2, the bottle shattering. In terms of the notion of an active causal route, Hitchcock defines actual or token causation in the following terms: A crucial notion in this definition is that of babe the sheep pig, “an appropriate” model. It would be undesirable to have multiple structures of causal relations being posited by different models willy-nilly. So Hitchcock insists causal relations are revealed only by “appropriate models”.

He mentions a number of criteria for evacuation in ww2 facts appraising whether a model is appropriate, the most important one being that the structural equations posited by the model must not imply any false counterfactual. In order to deal with examples of symmetric overdetermination, Hitchcock (2001) defines a notion of a weakly active route , the the sheep essential idea being that there is a weakly active route between X and Y just when Y counterfactually depends on X under the freezing of some possible, not necessarily actual, values of the variables that are not on the route from X to Y . As we shall not be considering any examples of oversymmetric overdetermination, we shall focus on evacuation, the stronger notion of an stem research and cons active causal route. This account of causation differs from Lewis's accounts in a number of respects. One difference is facts, that the account does not appeal to the transitivity of causation to deal with preemption examples, in contrast to Lewis's accounts, both early and late. Roles? Hitchcock (2001) is at pains to stress that the structural equations framework described above allows for failures of transitivity. Another difference between the evacuation in ww2 facts accounts is that the structural equations account appeals to special counterfactuals with complex antecedents in Benefits Business Practices order to handle preemption examples. These counterfactuals describe what would happen if a causal variable were changed when certain other variables are held fixed at their actual values. (Hitchcock calls these “explicitly nonforetracking counterfactuals”.) Lewis's accounts does not make use of such counterfactuals, relying as it does on counterfactuals with simple antecedents that describe single changes in the causal variables. The differences between the accounts should not, however, overshadow the evacuation in ww2 similarities that also exist. Both accounts make central use of non-backtracking counterfactuals and they interpret these counterfactuals in roughly the Benefits of Sustainable Business same fashion. Setting aside complications to do with backwards causation, Lewis's account and the structural equations account have us evaluate a non-backtracking counterfactual in much the same way: we are to hold fixed the past history of the evacuation facts system, imagine that the antecedent is realised “miraculously” by a surgical intervention from outside the system, and then consider how the new state of the system would evolve in conformity with the structural equations or laws of the system without any further interventions. How plausible is this new counterfactual approach to causation?

It is too early to say with any confidence, as the approach is still being developed. Nonetheless, some early problems have emerged. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Pearl 2005; Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock 2007; Menzies 2004b; Weslake forthcoming.) Consider, for instance, the following example, which is a variant of Benefits of Sustainable Business, one described by facts, Hitchcock (2007). An assassin puts poison in the king's coffee. The Sheep? The bodyguard responds by in ww2 facts, pouring an antidote in the king's coffee. If the bodyguard had not poured the examples antidote in the coffee, the king would have died. On the facts other hand, the antidote is fatal when taken by itself; and if the poison had not been poured in first, it would have killed the king. The poison and the antidote are both lethal when taken singly but neutralise each other when taken together. In fact, the of Sustainable Business Essay king drinks the in ww2 coffee and survives. Suppose we model this scenario using the following variables: A = 1 if the assassin pours poison into the king's coffee, 0 otherwise; G = 1 if the bodyguard responds by examples, pouring antidote into the coffee, 0 otherwise; S = 1 if the king survives, 0 otherwise. And also suppose that we employ these structural equations:

The directed graph for this model is depicted in Figure 2. Testing for active causal processes, we can see that the process that goes directly from the assassin's pouring the poison in the coffee to the king's survival is active. Holding fixed the fact that the bodyguard poured the lethal antidote into the coffee, we note that the evacuation in ww2 facts king would not have survived if the assassin had not put the Friend Essay poison in the coffee first. So the in ww2 facts theory licenses the verdict that the assassin's pouring in the poison caused the babe king to survive. In Ww2 Facts? However, many regard this as a mistaken causal verdict: putting poison in the king's coffee is exactly the kind of thing that is likely to kill the king. Stem Cells Pros And Cons? It might be argued that the evacuation causal verdict is justified in personal ethics view of the evacuation in ww2 facts fact that the assassin's action caused the bodyguard's action, which in turn caused the king's survival. But this appeal to the transitivity of babe, causation is not open to evacuation in ww2 facts, the defenders of this theory, who deny the validity of Job Satisfaction in Canada, transitivity.

One counterexample by facts, itself is not enough to personal ethics, disprove the whole structural equations framework. Strictly speaking, it only casts doubt on the theory of causation that defines causation in in ww2 facts terms of the presence of an active causal route. There are alternative definitions within the structural equations framework that might fare better. (See Halpern and Pearl 2005; Weslake forthcoming.) One possibility explored by My Grandpa: Friend Essay, several philosophers is to evacuation in ww2 facts, appeal to a distinction between what Hitchcock has called “default” and “deviant” values of variables.(See Hitchcock 2007.) The default value of some variable represents a normal or to-be-expected state of the system, whereas a deviant value represents an in Canada Essay abnormal or unusual state of the system. The correlative notion of the default course of evolution for a system can be characterised as a temporally-ordered sequence of values that the variables in facts a model take when the default values of the stem cells research pros and cons exogenous variables are plugged into the structural equations of the model. Thus, if we set the value of the exogenous variable A in evacuation facts the example above at its default value 0 instead of its actual value 1, we can see that the babe scenario described above will evolve in the following way: the assassin doesn't put the poison in the coffee, the bodyguard doesn't put the antidote into the coffee, and the king survives. Evacuation In Ww2? Now if we evaluate counterfactual dependences with counterfactuals centred on the default course of evolution rather than the actual course of evolution, we can see that the bodyguard's action counterfactually depends on the assassin's action and the king's survival depends on the bodyguard's action, but the king's survival doesn't depend on the assassin's action. If counterfactual dependences centred on cells and cons, the default course of evolution are taken to evacuation in ww2 facts, indicate causal relations, these counterfactual dependences more accurately reflect our intuitive causal judgements. (For further discussion of this idea, see Hall 2007 and Menzies 2004b, 2007.) It remains to be seen whether the various attempts to Job Satisfaction Essay, augment the structural equations framework with a distinction between default and deviant values are successful or not. Facts? (For other attempts see Hitchcock 2007; and pig, Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009. Evacuation Facts? For a critical discussion of these attempts see Schaffer 2013. For general discussion of the role of the default/deviant distinction in causal judgements see Maudlin 2004.)

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