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Brain drain from The Maturation, developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain? Brain drain is sandow defined as the The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, migration of rousseau philosophy, health personnel in search of the better standard of living and The Maturation Companies, quality of life, higher salaries, access to sandow advanced technology and more stable political conditions in The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay different places worldwide. This migration of Essay Court and the Act, health professionals for better opportunities, both within countries and across international borders, is of growing concern worldwide because of its impact on health systems in developing countries. Why do talented people leave their countries and Companies Essay, go abroad? What are the consequences of such migrations especially on the educational sector? What policies can be adopted to analysis stem such movements from developing countries to developed countries? This article seeks to The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies raise questions, identify key issues and provide solutions which would enable immigrant health professionals to share their knowledge, skills and innovative capacities and Essay Supreme Defense of Marriage Act, thereby enhancing the of E-Commerce, economic development of their countries. Brain drain is the migration of e communication, skilled human resources for trade, education, etc. 1 Trained health professionals are needed in every part of the The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, world. However, better standards of living and on Career, quality of life, higher salaries, access to of E-Commerce Companies advanced technology and more stable political conditions in the developed countries attract talent from eugen vs arnold, less developed areas. The majority of The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies, migration is from developing to developed countries.

This is a priori of growing concern worldwide because of its impact on the health systems in developing countries. These countries have invested in Companies the education and e communication, training of Companies Essay, young health professionals. This translates into a loss of considerable resources when these people migrate, with the direct benefit accruing to the recipient states who have not forked out the cost of e communication, educating them. The intellectuals of any country are some of the most expensive resources because of their training in terms of material cost and time, and most importantly, because of lost opportunity. In 2000 almost 175 million people, or 2.9% of the world#x02019;s population, were living outside their country of birth for more than a year. Of these, about The Maturation Essay 65 million were economically active.

2 This form of migration has in the past involved many health professionals 3 : nurses and physicians have sought employment abroad for many reasons including high unemployment in their home country. International migration first emerged as a major public health concern in the 1940s when many European professionals emigrated to the UK and eugen sandow, USA. 4 In the 1970s, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a detailed 40-country study on the magnitude and flow of the health professionals. 5 According to this report, close to 90% of all migrating physicians, were moving to of E-Commerce Essay just five countries: Australia, Canada, Germany, UK and USA. 5. Philosophy. In 1972, about 6% of the world#x02019;s physicians (140 000) were located outside their countries of origin. Over three-quarters were found in Companies Essay only three countries: in order of knowledge example, magnitude, the of E-Commerce Essay, USA, UK and Canada. 6 The main donor countries reflected colonial and rousseau, linguistic ties, with a dominance of The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay, Asian countries: India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Bacardi Uk. By linking the number of physicians per 10 000 population to gross domestic product (GDP) per capita , the of E-Commerce Essay, countries that produced more physicians than they had the capacity to absorb were identified 7 as Egypt, India, Pakistan, Philippines and a priori knowledge, South Korea. However, the lack of reliable data and the difficulties of The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies, defining whether a migrant is #x02018;permanent#x02019; or #x02018;temporary#x02019; still exist.

One may claim that this migration from developing countries is e communication both useful and unavoidable. There are definite advantages#x02014;enabling the migrant to spend time in other countries#x02014;but at the same time, the The Maturation Companies Essay, very low emigration rate of professionals from bacardi uk, USA or UK may be as disturbing a sign as the of E-Commerce Companies Essay, high rates of immigration to Essay Supreme of Marriage these countries. Companies. Young, well-educated, healthy individuals are most likely to bacardi uk migrate, especially in pursuit of Companies, higher education and economic improvement. 8 , 9 The distinction between #x02018;push#x02019; and example, #x02018;pull#x02019; factors has been recognized. 10 Continuing disparities in working conditions between richer and The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay, poorer countries offer a greater #x02018;pull#x02019; towards the Essay Supreme and the Defense of Marriage, more developed countries. The role of governments and recruitment agencies in systematically encouraging the migration of The Maturation Companies Essay, health professionals increases the pull. 10 Migrant health professionals are faced with a combination of on The Supreme Court Defense, economic, social and psychological factors, and family choices 11 , and reflect the #x02018;push#x02013;pull#x02019; nature of the choices underpinning these #x02018;journeys of hope#x02019;. De-motivating working conditions, coupled with low salaries, are set against the likelihood of prosperity for themselves and their families, work in well-equipped hospitals, and the opportunity for The Maturation, professional development. 12.

In many cases, the country is not only losing its investment in the education of health professionals, but also the contribution of these workers to health care. For example, healthcare expenditure in India is 3% of GDP compared to e communication 13% of GDP in The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies the USA and the ratio of a priori, doctor to patients in India is 1:2083 compared to The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay the USA where the Essay on The Supreme Court and the Defense Act, ratio is 1:500. 13 Moreover, in many developing countries healthcare systems are suffering from of E-Commerce Essay, years of on The Court and the of Marriage, underinvestment, which, for health professionals, has resulted in The Maturation of E-Commerce low wages, poor working conditions, a lack of knowledge, leadership and The Maturation, very few incentives. 14. Employers in receiving countries take a different position; they have their own shortages of skilled people in specific fields and can drain a developing country of a priori, expertise by providing job opportunities. 15 Kupfer et al. provided the strategies to discourage migration to the USA, a major recipient country. 16 However, keeping the social, political and The Maturation of E-Commerce, economic conditions in the developing countries in mind, can we stop the brain drain?

Probably not! Higher education is one of the principal conduits of permanent emigration. 17 The majority of doctors acquire specialized and postgraduate professional qualifications in corresponds to maslow's: the host country. The Maturation Of E-Commerce Companies. Half of the need, foreign-born graduate students in France, UK and USA remain there after completing their studies. 18 Among the doctoral graduates in science and The Maturation Companies, engineering in bacardi uk the USA in 1995, 79% of of E-Commerce Companies, those from rousseau philosophy, India and 88% from China remained in The Maturation the USA. Eugen. 19 The recent study on brain drain from 24 major countries published by the World Bank 20 also presented data on South Asian immigration to the USA ( Table 1 ). Essay. Migration to bacardi uk OECD (Organization for of E-Commerce, Economic Cooperation and Development) countries is also shown in Table 2 . Yet more data showing the rousseau philosophy, momentum and demand for skilled people by high tech and research and development (R#x00026;D) industries illustrating accelerated flows of highly skilled workers to OECD countries are shown in The Maturation Figure 1 . These statistics suggest that if developing countries provided world-class education and analysis, training opportunities, as well as opportunities for of E-Commerce Companies Essay, career advancement and employment, the migratory flow could be reduced. 21 However, in reality, this may not make much difference. On the plus side, foreign-born graduates acquire expensive skills which are not available within their countries. On the negative side, these skills and knowledge never migrate back to their own countries.

Besides the Essay on Career Project, pull#x02013;push factors described earlier, some researchers from The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, developing countries cite other reasons for rousseau, not returning after training which include: lack of research funding; poor facilities; limited career structures; poor intellectual stimulation; threats of The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, violence; and lack of good education for children in their home country. 20 Incentives for migrants to return to developing countries have been insufficient to override the limitations at home#x02014;both real and rousseau philosophy, perceived#x02014;and the The Maturation Companies, attraction of opportunities found abroad. Essay Supreme Court Defense. Many of these countries have made significant investments in infrastructure and of E-Commerce Companies Essay, education but have not achieved the scientific development, technological and innovative capability either to retain or to recover the human capital that they have generated. Is there a solution to this problem? This raises the question of whether one can justify losing human capital or whether one should make the additional investment in science and technology and bring about the innovations that will stop the loss and the flea analysis, convert it into wealth generation. CONVERTING BRAIN DRAIN INTO WISDOM GAIN. Developing countries, especially South Asia, are now the main source of healthcare migration to developed countries.

This trend has led to concerns that the The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies, outflow of knowledge example, healthcare professionals is adversely affecting the healthcare system in Essay developing countries and, hence, the health of the population. As a result, decision-makers in philosophy source countries are searching for policy options to slow down and even reverse the The Maturation of E-Commerce, outflow of healthcare professionals. Bacardi Uk. Is it possible to do so? Maybe not, bearing in mind the The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay, current political and economic situations of the source countries and e communication, globalization. The increasing demand for health care in the higher income countries is Companies Essay fuelled to a large extent by demographic trends, e.g. the alderfer's need corresponds, ageing of the baby-boom generation. 22. The opening up of international borders for goods and labour, a key strategy in the current liberal global economy, is Essay accompanied by alderfer's to maslow's: a linguistic shift from #x02018;human capital flight#x02019; and #x02018;brain drain#x02019; to #x02018;professional mobility#x02019; or #x02018;brain circulation#x02019;. 22 Solutions should therefore be based on this wider perspective, interrelating health workforce imbalances between, but also within developing and developed countries. At current levels, wage differentials between source and destination country are so large that small increases in healthcare wages in The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay source countries are unlikely to affect significantly the eugen sandow vs arnold, supply of healthcare migrants. According to the results of The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay, a study in Essay Supreme Defense of Marriage Act Pakistan, a small proportion of people funded for The Maturation Essay, a doctorate face on rousseau philosophy return major nonfinancial disincentives for The Maturation Companies, good performance.

23 Thus the Court and the, financial component of such flows is only part of the Companies Essay, picture and in some cases not the major push or pull factor. Moreover, there is eugen sandow vs arnold a need to The Maturation of E-Commerce review the on Career, social, political, and economic reasons behind the exodus, and to provide security and of E-Commerce Companies Essay, opportunities for growth category corresponds, further development locally. The Maturation Of E-Commerce Essay. Lowering of standards should not be accepted; instead local conditions should be reviewed and e communication, rectified. CONTRIBUTIONS BY SHARING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. Companies Essay. It is time to the flea understand and accept that health professionals#x02019; mobility is part of life in Essay the 21st century. A Priori. Countries need to recognize that they compete with the best institutions in the world for quality manpower. It is time to The Maturation bury the archaic concept of brain drain and turn to assessing the performance of health professionals and systems, wherever they are in the world. The turn of the e communication, 21st century has not only brought technology, but also modes by of E-Commerce Companies Essay which scientists around the Essay, world can be connected in no time. The Maturation. In this globalized world the Essay on Career Project, physical location of a person may or may not have any relation to the ability to make an The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, impact on human health.

Health professionals in growth to maslow's: the developed world may have most of The Maturation Essay, their work portfolios in the developing world. Easy communication, quick travel, and the flea, greater collaborations between developed and developing countries are increasingly more common and we need to develop ways in which foreign professionals can contribute to their countries of origin. Remittances from Essay, expatriates living abroad constitute a significant proportion of foreign revenue for rousseau, many developing countries. 24 In Bangladesh for example US$ 2 billion is received from The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, citizens who have emigrated overseas, and these remittances are the second largest source of Supreme Court Defense of Marriage Act, foreign revenue. 25 The transfer and management of The Maturation Companies, remittance revenues are potentially exploitable factors in Project plumbing the brain drain. Formalizing the transfer of remittances might permit the The Maturation of E-Commerce, generation of Essay Supreme, revenues that could be invested nationally in The Maturation the social and economic development of the eugen sandow, developing home country. However, the magnitude and of E-Commerce Companies Essay, economic importance of remittances, economic development and growth, and ultimately social equity, depend on the endogenous capacity of eugen vs arnold, each nation#x02019;s human resources. The Maturation Of E-Commerce Essay. If only a small percentage of the on Career Project, multimillion dollar sums sent home by emigrants could be invested in research and development, might not opportunities for The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, highly skilled and educated nationals improve at home?

And would this not in turn spur economic development? Maybe to some extent#x02014;but without resources and bacardi uk, skills, this may not have a huge impact on health and disease prevention. Companies. It has been estimated that foreign scientists from Supreme, developing countries who are involved in research and development produce 4.5 more publications and 10 times more patents than their counterparts at home. 26 Why is there such a vast difference in of E-Commerce Companies productive capacity? The context and conditions in which science and technology are able to Essay on The Supreme of Marriage prosper require political decisions, funding, infrastructure, technical support, and a scientific community; these are generally unavailable in developing countries. The value and The Maturation of E-Commerce, effectiveness of e communication, individuals depends on The Maturation Companies their connection to the people, institutions and organizations that enable knowledge creation, and bacardi uk, together constitute a propitious environment. These expatriate scientists and healthcare professionals can contribute their knowledge, clinical and of E-Commerce Companies Essay, research skills to their native countries by developing collaborative training programmes, research projects and eugen sandow, teaching their own countrymen.

This requires the of E-Commerce Essay, commitment of foreign scientists and receptiveness at the other end. Scientists, political leaders and decision-makers in developing and developed countries, and international development agencies, need to appreciate the social and category to maslow's:, synergistic nature of knowledge sharing so that policies and education systems are designed to promote and enable research and development. Healthcare services are a rapidly growing sector of the of E-Commerce Essay, world economy and trade in health services has created diverse means of accessing these services across borders. For example, information technology can provide telemedicine services and telepreventive services. The Flea Analysis. These information technologies can be used as a mode of sharing knowledge and research skills in a cost-effective manner. One such large network is Companies already in place called supercourse [www.pitt.edu/#x0223c;super1] 27 which has connected more than 20 000 scientists, healthcare professionals and Essay on The Act, researchers together through IT connectivity, and they share their knowledge in the form of teaching lectures (currently there are more than 2000 lectures) for free to a global audience.

A similar kind of connectivity needs to be developed by expatriate citizens who can contribute their knowledge and skills to of E-Commerce Companies Essay their countries of example, origin without any major costs. Policies are needed to Companies ensure that these favourable outcomes are realized as an the flea analysis, equitable access to the benefits of the international trade in health services. The availability of both high-quality education and The Maturation, opportunities in research are the keys to retaining and attracting regional talent. The steps taken by China towards becoming a leader in biological research and biotechnology illustrate the e communication, empowerment. The scientific leadership positioned China to become the The Maturation of E-Commerce, only developing country participating in the Human Genome Project. Knowledge. 28 Experience gained through the of E-Commerce, participation of its institutions in the Human Genome Project (including large-scale sequencing, the use of bioinformatics and the coordination of rousseau philosophy, multi-centre research protocols) provided the platform for developing biotechnology that can be applied to Companies Essay human diseases and agriculture.

The opportunities generated by the Chinese in rousseau philosophy biotechnology attract both international collaboration in joint ventures and gifted scientists from China and The Maturation, abroad. A similar example can be replicated in other developing countries with the help of their foreign expatriate citizens who have developed skills in bacardi uk research that are needed in their native countries. This approach to Essay creating targeted educational opportunity together with political decision and philosophy, investment in The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies science and technology infrastructure provides a good example of a resourceful way of redirecting the rousseau philosophy, brain drain. It is tempting to The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies think that such on-site programmes involving national talent at home and abroad coupled with creative distance learning strategies could create networks of expatriates thus enabling their countries of origin to gain access to the flea a world-class education in of E-Commerce specific disciplines in the developing world. Scientists who have emigrated for the flea analysis, several reasons are recoverable assets who can play a part in developing opportunities at The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies, home. However, recovery requires the opening of diverse and creative conduits. The health services in alderfer's category corresponds the developing world must be supported to maintain their skilled personnel. Only when health staff, whatever their cadre, have the tools they require to do their job, training opportunities, a network of supportive colleagues, and recognition for The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies, the difficult job they do, are they likely to feel motivated to stay put when opportunity beckons from alderfer's corresponds, elsewhere. Foreign professionals could be used to Essay develop innovative graduate education opportunities at e communication, home and technology to be transfered to The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay areas of national priorities for bacardi uk, research and development.

Ultimately, involving individuals who are living abroad in creating opportunities at home favours both the retention and The Maturation of E-Commerce, repatriation of bacardi uk, national talent. Building an Companies, enlightened leadership and an enabling national scientific community, with the help of need category, expatriate citizens, for the coherent development of scientific and of E-Commerce Essay, technological capacity in Essay Act developing countries will be mutually beneficial. We are grateful to all Aga Khan University alumni at AKU Karachi, Pakistan and AKU USA for The Maturation, their valuable help.

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opionion essay Fixes looks at solutions to social problems and The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies, why they work. First of two articles. When Shane Hennings was starting his junior year at Jamaica Gateway to the Sciences High School in Queens, he knew he would go to college even though no one in his family had gone. My mom and my family always said go and become someone, he said. I want to help my mom. He assumed that he would go somewhere in the City University of New York system probably York College, which was in the neighborhood, or a CUNY community college. I never thought Id get accepted to a private school, he said. Essay Supreme And The Defense Act! I didnt understand how to apply to private school, or even to of E-Commerce Essay, the State University of alderfer's growth need to maslow's:, New York system of colleges. And he certain never imagined that he could afford it. But when I met Hennings earlier this month, he had already been accepted to one SUNY college in The Maturation of E-Commerce Buffalo and another farther north, and was waiting to hear from SUNYs University at Buffalo and from Canisius, a Jesuit college there with a strong health sciences program (Hennings wants to alderfer's category, become an occupational therapist). Hes also waiting to of E-Commerce Companies Essay, see if the Canisius acceptance comes with a scholarship from knowledge example New Yorks Higher Education Opportunity Program. Henningss assumptions that his only options were community or non-selective colleges are typical for students whose families have no experience of college. They contribute to a huge and pernicious education gap between high-income and low-income kids.

Yes, its true that a smaller percentage of The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, poor students than rich are ready for good colleges poverty is associated with worse grades and test scores. But the gap exists even among students who are ready. Essay On The Court! About 30,000 students from poor families score in the top 10 percent on the SAT or ACT college entrance exams and yet dont go to selective schools. And nearly a quarter of of E-Commerce Essay, low-income students who score in the top 25 percent on standardized tests never go to any college. Private Lives: Personal essays on the news of the e communication, world and the news of our lives.

I was going out. I deserved it. Id had lunch one Diet Coke, two Marlboro Lights and a Chefs Signature Lean Cuisine. Id even done two luxurious miles in 24 minutes on the treadmill at the gym down the block. My stomach growled, angry for being empty, but I felt thin and attractive. Theres nothing more dangerous than a girl who feels thin and attractive. I hailed a cab to Union Hall in Park Slope.

It was warm for late October. I was meeting friends. The top floor of Union Hall has fireplaces, leather couches, an indoor bocce court and a library with actual books, where pseudo intellectuals discussed the same three writers (Hemingway, Kerouac, Salinger) between Jaeger bombs. Wrinkle-free gingham button-downs, Wayfarers even though it was dark, boat shoes because we were close to the Gowanus. These guys all went to honorary Ivies and of E-Commerce Companies Essay, had entry levels at bacardi uk their dads companies.

The suit factory can produce a fun night. Just dont expect them to go Dutch on your Plan B. The line to The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay, the bar was long, so when I arrived I ordered two Jack and Diets for myself. The best investment youll ever make is a large tip on your first drink. Read more How Dwindling Fish Stocks Got a Reprieve. Fixes looks at solutions to social problems and why they work. My wife told me to e communication, sell the boats, says Brad Pettinger, a longtime trawl fisherman in the Pacific Northwest. But I said, honey, whos gonna buy them? At that time we just didnt have anything.

The anything was fish to catch. The Maturation Of E-Commerce Essay! Fifteen years ago, Americas vast $50 million Pacific groundfish fishery, which stretches some 1,200 miles from Southern California to the Canadian border, collapsed. Several critical species from the spiky, orange canary rockfish to the large lingcod had dropped to below one-quarter of their natural, un-fished levels. The Flea Analysis! Sharp restrictions were brought in, and the fishery was officially declared an economic disaster. The Maturation Of E-Commerce Companies! Many fishermen found themselves stranded and rousseau, facing bankruptcy. It was a perfect example of too many trawlers chasing too few fish, says Pettinger, who is The Maturation of E-Commerce, now director of the Oregon Trawl Commission. It was a dark time. Its a situation that has been repeated around the world, as overfishing, habitat destruction and e communication, climate change cause fish to disappear from the oceans at alarming rates. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 90 percent of fish stocks are being exploited at or beyond their maximum sustainable levels. Overfishing is often seen as a classic case of what economists call the tragedy of the commons. Clearly, fishing communities have a collective interest in making sure marine life sticks around; but its in each boats individual interests to grab as much as possible, as soon as possible. Once a fishery has broken down, fixing it is of E-Commerce, fraught with difficulties. Hostility and distrust among the fishing industry, environmentalists and knowledge example, regulators means progress is often glacial. Rules to The Maturation Companies Essay, limit how much is alderfer's need category to maslow's:, caught can be hard to implement and often backfire for example, when quotas force fishermen to discard thousands of tons of perfectly edible fish.

Yet since the turn of the 21st century, something remarkable has happened in United States waters. After decades of of E-Commerce Companies Essay, shrinking fish populations, some trends have begun to shift. Should Therapists Write About Patients? Couch is the flea, a series about psychotherapy. When it came time for Companies Essay the pre-publication legal review for my most recent book, I had an idea of what to expect, or so I thought. The book was highly critical of the American Psychiatric Association, a deep-pocketed, fiercely self-protective organization. I took particular aim at its most lucrative product, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. So I figured the review would rigorously investigate whether my account was fair and accurate enough to example, withstand any legal challenge.

I was right about one thing: The review was a veritable inquisition. But I was wrong about the subject of the The Maturation Companies, lawyers concern. It wasnt the on The Court and the Defense, A.P.A. Instead, she was worried, nearly obsessively, about The Maturation Companies my accounts of interactions with my therapy patients. Read more The Perils of Being a Black Philosopher. The Stone is a forum for contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless. This is the second in knowledge a series of dialogues with philosophers on violence for The Stone. This conversation is with George Yancy, a professor of philosophy at Emory University and author, editor, co-editor of many books, including Look, a White! Brad Evans. Brad Evans: In response to a series of troubling verbal attacks you recently received following your essay in The Stone in Essay December, Dear White America, the American Philosophical Association put out a strongly worded statement criticizing the bullying and harassment of example, academics in the public realm. But beyond this, shouldnt we address the broader human realities of such hateful speech, and in The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay particular, how this sort of discursive violence directly impacts the body of the person attacked?

George Yancy: Your point about discursive violence is an important one. On The Court Defense Act! Immediately after the The Maturation Companies Essay, publication of Essay Supreme and the Defense of Marriage, Dear White America, I began to receive vile and vitriolic white racist comments sent to my university email address, and verbal messages sent to my answering machine. The Maturation Of E-Commerce Companies Essay! I even received snail mail that was filled with hatred. Imagine the time put into actually sitting down and writing a letter filled with so much hate and alderfer's need category to maslow's:, then sending it snail mail, especially in our world of the Internet. The alarming reality is that the response to Dear White America revealed just how much racism continues to exist in our so-called post-racial America. The comments were not about pointing out fallacies in my position, but were designed to violate, to The Maturation, leave me psychologically broken and physically distraught. Words do things, especially words like nigger, or being called an animal that should go back to Africa or being told that I should be beheaded ISIS style. One white supremacist message sent to me ended with Be Prepared. Another began with Dear Nigger Professor. The brutality and repetitiveness of this discursive violence has a way of inflicting injury. Given the e communication, history of the term nigger, it strikes with the long, hate-filled context of violence out of which that term grew. This points to the non-spectacular expression of violence.

The lynching of black people was designed to of E-Commerce, be a spectacle, to analysis, draw white mobs. In this case, the black body was publicly violated. It was a public and communal form of bloodlust. The Maturation Companies Essay! There are many other forms of violence that are far more subtle, non-spectacular, but yet painful and bacardi uk, dehumanizing. So, when I was called a nigger, I was subject to that. I felt violated, injured; a part of me felt broken. The Stone is a forum for contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless.

Speakers and writers of American English have recently taken to identifying a staggering and constantly changing array of trends, events, memes, products, lifestyle choices and phenomena of nearly every kind with a single label a thing. In conversation, mention of a surprising fad, behavior or event is now often met with the question, Is that actually a thing? Or When did that become a thing? Or How is that even a thing? Calling something a thing is, in Companies Essay this sense, itself a thing. It would be easy to call this a curiosity of the language and leave it at rousseau that. The Maturation Companies! Linguistic trends come and go. Bacardi Uk! Why has That really gets my goat survived for so long when we have pretty much given up You know your onions? One could, on Essay the other hand, consider the use of a thing a symptom of an entire generations linguistic sloth, general inarticulateness and bacardi uk, penchant for cutesy, empty, half-ironic formulations that create a self-satisfied barrier preventing any form of The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, genuine engagement with the world around them. I dont want to do either. My assumption is that language and example, experience mutually influence each other.

Language not only captures experience, it conditions it. Companies Essay! It sets expectations for experience and gives shape to it as it happens. What might register as inarticulateness can reflect a different way of understanding and alderfer's category corresponds to maslow's:, experiencing the world. The word thing has of course long played a versatile and The Maturation of E-Commerce, generic role in our language, referring both to physical objects and abstract matters. Essay On The Supreme And The Of Marriage! The thing is Companies, Heres the thing. The plays the thing. In these examples, thing denotes the matter at hand and e communication, functions as stage setting to emphasize an important point. One new thing about a thing, then, is the typical use of the indefinite article a to precede it. We talk about of E-Commerce Essay a thing because we are engaged in cataloging. The question is whether something counts as a thing. The Flea! A thing is not just stage setting. Information is conveyed. What information?

One definition of a thing that suggests itself right away is The Maturation Companies, cultural phenomenon. A new app, an item of celebrity gossip, the practices of a subculture. It seems likely that a thing comes from the Essay on The Supreme and the Defense of Marriage Act, phrase the coolest/newest/latest thing. But now, in The Maturation Essay a society where everything, even the past, is new new thing verges on the redundant. If they werent new they wouldnt be things. Read more Shopping for Health Care: A Fledgling Craft. Fixes looks at e communication solutions to The Maturation Companies Essay, social problems and why they work.

Four years ago, Dave deBronkart spoke at alderfer's growth category to maslow's: a medical conference, with his face displayed on a giant screen. Afterward, a doctor told him that a spot on his face looked like basal cell carcinoma. She was right. That cancer was unlikely to spread, but it needed to be treated, and deBronkarts health insurance policy had a $10,000 deductible. Any treatment, then, would come out of his pocket. The Maturation Of E-Commerce Essay! How would he find the right treatment at the right price?

The reason deBronkart was attending the conference was that he is an advocate for patient involvement in bacardi uk health care. So he decided that, as an experiment, he would invite proposals on his blog, e-PatientDave. He outlined what he was looking for and asked health care providers to bid for The Maturation Companies his business. No one did, of course. I didnt expect to get a response, he said. Hospitals dont have a submit a bid department. On The Defense Of Marriage Act! But you hear over The Maturation of E-Commerce, and over that patients are the reason for high health costs. I pursued it as far as I could to explore what happened when a patient tries to be a responsible consumer. He began calling around to hospitals asking the price of various procedures. The hospitals said we dont know; ask your insurance company. The insurance company said we dont know; ask your hospital, said deBronkart. Rousseau! That was when I smelled a great big rat. After many, many calls, he chose his surgery: excision, total price $868. Today he is fine. But his point stands: Health care operates very differently from anything else we buy. The actual information I needed in order to be an Essay, effective, responsible shopper was by policy blocked from Essay Supreme Court and the Defense of Marriage Act me, he said in an interview. Its not just a matter of Companies, lowering costs.

It blocks innovation. Somebody does a good job better quality, better price but theres no way for alderfer's growth corresponds to maslow's: people to The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, discover them. There is practically nothing that we shop for the same way we did 15 years ago. We compare prices online, look at quality ratings and reviews, and read about the on The Supreme Court Defense, experiences of Companies, others. We have endless information. Couch is a series about psychotherapy. Isabella left a package for each of her children to alderfer's growth, open after her death. Her youngest was only 5 months old, and of E-Commerce Companies Essay, the other three were ages 2, 4 and 7. She had always wanted a big family, and when she learned, after the birth of her third child, that she carried BRCA1, the so-called breast cancer gene, she and alderfer's category to maslow's:, her husband decided to rush to of E-Commerce Companies Essay, have their last child. Then she would have the surgery that she believed would save her life, a double mastectomy.

But it was too late. Only a month after the baby was born, Isabella was found to have ovarian cancer, and several months after that she passed away. Naomi, my patient, grabbed a tissue from the box on a priori knowledge the little table next to The Maturation of E-Commerce, the couch. She had been in knowledge example therapy with me for six years and I knew her friends pretty well. Of E-Commerce Companies! I especially knew Isabella, who had been her best friend since childhood. It isnt unusual for therapists to feel that they know intimately their patients friends, lovers and family. In some ways, we get attached to these people, their stories, their successes and struggles. E Communication! We accompany them at once closely and from far away, as if they are favorite characters in a beloved book. Isabella was one of The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay, these people for me. Rousseau Philosophy! She was Naomis sister, as they used to call each other. When her cancer was diagnosed I, too, was shaken and upset, and when she died I silently grieved.

Read more The Stone is Essay, a forum for contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on alderfer's category to maslow's: issues both timely and timeless. In a matter of months, the The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay, offices, libraries and classrooms where I work, study and teach at the University of alderfer's growth need category to maslow's:, Texas at Austin will become concealed carry zones areas in which people with concealed handgun licenses may carry their weapons. The campus carry bill that brought about this situation represents a 50th anniversary gift of sorts from Texas state legislators. For when the law comes into effect on August 1, it will be 50 years to the day since a heavily armed young man ascended the clock tower on campus and shot 45 people, killing 14 of them, in the first mass shooting at of E-Commerce Essay an American college. Following the a priori knowledge, signing of the bill into law last June, university administrators began to carve my daily environment into armed and unarmed zones: Guns in classrooms? Yes . Guns at Companies sporting events? No . Appalled by this spectacle, I proceeded to do the two things that I have been trained to do as a philosopher: I debated with my colleagues and I wrote a critical essay.

Then, having had my little scream into the abyss, I experienced a period of peace. But now, as August 1 approaches, I find myself drawn back to Essay on The Supreme and the of Marriage Act, the problems, both practical and Companies Essay, philosophical, that are posed by campus carry. It seems to me that if we care about the future of American education, we must inquire after those things of value that stand at rousseau risk on armed campuses. The campus carry bill is, after all, not a peculiarly Texan piece of legislation. It has precedent in The Maturation of E-Commerce other states and, given the a priori example, political climate, may be emulated elsewhere. Couch is a series about psychotherapy. When George Nowicki, a prospective therapy patient, called for an appointment, it wasnt just the name but the heavy accent that identified him as Polish. The accent was familiar to me: I, too, was born in Poland, in a region that is of E-Commerce, now a part of Ukraine. In anticipation of working with him, I felt both excitement and a sense of foreboding. Our first session was a brief phone conversation to negotiate scheduling and for me to e communication, answer questions about my qualifications, fees and any other matters important to of E-Commerce Companies, George. He was precise and articulate.

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Top 10 Things Job-Seekers Need to of E-Commerce, Know about Submitting and Posting Your Resume Online. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. In the early days of Internet job searching, e-resumes, or electronic resumes, were distinguished from e communication, traditional print resumes. Today, since most resumes are transmitted electronically, the Companies, term e-resume is not used much anymore. Online resume submission has become so pervasive that resume is nearly synonymous with electronic resume. Job-seekers today submit their resumes via e-mail, post or submit them on Internet job boards, or publish them on bacardi uk their own Web page. To learn more about the many forms of resumes used online, see our accompanying article, Your E-resumes File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. In the meantime, stay right here to learn the Essay, 10 things you truly must know about Essay on The Court Defense of Marriage Act, submitting and posting your resume online. 1. You absolutely MUST have a version of your resume that is optimized for Essay online posting and submission. A job-seeker simply cannot succeed these days with just the traditional formatted resume intended to be printed out e communication as a visually pleasing marketing piece. The formatted print resume is still important, but it can no longer be the The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies, only resume tool in your kit.

More than 90 percent of employers place resumes directly into e communication, searchable databases and The Maturation of E-Commerce, an equal percentage of employers prefer to receive resumes by e-mail. More than 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies post jobs on their own Web sites and expect job-seekers to respond electronically. Thus, you need at corresponds, least one other version of your resume that can go directly into a keyword-searchable database with no obstacles. Formatting that needs to be removed before the resume can be placed in a database is an The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, example of such an bacardi uk, obstacle. Sending your resume in text-based format directly in the body of an The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, e-mail message removes all barriers to an employers placing your resume right into a searchable databases.

Some employers still prefer the growth need to maslow's:, formatted document version of your resume attached to an e-mail message (so they have the option to print it out, for example), while others wont open attachments because of concerns about The Maturation, viruses and e communication, incompatibilities among word-processing programs. The formatted print resume is of E-Commerce, still vital because the employer may wish to visually review your resume, especially once the database search has narrowed down the analysis, candidates, and the formatted, print version will be more reader-friendly than the text-based version. Youll also want to have a print version of of E-Commerce Essay, your resume on hand for networking, to take to interviews and career fairs and for the rare occasions when employers request resumes in old-school ways by mail or fax. At the bare minimum, you need a formatted, print version of your resume and a text-based (ASCII) e-resume. To cover every contingency, you might also want to have a Portable Document Format (PDF) version, and a Web-based (HTML) version. The nuances of these versions are explained in our article, Your E-resumes File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. 2. Your resume must be loaded with keywords. Much of job-hunting today revolves around the mysterious world of keywords. Example! Employers dependence on keywords to find the job candidates they want to interview has come about in recent years because of The Maturation Companies, technology.

Inundated by resumes from job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on placing resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and the flea analysis, using software to search those databases for specific keywords that relate to The Maturation Companies Essay, job vacancies. Essay On The Court And The! Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, most employers search the databases of third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on the Internet. The bottom line is that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and your resume doesnt have the The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies, keywords the company seeks for on The Court of Marriage the person who fills that job, you are pretty much out of luck. Read more about the importance of keywords in our article Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resumes Effectiveness and The Maturation Companies Essay, how you can identify the best keywords in Resources for Identifying Keywords and Researching Keywords in Employment Ads. Consider using our Resume Keywords Worksheet.

3. Your resume must be accomplishments-driven. Accomplishments are the points that really help sell you to an employer much more so than everyday job duties. In fact, theres a direct relationship between keywords and accomplishments in that keywords can be tied to on The Supreme of Marriage, accomplishments rather than job duties, so a good way to make the leap from The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay, keyword to a nice, contextual bullet point is to take each keyword youve identified as critical to the job and list an accomplishment that tells how youve used the bacardi uk, skill represented by that keyword. For more about maximizing your accomplishments in an e-resume, see our article, For Job-Hunting Success: Track and Leverage Your Accomplishments and The Maturation of E-Commerce, consider using our Accomplishments Worksheet. 4. Technically speaking, a resume for online posting and submission is not too difficult to create. Its surprisingly easy to create an e-resume once you get the hang of a priori knowledge, it. Companies Essay! Theres more than one way to create a text-based e-resume, but the most common method involves saving your word-processed (usually Word) resume in analysis, text (.txt) format, re-opening it in Essay, a text editor program, such as Wordpad, Notepad, or Text Wrangler, TextEdit for Mac OS, and then making a few adjustments in on The Court and the of Marriage Act, it. One good resource that can walk you through this process include this part of How to Upload or Email a Resume from Susan Ireland. Even a Web-based HTML resume is not that hard to craft.

Learn everything you need to know in our article, A Web-Ready Resume Can Be a Major Advantage in Your Job Search. 5. Text-based resumes are the of E-Commerce, ugly ducklings of the resume world, but you can dress them up a bit. Job-seekers and resume writers have strived for rousseau years to develop ways to make resumes visually appealing and graphically interesting through font choices, bold and italic type, rule lines, bullets, centering, indents, and more only to have all that formatting thrown out the window in the e-resume world. Text-based resumes are the antitheses of the gorgeous documents that job-seekers hand to employers at interviews and career fairs. The Maturation Companies Essay! The fact is that most online resumes arent intended to be visually attractive because their main function is not to be seen but to be searched in keyword-searchable databases. Still, they may be seen at some point. Employers may see the resume youve posted on an online job board.

Their primary interest is whether the content of your resume (indicated largely by keywords) shows you to be qualified for philosophy the opening youve applied for of E-Commerce Companies and/or for which the employer is growth need category to maslow's:, searching the The Maturation of E-Commerce, database. But once the match has been made, the employer may actually look at your resume. So, even though without formatting you cant make it look as fetching as your print version, you can still ensure that it looks decent. For example, you can use keyboard characters, such as equal signs (=====), plus signs (++++++) and tildes ( ) to make rule lines. You can use asterisks (*****), hyphens (), lower-case letter os (ooooo), and carats () to make bullets. You can use UPPER CASE for bacardi uk emphasis in The Maturation of E-Commerce, headings. See how some of these techniques are used in this sample text chronological resume. Now, one type of e-resume that is meant to look good is the HTML or Web-based resume.

This type of resume resides on a Web page, in part, so it can be seen, so it should be visually pleasing. While its not too difficult to bacardi uk, make an HTML resume look attractive, the more you know about Web design, the better you can make the resume look. The Maturation Companies! You can also transform your Web resume into a Web portfolio that extensively shows off your skills and accomplishments. The Flea Analysis! If youre not confident of your skills, you might want to Companies Essay, enlist a Web designer or resume writer in this process. A number of services have emerged in recent years that enable you to create Web-based and knowledge, multimedia resumes that usually reside on The Maturation Companies a services site. Growth Corresponds To Maslow's:! See examples of these in our article New Web-Based Twists On Resumes: Best Ways to Construct a Resume? 6. Text resumes are highly versatile. Once you have a text-based resume, you can do a lot with it, including: Post it in its entirety on many job boards.

Paste it piece-by-piece into the profile forms of job boards, such as Monster.com, that have a rigid setup and dont allow resumes to be posted as is. Paste it into the body of an e-mail and The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, send it to employers. Growth Corresponds! Convert it to a Web-based HTML resume. 7. You must tailor the use of your resume to each employers or job boards instructions. As you might have guessed from what youve read so far in this article, there is no universally accepted way to submit your e-resume to an employer. Some employers want your resume as an attachment, usually as a Word document. Others want your resume as text pasted into the body of an e-mail message. Still others want you to The Maturation Companies, paste your resume into an online form. If you absolutely cannot find out an employers preference, the following is a fairly safe bet: A formatted, print resume in Supreme Court and the Defense Act, document (.doc because some older versions of Word cannot open .docx files)) form sent as an attachment to of E-Commerce Essay, an e-mail message to the employer. Growth Need Category! And heres a bit of common sense: Can you imagine how many resumes employers receive with files entitled resume.doc?

Use your name as part of the file name for The Maturation Companies your resume. Example: JaySmithResume.doc. A text-based e-resume stripped of most formatting and bacardi uk, pasted directly into of E-Commerce Companies, the same e-mail message into which your print resume is attached. Since the employer has this text-based resume, he or she can choose whether or not to open the attached version, based on compatibility, virus protection, and Supreme Court Defense of Marriage Act, company policy on opening attachments. For a truly complete e-mailable, electronic package, add a text-based cover letter stripped of formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into The Maturation Companies, which your print resume is attached. Alderfer's To Maslow's:! Pat Kendall and Susan Whitcomb note in a book about online resumes that your cover letter can contain verbiage that points out the The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay, options youre providing: I have attached an MS Word version of my resume, as well as pasted a plain-text version below. (If the plain-text version is sufficient for your database, it is not necessary to download the formatted attachment.) The same lack of universality goes for the flea job boards.

Some enable you to paste your resume into a form in any format, but the board automatically converts it to text. The Maturation Of E-Commerce Companies! Others require that the resume be in text format to begin with before you can paste it into the form. These variations underscore the importance of having a text-based e-resume. While researching this article, the the flea, Quintessential Careers staff experimented with posting resumes to several sites. We learned that a text-based e-resume is not only Companies vital for boards with a text-resume requirement but also extremely helpful when the boards convert any resume to text. Just because a job board turns your resume into text doesnt mean it will look decent; its better to have a text resume to begin with so you know it will look appropriate when pasted in. Also note that some job boards/employers limit the number of words or the size of the file that you can paste into any one field.

8. A Priori Knowledge Example! Take advantage of job-board features to protect yourself and get the most out of of E-Commerce Companies, posting your e-resume on the boards. Most reputable job boards have features that enable you to protect your own privacy and confidentiality, control who sees your resume, mask the identity if your current employer (so your employer doesnt know youre looking), and easily edit and delete your resume or change it from active to inactive. These privacy and confidentiality issues are more important than ever given news reports about identity theft of alderfer's category corresponds to maslow's:, resume information. The Maturation Essay! A good article to rousseau, help you protect yourself is Privacy Tips for Online Job Seekers. Many boards also enable you to The Maturation of E-Commerce, create multiple profiles for yourself so you can look for various types of jobs. Some permit you to submit a list of your top skills. Resume submission forms generally have questions in addition to a place to submit the the flea, actual resume. Some questions are mandatory; others are optional.

When a question is optional, consider whether it is to your advantage to answer it. Answering questions about The Maturation Companies, salary or location requirements, for example, may be too limiting. 9. A few finishing touches can increase your e-resumes effectiveness. Here are a few tips from the experts for getting more out of your e-resume: Use the Properties feature in MS Word to boost the keyword searchability of your attached Word resume.

This feature, found under Words File menu, enables you to insert keywords, comments, and a link to your Web-based resume if you have one. You can use the Comments field to enter geographic and relocation preferences. A similar trick applies to using HTML commands called meta tags in rousseau philosophy, creating a Web-based resume. The description command, for example, gives you up to Companies, 150 characters to alderfer's category, provide a description of your document. Make sure you use words that highlight your e perience and The Maturation Essay, skills. The keywords command gives you limited spa e to need category, enter critical eywords. Of E-Commerce! Be sure to use keywords that you think employers and recruiters might use in searching for the position you are seeking and make sure those keywords are also listed at least once (perhaps in a key accomplishments section) in rousseau philosophy, your resume. Read more about meta tags and helping your Web resume to be found in search engines in our article, Resume Found: Keys to Successful Search Engine Registration. Do some test runs of the formatted print resume you intend to send to employers as an The Maturation Companies Essay, attachment by on The Court of Marriage Act sending it to the computers of a few friends to see if the The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, formatting remains consistent from computer to computer.

Try to find testers who each have different versions of Windows, as well as a tester or two using Mac OS. Use a specific subject line in your e-mail when transmitting your e-resume. The subject line might include the reference n. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and growth corresponds to maslow's:, savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and of E-Commerce Companies Essay, writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of e communication, Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and Companies Essay, blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in on The Defense of Marriage, organizational behavior from of E-Commerce, Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the flea analysis, the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus.

I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. Youll find some great free career-change tools and resources. The Maturation Of E-Commerce! Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Defense Act, Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by of E-Commerce Companies the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of e communication, our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Companies Job-Seekers and Careerists.

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Representational State Transfer (REST) This chapter introduces and elaborates the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems, describing the software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of other architectural styles. REST is a hybrid style derived from several of the network-based architectural styles described in Chapter 3 and of E-Commerce Companies combined with additional constraints that define a uniform connector interface. Essay On The Supreme Court Defense Act. The software architecture framework of Chapter 1 is used to define the architectural elements of of E-Commerce REST and e communication examine sample process, connector, and data views of prototypical architectures. The design rationale behind the Web architecture can be described by an architectural style consisting of the set of constraints applied to elements within the The Maturation Companies, architecture.

By examining the impact of on The Supreme Defense Act each constraint as it is added to The Maturation the evolving style, we can identify the properties induced by the Web's constraints. Additional constraints can then be applied to form a new architectural style that better reflects the desired properties of a modern Web architecture. This section provides a general overview of REST by walking through the process of rousseau deriving it as an architectural style. Later sections will describe in of E-Commerce Essay more detail the specific constraints that compose the REST style. There are two common perspectives on the process of architectural design, whether it be for buildings or for software. The first is that a designer starts with nothing--a blank slate, whiteboard, or drawing board--and builds-up an architecture from familiar components until it satisfies the needs of the intended system. The Flea. The second is that a designer starts with the system needs as a whole, without constraints, and then incrementally identifies and The Maturation applies constraints to on The and the Defense Act elements of the system in order to The Maturation Companies Essay differentiate the design space and a priori knowledge allow the of E-Commerce Companies Essay, forces that influence system behavior to flow naturally, in harmony with the system. Where the first emphasizes creativity and rousseau philosophy unbounded vision, the second emphasizes restraint and understanding of the system context. REST has been developed using the The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay, latter process. Figures 5-1 through 5-8 depict this graphically in terms of bacardi uk how the applied constraints would differentiate the Companies Essay, process view of an architecture as the incremental set of constraints is applied.

The Null style (Figure 5-1) is simply an empty set of constraints. From an architectural perspective, the null style describes a system in which there are no distinguished boundaries between components. It is the starting point for our description of REST. The first constraints added to Court and the our hybrid style are those of the client-server architectural style (Figure 5-2), described in Section 3.4.1. Separation of concerns is the principle behind the client-server constraints. By separating the user interface concerns from the data storage concerns, we improve the portability of the of E-Commerce Companies Essay, user interface across multiple platforms and improve scalability by simplifying the server components. Perhaps most significant to the Web, however, is that the e communication, separation allows the components to evolve independently, thus supporting the Internet-scale requirement of multiple organizational domains. We next add a constraint to of E-Commerce the client-server interaction: communication must be stateless in nature, as in the client-stateless-server (CSS) style of Section 3.4.3 (Figure 5-3), such that each request from client to server must contain all of the information necessary to understand the request, and cannot take advantage of any stored context on rousseau philosophy the server. Session state is therefore kept entirely on the client.

This constraint induces the properties of Companies Essay visibility, reliability, and scalability. Visibility is improved because a monitoring system does not have to look beyond a single request datum in order to determine the full nature of the request. Reliability is improved because it eases the bacardi uk, task of recovering from partial failures [133]. Scalability is improved because not having to store state between requests allows the of E-Commerce Companies Essay, server component to quickly free resources, and further simplifies implementation because the server doesn't have to manage resource usage across requests. Like most architectural choices, the stateless constraint reflects a design trade-off. The disadvantage is that it may decrease network performance by increasing the repetitive data (per-interaction overhead) sent in a series of requests, since that data cannot be left on e communication the server in a shared context. In addition, placing the application state on the client-side reduces the server's control over consistent application behavior, since the application becomes dependent on the correct implementation of of E-Commerce Essay semantics across multiple client versions.

In order to improve network efficiency, we add cache constraints to form the bacardi uk, client-cache-stateless-server style of Section 3.4.4 (Figure 5-4). Cache constraints require that the Essay, data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly labeled as cacheable or non-cacheable. On The Court And The Of Marriage Act. If a response is cacheable, then a client cache is given the right to reuse that response data for later, equivalent requests. The advantage of adding cache constraints is that they have the potential to partially or completely eliminate some interactions, improving efficiency, scalability, and The Maturation Essay user-perceived performance by reducing the average latency of a series of interactions. The trade-off, however, is that a cache can decrease reliability if stale data within the cache differs significantly from the data that would have been obtained had the request been sent directly to the server. The early Web architecture, as portrayed by the diagram in Figure 5-5 [11], was defined by alderfer's growth need corresponds the client-cache-stateless-server set of Companies Essay constraints. That is, the design rationale presented for the Web architecture prior to 1994 focused on stateless client-server interaction for the exchange of static documents over the Internet. The protocols for communicating interactions had rudimentary support for non-shared caches, but did not constrain the interface to a consistent set of semantics for all resources.

Instead, the Web relied on the use of a common client-server implementation library (CERN libwww) to maintain consistency across Web applications. Developers of Essay Court and the Defense of Marriage Act Web implementations had already exceeded the early design. In addition to static documents, requests could identify services that dynamically generated responses, such as image-maps [Kevin Hughes] and server-side scripts [Rob McCool]. Work had also begun on intermediary components, in Essay the form of proxies [79] and shared caches [59], but extensions to a priori the protocols were needed in order for them to communicate reliably. The following sections describe the constraints added to the Web's architectural style in order to Companies guide the need category corresponds, extensions that form the modern Web architecture. The central feature that distinguishes the REST architectural style from other network-based styles is its emphasis on Companies Essay a uniform interface between components (Figure 5-6). By applying the software engineering principle of analysis generality to the component interface, the overall system architecture is simplified and the visibility of interactions is improved. Implementations are decoupled from the services they provide, which encourages independent evolvability. The trade-off, though, is that a uniform interface degrades efficiency, since information is transferred in a standardized form rather than one which is The Maturation Companies specific to an application's needs. Analysis. The REST interface is designed to be efficient for large-grain hypermedia data transfer, optimizing for the common case of the Web, but resulting in an interface that is not optimal for other forms of architectural interaction.

In order to of E-Commerce Companies Essay obtain a uniform interface, multiple architectural constraints are needed to guide the category corresponds, behavior of components. REST is defined by four interface constraints: identification of resources; manipulation of resources through representations; self-descriptive messages; and, hypermedia as the engine of application state. These constraints will be discussed in Section 5.2. In order to further improve behavior for Internet-scale requirements, we add layered system constraints (Figure 5-7). As described in Section 3.4.2, the layered system style allows an Essay, architecture to be composed of hierarchical layers by rousseau constraining component behavior such that each component cannot see beyond the The Maturation, immediate layer with which they are interacting.

By restricting knowledge of the system to the flea a single layer, we place a bound on the overall system complexity and promote substrate independence. Layers can be used to encapsulate legacy services and to Essay protect new services from legacy clients, simplifying components by moving infrequently used functionality to a shared intermediary. Intermediaries can also be used to improve system scalability by enabling load balancing of services across multiple networks and processors. The primary disadvantage of layered systems is that they add overhead and latency to the processing of data, reducing user-perceived performance [32]. For a network-based system that supports cache constraints, this can be offset by alderfer's need category corresponds the benefits of The Maturation Companies shared caching at intermediaries. Placing shared caches at the boundaries of an organizational domain can result in significant performance benefits [136]. Such layers also allow security policies to be enforced on data crossing the growth, organizational boundary, as is required by firewalls [79]. The combination of layered system and uniform interface constraints induces architectural properties similar to those of the uniform pipe-and-filter style (Section 3.2.2). Although REST interaction is two-way, the large-grain data flows of hypermedia interaction can each be processed like a data-flow network, with filter components selectively applied to the data stream in order to The Maturation Essay transform the content as it passes [26].

Within REST, intermediary components can actively transform the content of messages because the messages are self-descriptive and their semantics are visible to intermediaries. The final addition to our constraint set for REST comes from the bacardi uk, code-on-demand style of Section 3.5.3 (Figure 5-8). REST allows client functionality to be extended by downloading and executing code in the form of applets or scripts. This simplifies clients by reducing the number of features required to be pre-implemented. Of E-Commerce Essay. Allowing features to be downloaded after deployment improves system extensibility. However, it also reduces visibility, and thus is only an optional constraint within REST. The notion of an e communication, optional constraint may seem like an oxymoron. However, it does have a purpose in the architectural design of a system that encompasses multiple organizational boundaries. It means that the architecture only The Maturation Companies, gains the benefit (and suffers the disadvantages) of the optional constraints when they are known to be in effect for some realm of the overall system. For example, if all of the on The Defense, client software within an organization is known to support Java applets [45], then services within that organization can be constructed such that they gain the benefit of enhanced functionality via downloadable Java classes.

At the same time, however, the organization's firewall may prevent the transfer of Companies Essay Java applets from external sources, and thus to the rest of the Web it will appear as if those clients do not support code-on-demand. Growth Category Corresponds To Maslow's:. An optional constraint allows us to design an architecture that supports the desired behavior in the general case, but with the understanding that it may be disabled within some contexts. REST consists of a set of The Maturation Companies Essay architectural constraints chosen for the properties they induce on candidate architectures. Although each of these constraints can be considered in isolation, describing them in terms of the flea their derivation from common architectural styles makes it easier to understand the rationale behind their selection. Figure 5-9 depicts the derivation of REST's constraints graphically in terms of the The Maturation of E-Commerce, network-based architectural styles examined in Chapter 3. The Representational State Transfer (REST) style is an abstraction of the architectural elements within a distributed hypermedia system.

REST ignores the bacardi uk, details of component implementation and protocol syntax in order to focus on the roles of components, the The Maturation Essay, constraints upon their interaction with other components, and their interpretation of significant data elements. It encompasses the fundamental constraints upon components, connectors, and analysis data that define the of E-Commerce, basis of the Web architecture, and thus the essence of its behavior as a network-based application. Unlike the distributed object style [31], where all data is encapsulated within and hidden by the processing components, the e communication, nature and state of an architecture's data elements is a key aspect of REST. The rationale for of E-Commerce this design can be seen in bacardi uk the nature of distributed hypermedia. When a link is selected, information needs to be moved from the location where it is stored to the location where it will be used by, in The Maturation Companies most cases, a human reader. This is need category corresponds unlike many other distributed processing paradigms [6, 50], where it is possible, and usually more efficient, to move the processing agent (e.g., mobile code, stored procedure, search expression, etc.) to the data rather than move the data to the processor. A distributed hypermedia architect has only three fundamental options: 1) render the data where it is of E-Commerce Essay located and send a fixed-format image to the recipient; 2) encapsulate the data with a rendering engine and need category corresponds send both to the recipient; or, 3) send the raw data to the recipient along with metadata that describes the of E-Commerce Essay, data type, so that the recipient can choose their own rendering engine. Each option has its advantages and disadvantages. Option 1, the traditional client-server style [31], allows all information about the true nature of the data to bacardi uk remain hidden within the sender, preventing assumptions from being made about the data structure and making client implementation easier. The Maturation Of E-Commerce. However, it also severely restricts the functionality of the recipient and places most of the processing load on the sender, leading to scalability problems. Option 2, the mobile object style [50], provides information hiding while enabling specialized processing of the to maslow's:, data via its unique rendering engine, but limits the functionality of the recipient to what is anticipated within that engine and may vastly increase the amount of of E-Commerce Essay data transferred.

Option 3 allows the sender to remain simple and scalable while minimizing the bytes transferred, but loses the advantages of information hiding and requires that both sender and recipient understand the same data types. REST provides a hybrid of all three options by growth need category corresponds focusing on a shared understanding of The Maturation Companies data types with metadata, but limiting the scope of a priori knowledge example what is revealed to a standardized interface. REST components communicate by of E-Commerce Companies Essay transferring a representation of a resource in a format matching one of an evolving set of standard data types, selected dynamically based on the capabilities or desires of the recipient and the nature of the alderfer's growth need to maslow's:, resource. Whether the representation is in the same format as the raw source, or is derived from the source, remains hidden behind the interface. The benefits of the mobile object style are approximated by sending a representation that consists of instructions in the standard data format of an encapsulated rendering engine (e.g., Java [45]). REST therefore gains the of E-Commerce Companies Essay, separation of concerns of the client-server style without the server scalability problem, allows information hiding through a generic interface to enable encapsulation and evolution of services, and provides for a diverse set of functionality through downloadable feature-engines. REST's data elements are summarized in Table 5-1.

5.2.1.1 Resources and Resource Identifiers. The key abstraction of information in REST is a resource . Any information that can be named can be a resource: a document or image, a temporal service (e.g. A Priori Knowledge Example. today's weather in Los Angeles), a collection of other resources, a non-virtual object (e.g. a person), and so on. In other words, any concept that might be the target of an author's hypertext reference must fit within the definition of a resource. A resource is of E-Commerce Companies a conceptual mapping to a priori knowledge example a set of entities, not the entity that corresponds to the mapping at any particular point in time. More precisely, a resource R is a temporally varying membership function M R (t) , which for time t maps to a set of entities, or values, which are equivalent. The values in The Maturation Companies the set may be resource representations and/or resource identifiers . Rousseau Philosophy. A resource can map to The Maturation Companies the empty set, which allows references to be made to a concept before any realization of Essay of Marriage Act that concept exists -- a notion that was foreign to most hypertext systems prior to the Web [61]. Some resources are static in the sense that, when examined at any time after their creation, they always correspond to the same value set. Others have a high degree of variance in their value over time. The only thing that is required to The Maturation Companies Essay be static for a resource is the semantics of the mapping, since the semantics is what distinguishes one resource from another.

For example, the e communication, authors' preferred version of an academic paper is a mapping whose value changes over The Maturation Companies, time, whereas a mapping to the paper published in the proceedings of conference X is a priori static. These are two distinct resources, even if they both map to The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay the same value at some point in time. Essay Court And The Defense. The distinction is necessary so that both resources can be identified and referenced independently. A similar example from software engineering is the separate identification of a version-controlled source code file when referring to the latest revision, revision number 1.2.7, or revision included with the Orange release. This abstract definition of a resource enables key features of the Web architecture. First, it provides generality by encompassing many sources of information without artificially distinguishing them by type or implementation. Second, it allows late binding of the reference to Companies Essay a representation, enabling content negotiation to take place based on characteristics of the request. Finally, it allows an e communication, author to reference the concept rather than some singular representation of that concept, thus removing the need to change all existing links whenever the representation changes (assuming the author used the right identifier). REST uses a resource identifier to identify the particular resource involved in an interaction between components. REST connectors provide a generic interface for accessing and manipulating the value set of a resource, regardless of how the membership function is defined or the type of software that is handling the request. The naming authority that assigned the resource identifier, making it possible to reference the resource, is responsible for maintaining the semantic validity of the mapping over time (i.e., ensuring that the membership function does not change).

Traditional hypertext systems [61], which typically operate in a closed or local environment, use unique node or document identifiers that change every time the information changes, relying on The Maturation Essay link servers to maintain references separately from the e communication, content [135]. Of E-Commerce Companies Essay. Since centralized link servers are an anathema to the immense scale and multi-organizational domain requirements of the Web, REST relies instead on the author choosing a resource identifier that best fits the nature of the the flea, concept being identified. Naturally, the quality of an Essay, identifier is often proportional to the amount of money spent to retain its validity, which leads to broken links as ephemeral (or poorly supported) information moves or disappears over time. REST components perform actions on a resource by using a representation to capture the current or intended state of that resource and transferring that representation between components. A representation is a sequence of bytes, plus representation metadata to describe those bytes. Other commonly used but less precise names for a representation include: document, file, and HTTP message entity, instance, or variant. A representation consists of data, metadata describing the data, and, on occasion, metadata to describe the metadata (usually for the purpose of verifying message integrity). Metadata is in e communication the form of name-value pairs, where the name corresponds to a standard that defines the value's structure and semantics. Response messages may include both representation metadata and resource metadata: information about the resource that is not specific to the supplied representation. Control data defines the purpose of a message between components, such as the action being requested or the meaning of a response.

It is also used to parameterize requests and override the The Maturation Essay, default behavior of some connecting elements. For example, cache behavior can be modified by control data included in the request or response message. Depending on the message control data, a given representation may indicate the current state of the the flea, requested resource, the desired state for the requested resource, or the The Maturation Companies, value of some other resource, such as a representation of the input data within a client's query form, or a representation of some error condition for the flea a response. For example, remote authoring of of E-Commerce a resource requires that the analysis, author send a representation to the server, thus establishing a value for that resource that can be retrieved by later requests. If the value set of The Maturation Essay a resource at a given time consists of multiple representations, content negotiation may be used to select the best representation for inclusion in a given message. The data format of a representation is known as a media type [48]. Court Of Marriage. A representation can be included in a message and processed by the recipient according to the control data of the message and the nature of the media type. Some media types are intended for automated processing, some are intended to be rendered for viewing by of E-Commerce Companies Essay a user, and a few are capable of both.

Composite media types can be used to enclose multiple representations in a single message. The design of a media type can directly impact the user-perceived performance of a distributed hypermedia system. On The Supreme Court And The Defense Of Marriage Act. Any data that must be received before the recipient can begin rendering the representation adds to the latency of an The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies, interaction. A data format that places the most important rendering information up front, such that the initial information can be incrementally rendered while the growth category corresponds to maslow's:, rest of the of E-Commerce Essay, information is being received, results in much better user-perceived performance than a data format that must be entirely received before rendering can begin. For example, a Web browser that can incrementally render a large HTML document while it is being received provides significantly better user-perceived performance than one that waits until the entire document is completely received prior to the flea rendering, even though the network performance is the same. Note that the rendering ability of a representation can also be impacted by the choice of Companies content. If the dimensions of dynamically-sized tables and embedded objects must be determined before they can be rendered, their occurrence within the viewing area of a hypermedia page will increase its latency.

REST uses various connector types, summarized in Table 5-2, to encapsulate the activities of accessing resources and transferring resource representations. The connectors present an abstract interface for the flea component communication, enhancing simplicity by providing a clean separation of concerns and hiding the underlying implementation of resources and communication mechanisms. The generality of the interface also enables substitutability: if the users' only access to Essay the system is via an abstract interface, the implementation can be replaced without impacting the rousseau, users. Since a connector manages network communication for a component, information can be shared across multiple interactions in order to improve efficiency and responsiveness. All REST interactions are stateless. Of E-Commerce. That is, each request contains all of the information necessary for a connector to understand the request, independent of any requests that may have preceded it. This restriction accomplishes four functions: 1) it removes any need for growth need to maslow's: the connectors to retain application state between requests, thus reducing consumption of physical resources and improving scalability; 2) it allows interactions to be processed in parallel without requiring that the processing mechanism understand the of E-Commerce Companies, interaction semantics; 3) it allows an intermediary to view and understand a request in isolation, which may be necessary when services are dynamically rearranged; and, 4) it forces all of the bacardi uk, information that might factor into the reusability of a cached response to The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay be present in each request. The connector interface is similar to procedural invocation, but with important differences in the passing of parameters and results. The in-parameters consist of request control data, a resource identifier indicating the target of the request, and rousseau an optional representation. The out-parameters consist of The Maturation of E-Commerce response control data, optional resource metadata, and an optional representation. From an abstract viewpoint the invocation is synchronous, but both in and out-parameters can be passed as data streams.

In other words, processing can be invoked before the value of the parameters is completely known, thus avoiding the need to maslow's:, latency of The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay batch processing large data transfers. The primary connector types are client and server. The essential difference between the two is that a client initiates communication by making a request, whereas a server listens for connections and responds to requests in order to Supreme Court supply access to Companies its services. A component may include both client and server connectors. A third connector type, the cache connector, can be located on the interface to a client or server connector in order to save cacheable responses to current interactions so that they can be reused for later requested interactions.

A cache may be used by a client to avoid repetition of network communication, or by a server to avoid repeating the bacardi uk, process of generating a response, with both cases serving to reduce interaction latency. A cache is typically implemented within the address space of the connector that uses it. Some cache connectors are shared, meaning that its cached responses may be used in answer to a client other than the one for which the response was originally obtained. Shared caching can be effective at reducing the impact of The Maturation of E-Commerce flash crowds on the load of a popular server, particularly when the caching is arranged hierarchically to cover large groups of a priori knowledge example users, such as those within a company's intranet, the customers of an Internet service provider, or Universities sharing a national network backbone. However, shared caching can also lead to errors if the cached response does not match what would have been obtained by of E-Commerce Companies Essay a new request. Rousseau. REST attempts to balance the desire for transparency in cache behavior with the desire for efficient use of the network, rather than assuming that absolute transparency is always required. A cache is of E-Commerce Companies Essay able to determine the cacheability of a response because the interface is generic rather than specific to each resource. By default, the a priori, response to a retrieval request is cacheable and the responses to other requests are non-cacheable. If some form of Essay user authentication is part of the request, or if the response indicates that it should not be shared, then the response is only cacheable by a non-shared cache. A component can override these defaults by including control data that marks the interaction as cacheable, non-cacheable or cacheable for only a limited time. A resolver translates partial or complete resource identifiers into the network address information needed to establish an bacardi uk, inter-component connection.

For example, most URI include a DNS hostname as the The Maturation of E-Commerce, mechanism for identifying the naming authority for the resource. In order to the flea analysis initiate a request, a Web browser will extract the hostname from the URI and make use of a DNS resolver to obtain the of E-Commerce Companies Essay, Internet Protocol address for that authority. Another example is that some identification schemes (e.g., URN [124]) require an intermediary to translate a permanent identifier to a more transient address in order to access the identified resource. Use of one or more intermediate resolvers can improve the longevity of resource references through indirection, though doing so adds to the request latency. The final form of connector type is a tunnel, which simply relays communication across a connection boundary, such as a firewall or lower-level network gateway. The only reason it is modeled as part of REST and not abstracted away as part of the network infrastructure is that some REST components may dynamically switch from active component behavior to that of a tunnel.

The primary example is an HTTP proxy that switches to a tunnel in response to a CONNECT method request [71], thus allowing its client to directly communicate with a remote server using a different protocol, such as TLS, that doesn't allow proxies. Bacardi Uk. The tunnel disappears when both ends terminate their communication. REST components, summarized in Table 5-3, are typed by their roles in an overall application action. A user agent uses a client connector to initiate a request and becomes the ultimate recipient of the response. The most common example is The Maturation Companies Essay a Web browser, which provides access to information services and e communication renders service responses according to the application needs. An origin server uses a server connector to govern the namespace for Essay a requested resource. It is the definitive source for alderfer's growth need category representations of its resources and must be the ultimate recipient of any request that intends to modify the value of its resources.

Each origin server provides a generic interface to Companies its services as a resource hierarchy. The resource implementation details are hidden behind the interface. Intermediary components act as both a client and bacardi uk a server in order to forward, with possible translation, requests and responses. The Maturation Companies. A proxy component is an intermediary selected by a client to provide interface encapsulation of other services, data translation, performance enhancement, or security protection. A gateway (a.k.a., reverse proxy) component is an intermediary imposed by the network or origin server to provide an interface encapsulation of other services, for data translation, performance enhancement, or security enforcement. Note that the difference between a proxy and a gateway is analysis that a client determines when it will use a proxy. Now that we have an understanding of the of E-Commerce Companies Essay, REST architectural elements in isolation, we can use architectural views [105] to describe how the elements work together to form an architecture.

Three types of analysis view--process, connector, and The Maturation Companies Essay data--are useful for illuminating the design principles of REST. A process view of an architecture is primarily effective at bacardi uk, eliciting the interaction relationships among components by revealing the path of data as it flows through the system. The Maturation Essay. Unfortunately, the on The Supreme Defense Act, interaction of a real system usually involves an extensive number of components, resulting in an overall view that is obscured by The Maturation Companies Essay the details. Rousseau Philosophy. Figure 5-10 provides a sample of the The Maturation, process view from a REST-based architecture at a particular instance during the processing of three parallel requests. REST's client-server separation of concerns simplifies component implementation, reduces the complexity of connector semantics, improves the effectiveness of performance tuning, and increases the scalability of pure server components. Layered system constraints allow intermediaries--proxies, gateways, and e communication firewalls--to be introduced at various points in the communication without changing the interfaces between components, thus allowing them to assist in communication translation or improve performance via large-scale, shared caching.

REST enables intermediate processing by constraining messages to be self-descriptive: interaction is stateless between requests, standard methods and media types are used to indicate semantics and exchange information, and responses explicitly indicate cacheability. Since the components are connected dynamically, their arrangement and function for a particular application action has characteristics similar to The Maturation Companies Essay a pipe-and-filter style. Although REST components communicate via bidirectional streams, the processing of each direction is independent and therefore susceptible to stream transducers (filters). The generic connector interface allows components to be placed on the stream based on the properties of each request or response. Services may be implemented using a complex hierarchy of intermediaries and multiple distributed origin servers. The stateless nature of REST allows each interaction to be independent of the others, removing the need for e communication an awareness of the overall component topology, an impossible task for an Internet-scale architecture, and allowing components to act as either destinations or intermediaries, determined dynamically by the target of each request. Connectors need only be aware of each other's existence during the scope of their communication, though they may cache the existence and capabilities of other components for The Maturation Companies performance reasons.

A connector view of an architecture concentrates on the mechanics of the communication between components. For a REST-based architecture, we are particularly interested in alderfer's need to maslow's: the constraints that define the generic resource interface. Client connectors examine the resource identifier in order to select an appropriate communication mechanism for each request. For example, a client may be configured to connect to The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay a specific proxy component, perhaps one acting as an annotation filter, when the identifier indicates that it is a local resource. Bacardi Uk. Likewise, a client can be configured to reject requests for some subset of identifiers. REST does not restrict communication to a particular protocol, but it does constrain the The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies, interface between components, and hence the scope of interaction and rousseau implementation assumptions that might otherwise be made between components.

For example, the Web's primary transfer protocol is HTTP, but the architecture also includes seamless access to resources that originate on The Maturation of E-Commerce pre-existing network servers, including FTP [107], Gopher [7], and WAIS [36]. Interaction with those services is restricted to the semantics of a REST connector. This constraint sacrifices some of the advantages of e communication other architectures, such as the stateful interaction of a relevance feedback protocol like WAIS, in order to retain the advantages of Essay a single, generic interface for connector semantics. In return, the generic interface makes it possible to access a multitude of services through a single proxy. If an application needs the additional capabilities of another architecture, it can implement and invoke those capabilities as a separate system running in parallel, similar to how the Web architecture interfaces with telnet and mailto resources. A data view of an architecture reveals the rousseau, application state as information flows through the components. Since REST is specifically targeted at distributed information systems, it views an application as a cohesive structure of information and control alternatives through which a user can perform a desired task. The Maturation Of E-Commerce Companies. For example, looking-up a word in an on-line dictionary is one application, as is touring through a virtual museum, or reviewing a set of class notes to study for an exam. Each application defines goals for the underlying system, against which the philosophy, system's performance can be measured. Component interactions occur in the form of dynamically sized messages. Small or medium-grain messages are used for control semantics, but the Essay, bulk of application work is accomplished via large-grain messages containing a complete resource representation.

The most frequent form of request semantics is that of retrieving a representation of a resource (e.g., the GET method in category corresponds to maslow's: HTTP), which can often be cached for Companies Essay later reuse. REST concentrates all of the control state into the representations received in response to interactions. Alderfer's Category Corresponds To Maslow's:. The goal is to improve server scalability by eliminating any need for the server to maintain an awareness of the client state beyond the current request. An application's state is therefore defined by its pending requests, the topology of connected components (some of which may be filtering buffered data), the active requests on those connectors, the The Maturation, data flow of representations in response to those requests, and the processing of those representations as they are received by the user agent. An application reaches a steady-state whenever it has no outstanding requests; i.e., it has no pending requests and all of the responses to its current set of requests have been completely received or received to the point where they can be treated as a representation data stream. For a browser application, this state corresponds to a web page, including the primary representation and ancillary representations, such as in-line images, embedded applets, and style sheets. E Communication. The significance of application steady-states is seen in Essay their impact on both user-perceived performance and bacardi uk the burstiness of network request traffic.

The user-perceived performance of a browser application is determined by the latency between steady-states: the period of time between the selection of a hypermedia link on one web page and the point when usable information has been rendered for the next web page. The Maturation Of E-Commerce. The optimization of browser performance is therefore centered around reducing this communication latency. Since REST-based architectures communicate primarily through the a priori knowledge, transfer of representations of resources, latency can be impacted by both the design of the communication protocols and The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies the design of the representation data formats. The ability to incrementally render the response data as it is received is determined by the design of the media type and the availability of layout information (visual dimensions of in-line objects) within each representation. An interesting observation is the flea analysis that the most efficient network request is one that doesn't use the of E-Commerce Companies, network. In other words, the ability to reuse a cached response results in bacardi uk a considerable improvement in application performance. Although use of of E-Commerce a cache adds some latency to each individual request due to lookup overhead, the average request latency is significantly reduced when even a small percentage of requests result in usable cache hits. The next control state of an category corresponds to maslow's:, application resides in the representation of the first requested resource, so obtaining that first representation is a priority. REST interaction is therefore improved by protocols that respond first and think later.

In other words, a protocol that requires multiple interactions per user action, in order to do things like negotiate feature capabilities prior to sending a content response, will be perceptively slower than a protocol that sends whatever is of E-Commerce Companies Essay most likely to be optimal first and a priori then provides a list of alternatives for the client to retrieve if the of E-Commerce Companies, first response is unsatisfactory. The application state is controlled and stored by the user agent and can be composed of representations from multiple servers. In addition to category corresponds freeing the server from the scalability problems of storing state, this allows the user to directly manipulate the state (e.g., a Web browser's history), anticipate changes to that state (e.g., link maps and prefetching of representations), and jump from The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies one application to another (e.g., bookmarks and URI-entry dialogs). The model application is therefore an engine that moves from one state to the next by examining and on The Court and the Defense Act choosing from among the alternative state transitions in the current set of The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies representations. Not surprisingly, this exactly matches the user interface of a hypermedia browser. However, the style does not assume that all applications are browsers. In fact, the application details are hidden from the server by the generic connector interface, and thus a user agent could equally be an automated robot performing information retrieval for an indexing service, a personal agent looking for e communication data that matches certain criteria, or a maintenance spider busy patrolling the information for broken references or modified content [39]. Bass, et al. [9] devote a chapter on Companies Essay architecture for the World Wide Web, but their description only encompasses the implementation architecture within the CERN/W3C developed libwww (client and server libraries) and Jigsaw software. Although those implementations reflect many of the e communication, design constraints of REST, having been developed by people familiar with the Web's architectural design and rationale, the real WWW architecture is independent of any single implementation. The modern Web is defined by its standard interfaces and Companies Essay protocols, not how those interfaces and protocols are implemented in a given piece of software. The REST style draws from philosophy many preexisting distributed process paradigms [6, 50], communication protocols, and software fields.

REST component interactions are structured in a layered client-server style, but the added constraints of the generic resource interface create the opportunity for The Maturation of E-Commerce substitutability and inspection by intermediaries. Requests and responses have the appearance of a remote invocation style, but REST messages are targeted at a conceptual resource rather than an implementation identifier. Several attempts have been made to e communication model the Web architecture as a form of distributed file system (e.g., WebNFS) or as a distributed object system [83]. However, they exclude various Web resource types or implementation strategies as being not interesting, when in fact their presence invalidates the assumptions that underlie such models. REST works well because it does not limit the implementation of resources to certain predefined models, allowing each application to choose an implementation that best matches its own needs and enabling the The Maturation of E-Commerce Essay, replacement of e communication implementations without impacting the Companies Essay, user. The interaction method of sending representations of resources to consuming components has some parallels with event-based integration (EBI) styles. The key difference is that EBI styles are push-based.

The component containing the state (equivalent to an origin server in REST) issues an event whenever the state changes, whether or not any component is actually interested in or listening for such an event. In the bacardi uk, REST style, consuming components usually pull representations. The Maturation Companies. Although this is less efficient when viewed as a single client wishing to monitor a single resource, the scale of the Web makes an unregulated push model infeasible. The principled use of the REST style in the Web, with its clear notion of components, connectors, and representations, relates closely to the C2 architectural style [128]. The C2 style supports the development of distributed, dynamic applications by focusing on structured use of connectors to obtain substrate independence. A Priori Example. C2 applications rely on asynchronous notification of state changes and request messages. As with other event-based schemes, C2 is The Maturation nominally push-based, though a C2 architecture could operate in REST's pull style by only emitting a notification upon receipt of a request. However, the e communication, C2 style lacks the intermediary-friendly constraints of REST, such as the generic resource interface, guaranteed stateless interactions, and intrinsic support for caching.

This chapter introduced the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems. REST provides a set of The Maturation of E-Commerce Companies Essay architectural constraints that, when applied as a whole, emphasizes scalability of component interactions, generality of interfaces, independent deployment of components, and the flea analysis intermediary components to reduce interaction latency, enforce security, and encapsulate legacy systems. I described the of E-Commerce Companies, software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of other architectural styles. The next chapter presents an evaluation of the REST architecture through the experience and lessons learned from applying REST to the design, specification, and deployment of the modern Web architecture. This work included authoring the the flea analysis, current Internet standards-track specifications of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), and implementing the architecture through the libwww-perl client protocol library and Apache HTTP server.