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They have over 6,000 free ebooks listed. This link is to the Biographies Memoirs genre listings for Amazon and Smashwords. There were 51 free ebooks listed at the time of this post. DailyLit offers 40 free ebooks in its Biography category. These are delivered in daily installments and phosphate some of the books are ongoing as of now. DigiLibraries 840 free books in their biography autobiography category.

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Two are for reading online and one is to amazon weaknesses, Gutenberg with several download options. Free eBooks (Biography) 64 books available for download in pdf or mobipocket. Nitrophenyl Phosphate. Registration is required. The free membership allows 5 downloads per month. Free eBooks Blog monitors Amazon (USA) for limited time free offerings in its Biography Memoirs genre. Free eBooks Daily monitors Amazon (USA,UK, CA) for limited time free ebook offerings in the Biography/Memoirs genre.

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Biodiversity and Its Conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem (Gopal and Chauhan, 2006) © Eawag, Dubendorf, 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in nitrophenyl phosphate, the Sundarban. Brij Gopal* and Malavika Chauhan. Abstract. The Sundarban, covering about one million ha darban has been extensively exploited for was known timber, ?sh, in the delta of the rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and nitrophenyl phosphate, Megh- prawns and fodder. The regulation of river ?ows by a se- na is shared between Bangladesh ( 60 %) and India ries of dams, barrages and embankments for diverting. 40 %), and English Korea for the Purpose, is the world’s largest coastal wetland. The water upstream for various human needs and for ?ood. area experiences a subtropical monsoonal climate with control has caused large reduction in freshwater in?ow.

an annual rainfall of 1,600–1,800 mm and severe cy- and seriously affected the biodiversity because of an in- clonic storms. Enormous amounts of sediments carried crease in salinity and changes in sedimentation. Heritiera. by the rivers contribute to its expansion and dynamics. Nitrophenyl. fomes (locally called Sundari, from which Sundarban. Salinity gradients change over a wide range of spatial and derives its name), Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. temporal scales. The biodiversity includes about 350 spe- are declining rapidly.

During the past three decades, large. cies of vascular plants, 250 ?shes and weaknesses, 300 birds, besides parts of the remaining Sundarban have been protected for. numerous species of phytoplankton, fungi, bacteria, zoo- wildlife, particularly tiger, through the creation of several. plankton, benthic invertebrates, molluscs, reptiles, am- sanctuaries and a biosphere reserve. Parts of the Sundar- phibians and mammals. Species composition and com- ban in nitrophenyl, both India and Bangladesh have been declared. munity structure vary east to west, and along the construction, World Heritage sites. However, its biodiversity continues.

hydrological and salinity gradients. Sundarban is the to be threatened by a growing human population that not. habitat of many rare and endangered animals (Batagur only places pressure on its biological resources, but also. baska, Pelochelys bibroni, Chelonia mydas), especially impacts on the freshwater in?ows from upstream areas. the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Javan rhino, Oil exploration in coastal areas is also emerging as a new. wild buffalo, hog deer, and barking deer are now extinct threat. Further threats arise from global climate change, from the area.

Large areas of the Sundarban mangroves especially sea level rise. The future of the Sundarban will. have been converted into nitrophenyl phosphate, paddy ?elds over the past two depend upon the management of freshwater resources as. centuries, and bend in a river, more recently into shrimp farms. The Sun- much as on the conservation of its biological resources. Key words. Nitrophenyl. Mangrove; hydrology; salinity; sea level rise; conversion to agriculture; aquaculture; climate change; conservation; endangered wildlife.

* Corresponding author e-mail: brij@nieindia.org. Published Online First: September 4, 2006. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 339. Introduction area lies in Brazil, Australia and Nigeria (Spalding et al., 1997). While practically all mangroves occur in small. Mangroves1 are intertidal forested wetlands con?ned to patches that develop in deltaic habitats, the mangroves in. the tropical and subtropical regions (Tomlinson, 1986). the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, shared between.

The total global area of the mangroves is estimated at India and Bangladesh, are the only contiguous and larg- only 18.1 million ha (Spalding et al., 1997), against light, over est coastal wetland system in the world. Popularly known. as Sundarban2, they currently cover about one million ha. 570 million ha of freshwater wetlands including peat- lands globally (but excluding paddy ?elds; Spiers, 1999). area, greater than the combined area of Wadden Sea wet- Although mangroves have been exploited for many cen- lands that are shared between Denmark, Germany and. turies, our scienti?c understanding of nitrophenyl these wetland for- the Netherlands.

ests remained poor until the 1970s (Lugo and the abbasid dynasty, Snedaker, Exploration of the Sundarban mangroves dates back. to the 16th century (Rollet, 1981). A large bulk of pub- 1974; Blasco, 1975; Chapman, 1976). During the past. three decades or so, these wetland forests have received lished literature exists on the Sundarbans of both India. increasingly greater attention which is re?ected in an (Naskar and Guha Bakshi, 1987; Chaudhuri and Choud- exponential increase in the number of phosphate publications (Elli- hury, 1994; Guha Bakshi et al., 1999) and hitler's persecution of jews in germany, Bangladesh. son, 2002). Several recent publications have examined (Seidensticker et al., 1991; Hussain and Acharya, 1994; issues concerning ecology, management and conserva- IUCN-BD 2002, Islam and Wahab, 2005) covering many.

tion of mangroves (Robertson and Alongi, 1992; Ricklefs aspects of their habitat characteristics, ?ora, fauna (par- and Latham, 1993; Ellison et al., 1999; Kathiresan and ticularly ?sheries), utilization and management, yet very. Bingham, 2001; Macintosh and Ashton, 2002; Ellison, little is known about the functional aspects of this ecosys- 2002; Linneweber and de Lacerda, 2002; Vannucci, tem. In this review, we examine the current state of our. 2003; Saenger, 2003). Phosphate. knowledge of Sundarban’s biodiversity, various factors. The biodiversity of mangroves has also been of bend in a river in- threatening it, and the recent conservation measures. This. creasingly greater interest, ?rstly because of the Conven- is preceded by a brief overview of the geology, climate, tion on phosphate, Biological Diversity, and secondly, because the soils and hydrology which are the economic persecution of jews in germany, major driving variables. mangrove ecosystems are among the most threatened by of mangrove biodiversity in nitrophenyl, this region. It may be noted. the global climate changes, particularly the English in South Korea for the Purpose of Communication, sea level rise here that since 1947 the phosphate, Sundarban mangroves are di- (Macintosh and Ashton, 2002, 2004).

Mangroves are vided between India and Bangladesh (formerly East Pa- relatively well known for their ?oral diversity which is amazon, kistan), and the two parts differ considerably in the nature. comprised of only phosphate, 65–69 species of vascular plants and extent of investigations, conservation and hitler's economic persecution, manage- which have several speci?c adaptations to the dynamic ment. They also differ substantially in the level of human. coastal environment (see Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001) exploitation over more than a century. This makes it dif- and among the fauna, their ?sheries (both ?shes and crus- ?cult to integrate the nitrophenyl, information of the entire Sundar- taceans) resources are better understood. The global pat- ban. Bend In A River. Therefore, we frequently refer to the Indian and. terns of biodiversity in mangroves also present an inter- Bangladesh parts of the Sundarban separately. esting picture. Whereas the latitudinal pattern of. mangrove ?ora is normal in as much as the highest spe-

The Sundarban mangroves. cies richness of plants occurs around the Equator and. declines at higher latitudes – both north and south (Duke. et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999), the longitudinal distri- The Sundarban (21? 30? to 22? 40? N, 88? 05? to 89? 55? E) bution is quite ‘anomalous’ with high concentrations in nitrophenyl phosphate, comprises essentially of numerous islands formed by the. the Eastern Hemisphere between 90? E and 135? E (Rick- sediments deposited by three major rivers, the Ganga, lefs and Latham, 1993; Ellison and Farnsworth, 2001). Brahmaputra and of gender definition, the Meghna, and a dense network of. Interestingly, the mangrove-inhabiting molluscs follow a smaller rivers, channels and creeks. The maximum eleva- similar pattern (Ellison et al., 1999). tion within the nitrophenyl phosphate, Sundarban is only 10 m above the mean. More than 41 % of the world’s mangroves occur in sea level. Light. The western and eastern limits of the Sundar-

South and Southeast Asia of which Indonesia alone ac- ban are de?ned by the course of the River Hooghly (a. counts for 23 %. A further 20 % of the total mangrove distributary of River Ganga) and River Baleshwar respec- tively (Fig. 1). The River Harinbhanga (known as. Ichamati or Raimongal in Bangladesh) demarcates the. The term ‘mangrove’ is used variously referring to plants (Macnae, 1968; Unesco, 1973), their communities (Blasco, 1975; Hamilton and Snedaker, 1984) and the whole ecosystem. Macnae (1968) reserved the term.

‘mangal’ to describe the mangrove plant communities. In this paper, we Often referred to in plural as ‘Sundarbans’ because the forest comprises. follow Arroyo (1979, 1997) who used the term mangrove for the entire of hundreds of islands separated by rivers and creeks, or to nitrophenyl phosphate, mean both the. ecosystem, its plant communities as well as the plants inhabiting them. Indian and Bangladesh parts together. 340 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem.

border between India and Bangladesh. About 60 % of the ban in the two countries often differ considerably. Light Conspiracy. Ac- mangrove forests lie in phosphate, the Khulna District of Bangla- cording to recent estimates, the area of the Sundarban in. desh and bend in a river, the rest in the 24-Paragnas District of West Bangladesh is 599,330 ha (1978 Landsat data; Rahman et. Bengal (India). The estimates of the total area of Sundar- al., 1979) and in India it is 426,300 ha (Sanyal, 1983). The geological formation of the Sundarban is of com- paratively recent origin.

Several geomorphological. changes since the Tertiary period that included tectonic. movements in nitrophenyl phosphate, northwestern Punjab and the southeastern. ?ow of the River Ganga, resulted in the deposition of. sediments in the Bengal Basin and development of the. Sundarban Delta (Wadia, 1961). It is noteworthy that the. Ganga and Brahmaputra together carry the world’s larg- est sediment load to the abbasid dynasty was known, the oceans (Coleman, 1969; Milli- man and nitrophenyl, Meade, 1983; Milliman et al., 1995). Neotec- tonic movements in the Bengal Basin between the 12th.

and 15th century AD further resulted in an easterly tilt. (Morgan and McIntire, 1959). During the 16th century, the R. Ganga changed its course to shift eastwards and. join the Brahmaputra (Deb, 1956; Blasco, 1975; Snedak- er, 1991). Later, in the mid 18th century, the combined. Ganga (now called Padma) and Brahmaputra again tilted. eastwards to empty into the R. Meghna (Williams, 1919; Snedaker, 1991). Light Bulb Conspiracy. This continuing tectonic activity greatly. in?uenced the hydrology of the deltaic region because of.

Figure 1a. Location of the Sundarban in the Ganga Brahmaputra. changes in the sedimentation patterns and the reduction. Figure 1b. The Sundarban mangroves are shared between India and Bangladesh. Mangroves once extended up to the Dampier-Hodges line.

– the inward limit of tidal in?uence. Dark hatched parts are reclained areas and the stippled areas are reserved forests. Aquat. Phosphate. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 341. in freshwater in?ows. Most rivers (distributaries) other sands, which form sand dunes, occur mainly along the.

than the Hooghly, that contributed to the formation of the coast. Ganga Delta (from west to east: Muriganga, Saptamukhi, Similarly in the Bangladesh Sundarban, the soil is a. Thakuran, Matla, Gosaba and Bidya), have lost their silty clay loam with alternate layers of light bulb conspiracy clay, silt and sand. original connections with the Ganga because of siltation The surface is clay except on the seaward side of islands. (Fig.

1b), and their estuarine character is now maintained along the coast , where sandy beaches occur. In the east- by the monsoonal runoff alone (Cole and Vaidyaraman, ern part, the surface soil is soft and fertile whereas it is. 1966). Thus the delta-building process has nearly ceased harder and less suitable for tree growth in the west. in the west, but has accelerated in the eastern part. The (Choudhury, 1968). The soil pH averages 8.0 (Chris- high rate of sediment deposition in the Sundarban may be tensen, 1984).

understood from the estimated increase in phosphate, the land area. by more than 800 km2 in 80 years between 1793 and 1870. (Richards, 1990). Recent studies by Chakrabarti (1995), Climate. however, show that the mangroves are the dominant geo- The climate of the area is characterized by relatively high. morphic agent in the evolution of tidal shoals and their temperature and hitler's economic persecution of jews involved, humidity (80 %) throughout the year, accretion to the main landmass. and well distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. Temperatures rise from a daily minima of 2–4 °C in win- ter to a maximum of phosphate about 43 °C in March and may ex- Soils ceed 32 °C during the monsoon.

Recent reports suggest. The land is moulded predominantly by tidal action. An that the air temperature over the Sundarban and adjacent. intricate network of waterways, of which the larger chan- parts of the bend in a river, Bay of Bengal are gradually increasing (Huq. nels (often 1.5 to nitrophenyl phosphate, 2.0 km wide), run in hitler's in germany, a generally north- et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). The cold season lasts. south direction, intersect the whole area. Innumerable from about the phosphate, middle of November to the end of Febru- small khals (= creeks) drain the land at each ebb tide. ary and is followed by the summer from March to May. Rivers tend to be long and straight, a consequence of the There is a six-month dry season during which evapotran- strong tidal forces and the clay and silt deposits which spiration exceeds precipitation.

resist erosion. Easily eroded sands collect at the river The rainfall over the Ganga-Brahmaputra deltaic re- mouths and form banks and chars, which are blown into English Korea, gion decreases from east to west and from south to the. dunes above the high-water mark by the strong southwest north. In the Bangladesh region, mean annual rainfall. monsoon. Finer silts are washed out into the Bay of Ben- varies from about 1,800 mm in Khulna, north of the Sun- gal, but mud ?ats are formed on the leeward side of the darban, to 2,790 mm on the coast. The average annual. dunes where they are protected from wave action. These rainfall in the Indian region is only 1,661.6 mm. It de- mud?ats become overlain with sand from the dunes, and creases from 1,805 mm in the south on Sagar Island to- develop into grassy meadows. This process of island- wards Kolkata in the north.

Most of the phosphate, rainfall (about. building continues for as long as the area on the wind- 74 % of the total) occurs during the southwest monsoon. ward side is exposed to wave action. With the formation period (June–September). Some precipitation is received. of the next island further out, silt begins to accumulate in the latter half of the hot season and in October. along the shore of the island and sand is blown or washed There is relatively little variation in the rainfall be- tween years. During the dynasty for, ?rst half of the 20th century, the.

away (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Most of the soils derived from alluvial deposits are highest and phosphate, lowest annual rainfalls were only 142 % (in. azonal with little or no pro?le development (Chaudhuri 1933) and 62 % (in 1935) of the weaknesses, normal respectively. and Choudhury, 1994; Sarkar et al., 1999). Clay loam is Only rarely have two or three consecutive years experi- the predominating soil type in the Sundarban, though enced below normal (80 % of phosphate average) rainfall. On an. silty and sandy loams also occur in many areas. Clays average there are 80 rainy days (2.5 mm rainfall) in a. with or without muck occur in swamps and alluvial lakes. year. Alluvial soils along the coast, and especially in the Sun- Winds are generally light to moderate with a slight in- darban area, show a white ef?orescence of sodium chlo- crease in force during the summer and monsoons, but in. ride, as they are impregnated with salts by tidal estuaries. the southern Sundarban area, particularly near the coast, These soils have been formed from deposits brought by winds are stronger.

Winds blow mostly from directions. tidal currents. Numerous tidal ?ats have been formed af- between the south-east and south-west during May to Sep- ter the headwater ?ow through the weaknesses, deltaic distributaries tember. In October, winds vary in direction. During the. of the R. Ganga were silted up. The parent deposits are winter, winds blow mainly from the north-west.

In March. either rich in calcium or magnesium, or consist of half- and April they blow from the south and south-west. decomposed organic matter. The coastal soils are usually Thunderstorms are common during summer after- classi?ed as saline, non-saline and alkali soils. Pure noons.

These may be in association with severe squalls. 342 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. and occasional hail. These are commonly known as. nor’westers (because the associated squalls usually come. from the north-west) or Kalbaisakhi (the disastrous.

winds of Baisakh, the ?rst month of the Bengali calen- dar). Storms result in heavy rain and a sharp drop in. The storms often develop into cyclones that are usu- ally accompanied by tidal waves up to 7.5 m high (Sei- densticker and phosphate, Hai, 1983). Available long-term records. show that cyclones over the Bay of Bengal adjoining the. Sundarban are increasing in their intensity, but decreas- ing in their frequency of construction occurrence. This correlates with. the rising trend in temperatures mentioned earlier and has. a signi?cant bearing on the extent of coastal ?ooding, erosion and saline water intrusion due to storm surges. (Huq et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). Hydrology and salinity regimes.

The hydrology of the Sundarban is dominated by the. freshwater ?ows from Rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and. Meghna, which exhibit very high seasonal variation in. Figure 2. Salinity zones in the Bangladesh Sundarban. their discharge, and the tides which range in height from.

2 to 5.94 m. Tidal in?uence extends to more than 50 km. inland from the shoreline and phosphate, surges increase considera- bly during the cyclonic storms. blanks which may check the penetration of high tides to. The freshwater ?ows from the rivers and the tidal in- the interior of the islands. Irregular ?ooding of these. gress result in a gradient of salinity that varies both spa- blanks by high tides, coupled with the capillary action of. tially and temporally. In general, the salinity is higher the light, clayey soil and excessive heat during dry periods, nearer the coast and the water is nearly fresh on the inland results in the deposition of a salt crust on the soil surface, side limit of the Sundarban. Similarly, the salinity de- converting them into saline blanks.

Lands on the sea. creases from west to phosphate, east. The eastern part of the Sundar- faces are continually denuded by tidal waves. Towards. ban in light bulb conspiracy, Bangladesh is oligohaline (5 ‰ salinity) whereas the phosphate, west, new land formation occurs because of heavy. most of the Indian Sundarban is polyhaline (Fig. 2). silt deposition from the Hooghly River and dynasty for, its distribu- During the past few decades, however, the sources of tary, the Muriganga at their con?uence with the Bay of. all rivers in nitrophenyl, the western part of the Indian Sundarban Bengal.

Thus, the habitat is characterized by a continu- have progressively silted up, disconnecting the in?ow of ing erosion of banks, the formation of the abbasid dynasty for new islands, and. fresh water into the mangrove delta. Freshwater ?ows ever-changing soil texture and salinity of water under the. are much larger from nitrophenyl Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers in?uence of tides. on the Bangladesh side particularly in the Baleshwar In recent years, the social definition, Farakka Barrage, built in 1974 on. River on the eastern side of the Sunarban (Seidensticker the River Ganga within India, has also affected freshwa- and Hai, 1983).

The reduced freshwater ?ows in western ter ?ows into nitrophenyl phosphate, the Bangladesh part of the construction of gender, Sundarban. parts of the Sundarban have resulted in nitrophenyl, increased salinity Similarly, the construction of several dams and barrages. of the social construction, river waters, and nitrophenyl, has made the rivers shallower in bulb conspiracy, the Damodar River catchment area and on the Ganga. over the years. At the same time, during ebb tides, the have resulted in a decreased silt load and less deposition.

receding water level causes scouring of top soil and cre- of detritus in the estuaries downstream. ates an nitrophenyl innumerable number of small creeks, which. normally originate from the centre of the islands. The. ebb tide eroding action is stronger in some islands than. others within the Sundarban. The receding water carries. large volumes of silt which is deposited along the banks The large spatial and temporal variability in hydrological. of rivers and creeks during high tides. This results in in- regimes (both freshwater in?ows and hitler's, the tides), topogra- creasing the height of the banks as compared to the inte- phy and texture of the substratum, the salinity, and their. riors of the islands.

Over time, such eroded channels interactions, result in very high habitat heterogeneity in. extend further inwards into the islands and form muddy the mangrove ecosystems, and thereby ensure an equally. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 343. Table 1. Total biodiversity recorded to date from the Indian Sunda- diverse biodiversity. There has been some discussion. about the characteristic mangrove plants and a distinction. is usually made between the “true mangrove” and “man- Group of Organisms No. of nitrophenyl Reference. grove associate” species.

However, following the de?ni- species. tion of wetland species by Gopal and Junk (2000, 2001), Flowering Plants 105 Naskar and Mandal (1999) here we consider all those species which depend directly Pteridophytes. or indirectly upon bend in a river, the mangrove habitats, or on any other (Ferns Fern allies) organism living in the mangrove as mangrove organ- Algae 150 Sen et al. (2000) Lichens 32 Santra (1999)

An assessment of the total biodiversity in Indian Sun- Vertebrates 445 Das and Nandi (1999) darban is given in Table 1. Overall, there are relatively Chondrichthyes 22. Osteichthyes (Fishes) 154. small differences between the species composition of the. Indian and nitrophenyl, Bangladesh parts, largely because the deve- lopment of the mangrove system has been dictated by Birds 163. similar processes. Amazon. However, the overarching gradients of Mammals 40. salinity and freshwater that occur across the Sundarban Phylum- Das and Nandi (1999) from west to nitrophenyl phosphate, the east, are clearly re?ected in the distribu- Sarcomastigophora 45.

Aplicom plexa 24. tion of biota. The Sundarban in the two countries differs. also in the extent of management interventions. It must Ciliophora 31. also be emphasised that the Sundarban mangrove in India. has been explored frequently and in greater detail, par- Porifera 1 Mukherjee (1975) ticularly ?oristically, whereas the mangroves within Cnidaria 33 Mandal and hitler's of jews involved, Nandi (1969)

Bangladesh were poorly investigated until recently Ctenophora 2 Nandi et al. (1993) Platyhelminthes 41 Chaudhuri and nitrophenyl phosphate, Chaudhury. (Chaffey et al., 1985). Recent surveys provide consider- able information on several groups of plants, ?shes, rep- Turbellaria 1 Anon (1995) tiles, amphibians and hitler's economic of jews, birds (Ismail, 1990; Hussain and Monogenera 21. Acharya, 1994; Seidensticker, 1991; IUCN-BD, 2002a, Trematoda 13.

b, c). Differences in nitrophenyl phosphate, the nomenclature followed in the. two countries also sometimes make comparisons dif?- Acanthocephala 3. cult. The following account is based largely on the Indian Nemertinea 2. part of the Sundarban, with frequent comparisons with. the information available from Bangladesh. Floristic diversity. Mangrove plants are usually divided Hirudinea 3. into ‘true mangrove’ and definition, ‘mangrove associate’ species.

Arthropoda 476. Globally, Duke (1992) recognised 69 species (belonging. to 26 genera and 20 families) of true mangroves (major. and minor, sensu Tomlinson, 1986) though recently Merostomata 2. Kathiresan and Bingham (2001) recognized only 65 spe- Entoprocta 1. cies (22 genera and nitrophenyl phosphate, 16 families). Of these, at least 30 true. mangroves occur in the Indian Sundarban. Bulb. Debnath and Chaetognatha 4. Naskar (1999) identi?ed 36 species as true mangroves. Echinodermata 20. The Bangladesh part of the Sundarban differs mainly in Hemichordata 1. the relative abundance of various species.

Whereas mem- bers of the Rhizophoraceae and Avicenniaceae generally. dominate most other mangrove areas, the Bangladesh. part of the Sundarban has the greatest abundance of nitrophenyl phosphate Ster- only one species of Bruguiera (B. parvi?ora), whereas. culiaceae (Heritiera) and Euphorbiaceae (Excoecaria). Lumnitzera racemosa and Barringtonia sp. are quite re- Rhizophoraceae is the largest family with 11 species; stricted in of jews, occurrence. Interestingly, the phosphate, Sundarban sup- four genera (Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Avicennia and Son- ports fewer species than other mangrove areas in India. neratia) are represented by four species each and 5 gen- and Southeast Asia. Bend In A River. For example, there are 45 mangrove. era (Xylocarpus, Excoecaria, Thespesia, Derris and species recorded from the Andaman and nitrophenyl, Nicobar Islands. Tamarix) have three species each.

In Bangladesh there is in the Bay of Bengal (Deshmukh et al., 1991a) and 55. 344 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Table 2. Rare, threatened and endangered ?ora of the Indian Sunda- species from Bhitarkanika in the delta of the Brahmani. and Baitarni rivers in Orissa on the east coast of India. (WWF-I, 2001). Family Species Status. The total ?ora of the bend in a river, Sundarban has also been esti- Rhizophoraceae 1. Rhizophora apiculata Occasional. mated differently in India and Bangladesh. In India, the.

2. Phosphate. Bruguiera parvi?ora Occasional. total vascular ?ora (including mangrove associates) is Occasional. 3. Ceriops decandra. estimated at 100 species representing 34 families and 57 Occasional. 4. The Abbasid Dynasty For. Kandelia candel. genera. Nitrophenyl Phosphate. comprises of 30 species of trees, 32 shrubs, and Meliaceae 5. Aglaia cucullata Rare. the rest are herbs, grasses, sedges and Teaching in South for the Purpose of Communication Essay, two ferns.

Many 6. Xylocarpus mekongensis Threatened. 7. Xylocarpus granatum Threatened. terrestrial upland plants within the Sundarban area have. Sterculiaceae 8. Heritiera fomes Threatened. apparently not been included because Seidensticker and. Rubiaceae 9. Scyphiphora hydrphyllacea Very Rare. Hai (1983) recorded 334 plant species representing 245. 10. Hydrophyllax maritime Very Rare. genera from the Bangladesh Sundarban.

This record lists. Tiliaceae 11. Brownlowia lanceolata Occasional. numerous epiphytes and climbers, which include 13 or- Arecaceae 12. Nypa fruticans Occasional. chids and several ferns.

Several species in the Indian. Acanthaceae 13. Acanthus volubilis Very Rare. Sundarban do not occur in Bangladesh part, whereas. Papilionaceae 14. Phosphate. Cynometra rami?ora Rare. many other species have been reported from Bangladesh. 15. Dalbergia spinosa Rare. alone (Choudhury, 1968; Ismail, 1990). Teaching For The. Interestingly,

Sapotaceae 16. Manilkara hexandra Rare. some species listed earlier from Bangladesh by Prain. Rutaceae 17. Atalantia correa Very Rare. (1903) and Choudhury (1968), such as Bruguiera sexan- gula, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba, were. not recorded by Chaffey et al. (1985) and it is feared that. these species may have disappeared from the nitrophenyl, eastern part Botrychia, Catenella and Caloglossa form a turfy cover- of the Sundarban. Heritiera fomes (locally known as ing on mangrove tree trunks and pneumatophores. At a. Sundari, the most important timber species from which lower level on the same trees, species of Caloglossa occur.

Sundarban derives its name),which is abundant on the along with Chaetomorpha and Rhizoclonium. Species of. Bangladesh side, is not common on the Indian side where Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Microcoleus are common on. it is considered endangered. Nypa fruticans also has a pneumatophores and on the mud (Mandal and Naskar, limited occurrence within the Indian Sundarban; it is 1994). rapidly disappearing because of extensive exploitation. Based on their present status, Aegiceras corniculatum, Micro-organisms. The diversity of bend in a river bacteria and fungi in. Kandelia candel, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia acida, Son- the Sundarban has not been examined in detail, although. neratia apetala and nitrophenyl phosphate, Sonneratia caseolaris also require some reports mention various microorganisms in the.

conservation measures (Table 2). Bend In A River. soils and on decomposing litter, besides pathogens in- festing mangrove leaves (Pal and phosphate, Purkayastha, 1992), Algae. Amazon Weaknesses. The algal ?ora of the Sundarban is nitrophenyl, very poorly ?sh, prawns and Teaching English Korea for the Purpose, mammals (Das, 1999). Bacteria play a. known, but the available information suggests that the signi?cant role in phosphate, the mangrove environments and the. Sundarban has a highly diverse algal ?ora comprised of in South for the Essay Sundarban is expected to harbour a diverse bacterial. both benthic and nitrophenyl, planktonic forms ranging from the fresh- community which is yet to was known, be explored, unlike other In- water to marine environments.

In the only study in phosphate, Bang- dian mangroves that are better known (Balasubramanian. ladesh, Islam (1973) reported 34 species of planktonic and Ajmal Khan, 2002). For. Furthermore, 32 species of li- and benthic algae. Nitrophenyl Phosphate. Various published reports on the algal chens have also been recorded from the Indian Sundar- ?ora provide only a patchy picture as they are based on ban (Santra, 1998). short-term surveys of small isolated areas (see Pal et al., 1988; Santra et al., 1988, 1991). Sen et al. (1999) record- Faunal diversity. The fauna of the Sundarban has at- ed 80 species of algae (32 Cyanophyceae and 27 Chloro- tracted much attention because of the huge economic. phyceae) from different parts of the Indian Sundarban. importance of English Korea for the of Communication many species. Nitrophenyl. Crustaceans account for the. These included only bend in a river, 7 species of diatoms, whereas Baner- largest proportion of animal biomass, with an estimated.

jee and Santra (1999) listed 48 species of diatoms from annual harvest of phosphate 40 million kilograms of the abbasid dynasty ?ddler crabs. the Hooghly-Matla estuary alone. In a recent report, and 100 million kilograms of mud crabs (Hendrichs, Naskar et al. (2004), however, list 150 species including 1975), besides a considerable harvest of shrimps, prawns. 15 species of Rhodophyceae and 2 species of Phaeophyc- and lobsters. The Sundarban supports very rich estuarine. eae. Another study recorded 12 genera and 16 species of and coastal marine ?sheries.

Among the diversity of in- benthic algae belonging to nitrophenyl, the Cyanophyceae, Chloro- sects, honeybees hold an important position for the pro- phyceae, Chrysophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Species of duction of Teaching English in South for the of Communication Essay large quantities of honey and beeswax. Also, Aquat. Sci.

Vol. 68, 2006 345. Table 3. Threatened fauna of Sundarbans. the Sundarban is the nitrophenyl, only mangrove forest with a species. of the the abbasid dynasty was known for, tiger – the Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris). Scienti?c Name Common Name. The total faunal diversity of the Sundarban in listed in. Muntjanus muntjack Barking Deer. Panthera tigris tigris Royal Bengal Tiger.

Fish. The ?sh fauna of the Bangladesh Sundarban in- Felis bengalensis Leopard Cat. cludes 53 pelagic and 124 demersal species (Sarker, Felis viverrina Fishing Cat. Platinista gangetica Gangetic Dolphin. 1989; Rainboth, 1991). Of these, over 120 species have. Orcaela brevirostris Irrawady Dolphin. been recorded in nitrophenyl, commercial catches (Seidensticker and Neophocaena phocaenoides Little Indian Porpoise. Hai, 1983). The Indian Sundarban supports a similar Manis pentadactyla Chinese Pangolin. number of species (165 species; Sanyal, 1999).

The ?sh Reptilia. diversity is directly related to the salinity gradients in dif- Crocodylus porosus Estuarine Crocodile. Lepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley Turtle. ferent parts of the bulb, Sundarban. Whereas Mukherjee. Batagur baska Batagur Turtle. (1975a) considered only brackish water and marine spe- Lissemys punctata Indian Flapshelled Turtle. cies of ?sh in the Indian Sundarban, Sanyal (1999) ex- Trionyx gangeticus Indian Softshelled Turtle. panded the nitrophenyl phosphate, list by amazon weaknesses, including 31 freshwater species.

Re- Kachuga tecta Indian Tent Turtle. Varanus bengalensis Common Indian Monitor. cently, Islam and Haque (2004), in their detailed review. Varanus ?avescens Yellow Monitor. of the ?sheries resources of Bangladesh Sundarban, have Varanus salvator Water Monitor. described the distribution of ?sh species along the nitrophenyl phosphate, salinity Python morulus Indian Rock Python. gradients. The Abbasid For. Fishes such as Harpodon nehereus, Trichiurus Aves. savala, Setipinna sp., Pampus sp., Sardinella sp. and nitrophenyl, Ardea goliath Great Goliath Heron. Pelecanus phillippensis Dalmatian Pelican. Salar sp. occur in areas with salinity, whereas Pangasius.

Leptotilos duius Lesser Adjutant Stork. pangasius and Lates calcarifer occur in freshwater areas. or those with very low salinity. The dominant ?shes in. brackish water zones (moderate salinity) are Hilsa (Tenu- alosa) ilisha, Pomadasys hasta, Polynemus sp. and Coilia 1985a,b).

Several species of king?shers (including. sp. Several marine ?shes also often occur within the man- brown-winged and stork-billed king?shers, Pelargopsis. groves. amauropterus and P. capensis, respectively) and the. magni?cent white-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leu- Reptiles and amphibia. The species richness of both rep- cogaster) are quite common, as are many herons, egrets, tiles and amphibia is also similar in the Sundarbans of the storks, sandpipers, whimbrels, curlews and other waders. two countries: 8 and 7 amphibians and 53 and 59 reptiles There are also many species of construction of gender definition gulls and terns, especially. in Bangladesh and India, respectively (Hussain and Ach- along the coast and the larger waterways. The grey- arya, 1994; Sanyal, 1999; Naskar et al., 2004).

Among headed ?sh eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) and Pal- snakes, the Family Boidae is the largest with 13 species, las’s ?sh-eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) are quite rare. followed by Hydrophidae (7 species), Elapidae (4 spe- Apart from the species particularly associated with the. cies) and Typhlopidae and Viperidae (2 species each). sea and wetlands, there is also a considerable variety of. Noteworthy species are the king cobra (Ophiophagus forest birds, such as woodpeckers, barbets, shrikes, Hannah), Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian drongos, mynahs, minivets, babblers and many others. python (Python molurus). Among 14 turtles and tortois- (Salter, 1984). es, six species are nearly extinct or threatened (Table 3).

The Indian side of the Sundarban has a similar avian. Of the four marine turtles, the olive ridley turtle (Lepido- diversity (Law, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1959; Mukherjee, chelys olivacea), though endangered, is the most abun- 1972, 1975b; Naskar and Mandal, 1999). Though only. dant. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is phosphate, rare due to about 150 species were listed by Naskar (1999), Chaud- excessive ?shing, while the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) huri and bend in a river, Choudhury (1994) report more than 300 species.

and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) are not common of which about 100 are migratory. The list includes a. (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). The river terrapin (Bat- large number of species that remain in nitrophenyl phosphate, the reclaimed ar- agur baska) and three of the 14 species of lizards and eas adjoining the mangroves. monitors are also endangered (Table 3). Mammals. Of signi?cant interest is the fact that the. Birds. Of Gender Definition. The avifauna of the Sundarban is phosphate, highly varied mammalian diversity exhibits signi?cant differences. and very rich in bend in a river, species.

In Bangladesh, 315 species have between the Indian and nitrophenyl phosphate, Bangladesh sides of the Sun- been recorded (Sarker and Sarker, 1986; Hussain and darban: the of jews in germany involved, former has only 31 species of mammals. Acharya, 1994). These include about nitrophenyl phosphate, 95 species of water- (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994, Sanyal, 1999) against. fowl (Scott, 1989) and 38 species of raptors (Sarker, 49 species in Bangladesh (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). 346 B. Gopal and bend in a river, M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. At least ?ve species, namely the Javan rhinoceros (Rhi- and erosional processes, create a large diversity of habi- noceros sondaicus), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), tats which are occupied by different plant communities. swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli), gaur (Bos frontalis) The distribution of different communities along the phosphate, ?ood- and probably the hog deer (Axis porcinus) have disap- ing gradient is often interpreted in terms of a zonation or. peared locally during the past century (Seidensticker successional sequence (Untawale 1987; Naskar and bend in a river, Gu- and Hai, 1983). The one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros uni- habakshi, 1987).

Heritiera species require more freshwa- cornis), Indian bison (Bos gaurus) and Sambhar (Cer- ter and occur together with Phoenix paludosa and nitrophenyl phosphate, Nypa. vus unicolor), which were once common here, are also fruticans, generally above the tide level. These species. now locally extinct. The only primate is the rhesus may occur separately, or in association with each other, or. macaque (Macaca mulatta) which still occurs in construction, good with Excoecaria agallocha or Ceriops decandra.

The lat- numbers, but its population is declining gradually ter species join Rhizophora and Bruguiera in relatively. (Blower, 1985; Gittins, 1981). Nitrophenyl Phosphate. The Sundarbans of Teaching in South Korea saline and frequently inundated intertidal habitats, where- Bangladesh and India support one of the largest popula- as Sonneratia and nitrophenyl phosphate, Avicennia species occur below the. tions of tiger, Panthera tigris (estimated 350-400). mean tide level. Recent studies on mangroves (Bunt, Spotted deer (Cervus axis) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) 1999), including those in the Bangladesh Sundarban (El- occur in large numbers and form the principal prey of lison et al., 2000), based on amazon, large scale sampling and de- the tiger. Besides three species of otters, there are wild tailed multivariate analysis, have however failed to detect.

cats (Felis bengalensis, F. chaus and F. viverrina) and any zonation pattern with respect to edaphic variables that. the Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica). co-vary with elevation. Champion (1936) recognized the. Here, the phosphate, notoriety of the Sundarban for weaknesses its man-eat- Sundarban as a seral moist tropical forest, comprised of a. ing tigers must be mentioned. Nitrophenyl. Every year a signi?cant mosaic of beach forest and tidal forests. The latter were. number of people (an average of 23 annually ) are killed divided into four types: low mangrove forests, tree man- by tigers, particularly in the southern and western parts of grove forests, salt-water Heritiera forests and freshwater. the Sundarban. Hendrichs (1975) hypothesised that such Heritiera forests. Later Champion and Seth (1968) classi- killings were linked with the high salinity levels and the ?ed the wetland forests into littoral forests (freshwater) absence of freshwater for hitler's economic of jews in germany drinking purposes. Nitrophenyl. However, and tidal swamp forests (mangroves).

Mandal (2003) dis- recent analyses suggest that the killing of humans is at tinguished further between the social construction definition, vegetation of the active. least partly related to nitrophenyl phosphate, the frequency of tiger-human inter- delta (southern part of the Sundarban with dense swamp. action which makes humans available as easy prey forest), and freshwater areas (rivers, creeks, ponds) and. (Salter, 1984; Siddiqi and social construction definition, Choudhury, 1987). agricultural ?elds of the mature delta. The Indian part of the Sundarban with higher salinity.

Invertebrates. Nitrophenyl. In the Indian Sundarban, arthropods are supports sparse Excoecaria agallocha, a dense understo- the most abundant invertebrates (476 species) comprised ry of Ceriops, and dense patches of the light bulb conspiracy, hantal palm. almost entirely of crustaceans (240) and insects (201 (Phoenix paludosa) on drier soils. Xylocarpus sp. and. species). Molluscs (143 aspecies), annelids (78 species) Bruguiera sp. Phosphate. occur sporadically throughout the area. and nematodes (68 species) are the next most common Oryza coarctata, Nypa fruticans and light bulb, Imperata cylindrica. groups of invertebrates, other than the protopzoans (104 are prevalent on mud ?ats (Khan, 1986). Large stands of. species) (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994). Phosphate. As men- Sonneratia apetala occur on newly accreted mud banks.

tioned earlier,the crustaceans are of great economic im- Sand dunes bordering the sea are primarily colonized by. portance and a large number of species of prawns and grasses such as Paspalum vaginatum, Panicum repens, shrimps are exploited commercially. A substantial pro- Aeluropus lagopoides and Phragmites karka, which are. portion of species are planktonic. Among insects, odo- followed by Sesuvium portulacastrum and Ipomoea pes- nates and dipterans have the largest representation. At caprae (= I. biloba) which constitute the climax dune. least 15 other phyla are represented in the invertebrate vegetation. Salicornia brachiata, Hygrophyllus asiatica. fauna of the Sundarban. Unfortunately a similar inven- and Scirpus fruticans occur occasionally.

Within Bangla- tory is not available for the Bangladesh Sundarban. desh, the social definition, salinity of the Sundarban decreases eastwards. Available reports suggest the nitrophenyl, occurrence of at least 24 and, accordingly, a polyhaline, a mesohaline and an oli- species of shrimp, 7 species of construction definition crabs, 8 species of lob- gohaline zone are recognized. Within each of these. sters and 8 species of molluscs that are commercially zones, vegetation associations change with elevation. exploitable. above sea level and the distance from the seashore (Hus- sain and Acharya, 1994). Zonation and community diversity The successional sequence of mangrove communities. The hydrological (depth and frequency of ?ooding) and follows a similar pattern throughout the Sundarban. salinity gradients that develop in nitrophenyl phosphate, a geo-morphologically Small variations occur according to the salinity regimes. dynamic environment in?uenced by both depositional (Karim, 1988). Grasses such as Leersia, Porteresia and. Aquat.

Sci. Vol. The Abbasid Dynasty For. 68, 2006 347. Phragmites and trees such as the species of Avicennia. and Sonneratia are the pioneers on newly accreted land. With an increase in elevation of the land mass relative to. the tidal height, the succession proceeds to nitrophenyl, a stage where. Heritiera fomes, Ceriops decandra and Excoecaria agal- locha constitute the climax community.

The biodiversity of wetlands is governed by a large vari- ety of factors ranging from the evolutionary history and. paleoclimate to the current biophysical and amazon, anthropo- genic factors, besides the nitrophenyl phosphate, nature and intensity of interac- tions with adjacent systems. Teaching For The. Furthermore, various socio- Figure 3. Factors affecting biodiversity in mangroves (adapted from. cultural, economic and political in?uences also affect the. biodiversity directly as well as indirectly. These factors. have been discussed elsewhere in the context of inland. freshwater wetlands by Gopal (2005, 2006) and a con- leasing, while timber extraction was allowed in the re- serve forests.

It is estimated that 1,570 km2 mangroves. ceptual framework is phosphate, shown in bulb conspiracy, Figure 3. The same fac- tors in?uence the biodiversity of mangrove wetlands were reclaimed in the three decades since independence. such as the Sundarban, where the interplay of hydrology, in 1947 (Richards, 1990). geomorphology and chemistry is phosphate, most pronounced. Man- Thus major threats to biodiversity have come mainly. groves differ signi?cantly from the freshwater wetlands from the growing human population, and consequently, in their hydrology as they interact daily with both the sea overexploitation of both timber and fauna, and conver- and inland areas. sion of the cleared land to agriculture and aquaculture. The biodiversity of the Sundarban mangroves has, Today, the area around the Sundarban (in both India and. however, been affected by centuries of human exploita- Bangladesh) is densely populated.

Approximately 2.5. tion of the forests, their conversion to paddy ?elds, and million people live in hundreds of small villages very. reclamation of land for various uses. Eaton (1991) de- close to or within parts of the Sundarban, on which very. scribes in detail the history of human colonisation of the large numbers of people depend for their livelihood at. Sundarban from 1200 to weaknesses, 1750 A.D. and Richard and Flint certain times of the year.

(1991) provide details of the transformation of the Sun- Numerous people are engaged in the commercial ex- darban thereafter under British rule, whereas Presler ploitation of sundari and other tree species, while the lo- (1991) discusses the management of the Sundarban until cal people depend on the forest for ?rewood, timber for. 1952. It is estimated that the Sundarban originally cov- boats, poles for house-posts and rafters, golpatta (Nipa. ered more than 40,000 km2 in coastal Bengal. Clearing of fruticans) leaf for roo?ng, grass for matting and fodder, the forest and rice agriculture was ?rst actively promoted reeds for fencing, and ?sh for their own consumption. by the then Turk sultan rulers of Bengal. After the British Honey and wax are collected during the summer season. colonised Bengal, the area of the Sundarban still included (April to June) (Krishnamurty, 1990). Phosphate. Tens of thousand. 14,627 km2 of land and 4881 km2 of waterways in 1793 of light ?shermen harvest ?sh and nitrophenyl phosphate, shrimps for most of the English Korea for the Purpose of Communication Essay, year.

(Richard, 1990). The British administration also actively except in the monsoon season. In recent years, collection. promoted deliberate conversion to agriculture. Hunter of shrimp juveniles has increased manifold, particularly. (1875) describes the state of the Sundarban at the end of for aquaculture in reclaimed areas (see, Haque, 2003, the 18th century when the then Governor of Bengal im- Hoq et al., 2001, 2006). It is estimated that up to nitrophenyl phosphate, 60 % of. posed a rule bringing the forest outside permanent settle- the shrimp post-larvae (PL) collected from nature die. ments under Government control. Bend In A River. The Commissioner for during sorting, transportation and phosphate, stocking. This forces.

the Sundarban was charged with the task of “regulating further harvests from the mangroves. Unfortunately the. and managing the social construction of gender definition, waterlogged forests and swamps of the PL harvest of shrimp and prawns is probably the most. lower delta” and “to ensure that private landowners lucrative local economic activity available to a large pro- cleared, settled and nitrophenyl phosphate, reclaimed Sundarban forests and portion of the Sundarban population. PL harvesting earns. swamps for rice cultivation” (Richards, 1990).

By 1870, approximately ?ve times more gross revenue per capita. 2,790 km2 of mangroves had been cleared. Another than rice farming, and probably proportionately even. 2,750 km2 forests had been reclaimed within the next more on a net revenue basis as inputs other than labor are. sixty years even though about 10,000 km2 of the Sundar- negligible compared to agriculture.

ban mangroves were declared a protected or reserve for- Although the ecological impacts of this activity are. est. The protected forests were available for clearance on uncertain because of the lack of detailed information, the. 348 B. Gopal and economic of jews in germany, M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. by-catch which is nitrophenyl, discarded and usually dies, is a sub- 1990). Similarly, Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. stantial proportion of the Sundarban ?sheries and is most are also declining rapidly. As a long-term consequence. likely a major negative in?uence on the aquatic biodiver- Heritiera is being replaced by Excoecaria (Christensen, sity within the protected mangrove areas. While the re- 1984).

In general, the forest structure is bend in a river, becoming sim- duction in nitrophenyl phosphate, shrimp juveniles directly affects the biodiver- pler and the average height of the trees is decreasing. It is. sity, shrimp farming is definition, also causing rapid deterioration in estimated that in the Bangladesh part of the phosphate, Sundarban, the Sundarbans similar to that in other mangrove areas 0.4 % of the forest area is replaced by dwarf species every. (Thornton et al., 2003; Barbier and Sathirathai, 2004; Is- year. This also causes a decline in the habitat for birds, lam and Haque, 2004; Islam and construction of gender, Wahab, 2005).arge- monkeys and other tree-dwelling species.

scale collection of shrimp from estuaries directly affects While the deterioration in phosphate, vegetation is already well. the species that depend upon them for food. documented and receives continuing attention, the im- Fishermen’s camps are also a major source of weaknesses distur- pacts of these changes on the fauna, particularly inverte- bance. Illegal hunting and trapping of animals is com- brates, have not been investigated. Reports suggest that. mon, not only by phosphate, ?shermen and woodcutters, but also the changes in herbaceous vegetation are affecting the. occasionally by military defence personnel, e.g. in Hiron population of spotted deer which now has a much lower. Point in the Sundarban South Wildlife Sanctuary (Blow- population in the western areas where salinity is the high- er, 1985). Habib (1989) reported that over 3,300 m of est. However, an increase in Sonneratia sp. favours the. deer nets were removed between 1981 and 1987, but such deer because the leaves of this mangrove tree constitute.

poaching is light conspiracy, now rare. Adult marine turtles and Batagur its staple diet. There are several studies in other man- which get caught in ?shing nets are often killed and mar- grove areas showing the effects of salinity levels, and. keted for food. their seasonal variation, on the recruitment and growth of. Among hydrological factors, the phosphate, freshwater ?ows are various animals and the effect on light bulb conspiracy, their predators (see. the most signi?cant as they in?uence the salinity as well Hussain and Acharya, 1994). as the geomorphology through the deposition of sedi- Against this background, it is clear that human activi- ments. The tidal frequency is a near constant factor, but ties continue to signi?cantly impact biodiversity in the. the tidal height has a signi?cant bearing on phosphate, the extent of Sundarbans.

While some freshwater ?ows are diverted. inundation and also the erosion of freshly deposited sedi- upstream for the abbasid dynasty was known for irrigation, or are regulated for ?ood control. ments. The salinity regimes are also in?uenced by tidal and hydropower, major concerns have been voiced about. height. Human activities, such as forest clearing and sub- the effects of the diversion of water into the Hooghly.

sequent conversion to other land uses, directly in?uence River by phosphate, constructing a barrage at Farakka on the Indian. the freshwater ?ow and sediment accretion. The nature of side of the border with Bangladesh. The water is required. the sediments (clay to sand) also has a great bearing on primarily to keep the channel open for navigation from. the mangrove vegetation as well as the fauna. The Sunda- the Bay of Bengal up to Calcutta Port. Regular dredging. rban mangroves lie on a delta that is relatively young of the main channel is persecution of jews involved, needed to maintain the depths re- geologically and phosphate, has been undergoing drastic changes. quired by large, seafaring ships. Hitler's Economic Persecution Of Jews. In the absence of ade- These changes are caused by neotectonic activity that is quate information on Sundarban biodiversity before the.

causing the tilting of the delta towards the east, and by Farraka barrage was installed, it is not possible to assess. the enormous amounts of sediments transported by the the nitrophenyl, extent of qualitative or quantitative changes since. rivers originating in the Himalaya. The accretion of sedi- then. Amazon Weaknesses. However, the hilsa (Hilsa ilisha) ?sheries have de- ments in the western part and the tilting to the east causes clined considerably within the nitrophenyl, Indian part of the Sundar- the river to weaknesses, migrate eastwards. It was pointed out nitrophenyl phosphate, earlier ban, largely because the barrage is a barrier to t upstream. that most of the distributaries of the River Ganga on the migration to the breeding sites (Sinha and Khan, 2001; Indian side have silted up and the abbasid was known for, do not carry freshwater. Nitrophenyl Phosphate. Payne et al., 2004).

Thus, increased levels of salinity, particularly during the Whereas much emphasis has been placed on the al- dry season (low ?ow period) affect biodiversity, with the terations in freshwater ?ow regimes in recent years, the. salinity-tolerant species gradually overtaking species de- impact of embankments and polders needs to be assessed. pendent upon regular freshwater inputs. Recent studies in detail. . During the past century, all streams and creeks. by Hoq et al. Construction Of Gender. (2006) have clearly demonstrated the strong outside the protected areas, have been extensively em- in?uence of salinity, temperature and nitrophenyl, conductivity on the banked to protect the cultivated land from inundation. seasonal abundance and distribution of shell?shes and with saline/brackish water. About 3,700 km of embank- ?n?shes within the Bangladesh Sundarban.

The palyno- ments were constructed in Bangladesh between 1960 and. logical evidence clearly shows that Heritiera fomes was 1970 (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). These embankments. very abundant in the western parts of the Sundarban 5000 and polders have altered the ?ooding regimes, increased. years ago, and has declined relatively recently as the sa- salinity intrusion, promoted erosion, accelerated silta- linity has increased (Blasco, 1975; see also Rahman, tion, and bend in a river, reduced the nutrient exchanges, and phosphate, thereby af-

Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 349. fected the biodiversity (Rahman et al., 1992; Bhattach- Sundarban East (31,226 ha); and Sundarban South. arya, 1999). (36,970 ha), protecting about 23.5 % of the remaining. Further threats to biodiversity because of pollution Sundarban under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) have arisen on both the landward and seaward sides of the (Amendment) Act, 1974. These sancturies (IUCN, 1997) mangrove. The agrochemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) lie on disjunct deltaic islands in the Sundarban Forest. used extensively in the catchments of the Ganga and Division of Khulna District, close to the border with In- Brahmaputra rivers and their numerous tributaries, as dia and just west of the main out?ow of the Ganges, well in the ?elds close to the mangroves, pollute both the Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers (Fig.

4b). In 1987, the. waterways and the landmass, and affect the the abbasid, aquatic vege- Sundarban National Park in India, and in 1997, parts of. tation and fauna directly. Growing industrialisation of the the Sundarban in Bangladesh, were inscribed on the.

area around Calcutta, particularly the Haldia industrial World Heritage list (IUCN, 1997). complex, and the industries situated on the western side The entire Indian Sundarban area south of the Damp- of the Hooghly River, contribute signi?cantly to the pol- ier-Hodges line (that demarcates the inward limit of tidal. in?uence), including 5,366 km2 of reclaimed lands, has. lution load and hence, to the degradation of the Sundar- ban mangroves. From the seaward side, major pollution also been designated as the nitrophenyl, Sundarban Biosphere Re- occurs through oil spills that cause great damage, espe- serve. Within the Biosphere Reserve several distinct. cially to the aquatic fauna and seabirds (Blower, 1985). zones have been recognised: a Core Zone comprised of. An oil spill from the wreckage of a Panamanian cargo the National Park and the Tiger Reserve, a Manipulation. Zone (2,400 km2 of mangrove forests), a Restoration.

ship in August 1994 near the Dangmari Forest Station, affected about 15 km2 area including a considerable part Zone that covers 240 km2 of the abbasid was known for degraded forest and saline. of the Sundarban. Large scale mortality was recorded in nitrophenyl, mud ?ats, and a Development Zone which includes. the seedlings of Heritiera and Excoecaria, grasses, ?shes, mostly the reclaimed areas. Only the Core Zone is the abbasid dynasty for, under. shrimps and other aquatic animals (Hussain and Acharya, strict conservation measures. Income generating activi- 1994).

Recently, the off-shore exploration for oil and gas ties such as the collection of nitrophenyl seeds of black tiger prawn. by both Bangladesh and India has raised strong protests (Penaeus monodon), the culturing of oysters and conspiracy, crabs, concerning fears about its likely impacts on nitrophenyl phosphate, the Sundar- mushroom cultivation and bee-keeping for honey pro- ban’s biota (Anonymous, 2004; Saha et al., 2005). duction are allowed in the Manipulation Zone. Efforts are. being made, however, to also rehabilitate certain degrad- ed areas through afforestation. Among faunal species, the. Conservation estuarine crocodile and the Olive Ridley turtle are receiv- ing some attention by way of captive breeding. English Korea Of Communication Essay. The Sun- Conservation of the Sundarban mangrove is supposed to darban Tiger Reserve in India has started a special pro- have started with its declaration as a reserve forest, under gramme for the conservation of sea turtles (http://www. the Indian Forest Act in 1878, after Schlich (1875) raised wildbengal.com/sanctuaries/sunderban_main.htm). concern over its conservation (Presler, 1991).

However, The approaches to conservation differ considerably. as described earlier, this did not help conservation per se, between the Indian and Bangladesh Sundarbans and this. but only phosphate, regulated the exploitation and conversion by the has been discussed at length by Seidensticker (1991). government. Soon after independence, India declared The Bangladesh Sundarban is managed as a refuge. Lothian Island (3,800 ha) as a Wildlife Sanctury, and lat- where wildlife is protected in small sanctuaries located.

er, in economic persecution of jews in germany involved, 1960, another 35,240 ha were brought under the in the larger forest tract by providing protection to nitrophenyl, the re- Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctury. The hunting of tigers was source “hot-spots” essential to the maintenance of wild- banned completely in 1970, after the IUCN listed the life populations. This approach assumes that inviolate. Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) as an endangered core areas surrounded by restricted-use buffer zones can. species. Later, under Project Tiger, the Government of ensure the survival of communities and species such as. India established a Tiger Reserve in the Sundarban cover- large mammals and birds which depend upon the re- ing 2,585 km2 in 1973 (Fig. For. 4a). Another 241 km2 area sources such as food or nesting and nitrophenyl, roosting sites over. was demarcated as a subsidiary wilderness area.

The core larger areas. area of 1,330 km2 was later designated as a National Park. In India however, the strategy for Sundarbans conser- Another wildlife sanctuary was established in amazon, 1976 on nitrophenyl, vation involves the setting aside of areas where the entire. Haliday Island (595 ha) to protect the spotted deer (Axis life-cycle needs of a community can be met and the eco- axis), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and rhesus macaque logical needs of wildlife can be linked into construction, the overall. (Macaca mullata), which are dominant animals in a for- management of the system for the Sundarbans.

Further- est type consisting mainly of Ceriops decandra. more, in so doing, the ecological processes upon which. Soon thereafter, in 1977, Bangladesh created three wildlife depend become integral values in the manage- wildlife sanctuaries: the Sundarban West (71,502 ha), ment matrix. 350 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Future of the Sundarban. rban mangroves and their biological diversity. First, the. demand on freshwater resources is phosphate, bound to grow as the. human population in both countries continues to in- crease, resulting in the restriction of amazon weaknesses freshwater ?ows to.

the monsoon season when extensive ?oods occur in the. eastern parts of nitrophenyl India and in Bangladesh. The resultant. increase in salinisation and accretion of sediments may. alter vegetation composition. Of Jews In Germany. Impacts on animal commu- nities may also occur due to both, the direct effects of. salinity and indirectly through food chain modi?cations. caused by the alterations in the nature and nitrophenyl, amount of hitler's economic persecution of jews involved de- tritus available in nitrophenyl phosphate, the mangrove ecosystem. Therefore, it is the human response to the spatial and. temporal variability in precipitation, and hence the fresh- water availability, which will determine the water avail- ability for sustaining the functions and values of the.

mangroves. The proposed plan of India for the inter-basin. transfer of water through a river-linking program in India. has already raised concern for the fate of the Sundarban. and its rich biodiversity, as well as for the millions of. people dependent upon it (Ahmed et al., 2004). Secondly, global climate change is expected to in- Figure 4a.

Protected areas of the Indian Sundarban. crease the social construction, average temperature and spatio-temporal vari- ability in precipitation, as well as cause a rise in sea level. (Ellison, 1994). The increase in temperature and variabil- ity in rainfall will put further pressure on freshwater re- sources and nitrophenyl, hence, alter the freshwater in?ows to the. mangroves. If precipitation declines in the Ganga-Brah- maputra basins it may lead to a further reduction in the. availability of freshwater in the deltaic region. Some. models of climate change also present an increased fre- quency of tropical cyclones and storm surges, which may.

cause further changes in freshwater-seawater interactions. and hence affect the mangroves (Ali, 1995, 2003; Ali et. al., 1997). Weaknesses. Substantial areas of the Sundarban along the. coast are expected to be inundated by seawater in this. case, and the increased landward salinity intrusion would. affect the biotic composition.

Ultimately, the future of the Sundarban mangroves. hinges upon the ef?ciency of managing the limited fresh- water resources for meeting both human and environ- mental needs, coupled with effective adaptive responses. to the added threats from climate change. Figure 4b. Wildlife sanctuaries (dark shaded areas) in the Bangla- We are thankful to nitrophenyl, many researchers whose published. studies have been used freely in preparing this overview. Thanks are also due to Wolfgang Junk for social of gender inviting us to. prepare this review and to nitrophenyl, the organisers of the IN- TECOL’s International Wetlands Conference for partial.

Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 351. Chakrabarti, P., 1995. Evolutionary history of the coastal quaternar- support to BG for presenting it at the symposium. MC. ies of the Bengal Plain, India. Proceedings of the Indian Na- acknowledges the hitler's in germany involved, support from the Department of Sci- tional Science Academy 61A: 343–354.

ence and nitrophenyl, Technology, New Delhi, for ?nancial support Champion, H. G., 1936. A preliminary survey of the forest types. by way of construction of gender a Project under the Fast Track Scheme during of India and Burma. Indian Forest Record (New Series) 1:1– the tenure of phosphate which this paper was prepared. Champion, H. G. and S. K. Seth, 1968. Revised Forest Types of In- dia. Manager of Publications, Govt of India, New Delhi. Chapman, V. J., 1976. Mangrove Vegetation. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Ger-

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