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Libertarian paternalism is an oxymoron: an essay in defence of liberty. Sunstein and Thaler’s proposal for ‘libertarian paternalism’ in their paper titled “Libertarian Paternalism is not an Oxymoron” (LPNO from here on) is based on the contention that paternalism is sometimes (1) inevitable and (2) non coercive, and (3) that individuals do not always make ‘rational’ decisions. The first two contentions are untrue, and the question of Bands Essay examples, whether individuals make ‘rational’ decisions as judged by the axiomatic definition of neo-classical economic theory is vestigial to User Essay, the ideas and policy prescriptions of classical liberal and libertarian political economy. The paper, fraught with definitional confusions and methodological difficulties, is a superior example of how correct empirical observations and Bands laudable advancements in identifying cognitive characteristics that may be relevant to john, economic analysis can lead to unsound theories due to methodological deficiencies. Policy prescriptions in the long run must take an institutional form; the greatest deception of the paper lies in its omission of any discussion on such an institution, which, I believe by logical necessity would be a Platonist autocratic bureaucracy. A consistent application of libertarian paternalism is the ‘road to serfdom’.

What is wrong with the examples, discipline that is nowadays taught in most universities under the misleading label of economics…is their [teachers and authors] ignorance of economics and with their inability to think logically. - Ludwig von Mises. The Ultimate Foundations of john, Economic Science, 1962, p. 78. This paper is a critique of the paper titled “Libertarian Paternalism is not an Bands examples Oxymoron” (LPNO) by Sunstein and Thaler. User Interfaces Essay. To that end, it compiles and Bands Essay develops libertarian arguments in defence of an anti-paternalistic position. There are five sections. Section I discusses the logical consequences of definitional deficiencies in LPNO, proving that paternalism can never be ‘non coercive’ or ‘inevitable’.

Section 2 analyses the core of the LPNO argument that people are not always ‘rational’ and thus some paternalism is necessary. Adam Smith, Frederic Bastiat, Ludvig von Mises, and F. A. Hayek never assumed that individuals are always ‘rational’. In fact, the neoclassical axiomatic definition of keats isabella, rationality is Rock Bands Essay examples both shallow and unrealistic; more importantly, no such assumption is necessary to john isabella, defend a libertarian position. Rock. Section 3 highlights the inappropriateness of the empirical methodology of LPNO, particularly when it comes to understanding the concept of chilean copper, liberty as intended by classical liberal and libertarian scholars. Section 4 discusses how the idea of libertarian paternalism led by a ‘utilitarian-rationalist approach’ would thwart spontaneous order, which is Bands based on Graphical Essay the ‘rule-following’ nature of man. Bands Examples. Finally, Section 5 develops the institutions necessary for a complete, thorough and consistent implementation of libertarian paternalism. I believe that such an application of the idea propounded in LPNO necessitates a Platonist autocratic bureaucracy. 2 Libertarianism: the trust, individual and Bands Essay examples voluntary association. The common force that protects this collective right cannot logically have any other purpose or any other mission than that for which it acts as a substitute. Thus, since an reflexes definition individual cannot lawfully use force against Bands examples the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the chilean mine collapse, common force – for the same reason – cannot lawfully be used to destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups (1998, p. 2). We are emphasizing, then, the possibilities that people’s preference, in certain domains and across a certain range, are influenced by the choices made by planners.

The point applies to Bands examples, both private and Graphical User Essay public actors (Sunstein and Thaler 2003 , p. 1164). They equate ‘private’ and ‘public’ actors—both are called ‘planners’. However, the very idea of liberty rests on the conceptual difference between ‘coercion’ and ‘voluntary association’, therefore between ‘government’ (except when its acts to protect lives and private property) and Rock examples ‘private’ actors. 3. LPNO’s cafeteria example is illustrative. It is argued that the order in keats isabella which a cafeteria owner arranges ‘healthy’ and ‘junk’ foods influences consumer choices, and regardless of Bands, whether she places healthy food first or the other way round she acts ‘paternalistically’. John Isabella. “While some libertarians will happily accept this point for Bands examples, private institutions they will object to government efforts to influence choice in the name of welfare” (Sunstein and Thaler 2003 , p. 1164). Libertarians will object to the authors’ point regardless of turing, whether the cafeteria is private or public. When the cafeteria is private, the objection is not that the owner’s choice does not influence consumers but that such an Rock influence is not ‘paternalistic’. Whereas when the cafeteria is public the objection is to its very existence. The authors seem to think that libertarianism entails individuals making choices for themselves and that other individuals do not influence these choices in any way.

Nothing can be further from the truth. Libertarian principles are necessary for individuals to cooperate and hence influence each other through spontaneous order (discussed later). Psychology. The matter in Rock Bands Essay examples contention is the nature of influence: voluntary or coercive. But government, no less than cafeterias (which government frequently run), have to provide starting points of orpheus film, one or another kind; this is not avoidable. As we shall emphasize, they do so every day through the rules of contract and tort, in a way that inevitably affects some preferences and choices.

In this respect, the anti-paternalist position is unhelpful – a literal non starter ( 2003 , p. 1165). It is indeed true that government provision of contract and torts laws affect individual choices. But the question is Rock Essay examples what kind of choices? Tort laws are meant to protect the lives and properties of individuals against damages typically caused by the negligent actions of alan turing paper, other individuals. Contract laws are meant to protect the lives and properties of individuals against damages that may be caused by a breach of promise by other individuals. Thus both tort and contract laws are meant to Rock Bands examples, influence individual choices such that the chilean copper mine, action of one individual does not ‘coercively’ damage the life and property of others. It is not that government action should not influence individual choices; on the contrary, the Bands Essay examples, discussion on ‘nature of laws’ by orpheus film, liberal or libertarian philosophers like Smith, 4 Bastiat 5 and Hayek 6 is a reflection of their concern for Rock Bands examples, the ‘nature of choices’ that the law should influence. Whether he is free or not does not depend on the range of choice but on whether he can expect to chilean copper, shape his course of action in accordance with his present intentions, or whether somebody else has the power so to manipulate the conditions as to make him act according to that person’s will rather than his own ( 1960 , p. 13). Often what may seem to be ‘non-coercive’ paternalism is merely our inability to identify the element of coercion. 7 Sunstein and Thaler’s example of Bands Essay, organ donation is trust illustrative. In some countries like Denmark, individuals are assumed to have consented to Rock Bands Essay examples, donate their organs after death unless they explicitly state otherwise.

Whereas in other countries, like the USA, the default law is the opposite. The authors make two inferences. One, the greater number of donations in Denmark (as compared to orpheus film, the USA) is largely due to differences in Essay the default rules, therefore Denmark’s default rule is reflexes definition superior. Two, this is an example of non-coercive paternalism as individuals can choose to opt out of the default rule. The first point is empirically true. However, the second is erroneous. The governments of Denmark and Sweden, or for that matter any government, choose a default rule for Rock Bands, organ donations because of a ban on the ‘market for organs’. If there were such a market it is quite plausible that individuals would voluntarily sell their organs in futures markets. It is the coercive action of government to trust vs. mistrust, make illegal voluntary cooperation that creates the need for government choice. Coercion comes first, the Rock Bands examples, necessity for government action is only a consequence.

Sunstein and Thaler begin their analysis from this consequence, ignoring the root cause of the problem. Almost all people, almost all of the orpheus film, time, make choices that are in their best interest or at the very least are better, by their own lights, than the choices that would be made by third parties. This claim is either tautological, and therefore uninteresting, or testable. We claim that it is testable and false ( 2003 , p. 1163). The empirical claim that people’s behaviour systematically deviates from the ‘axiomatic’ 8 definition of rationality is well documented. Bands. However, the axiomatic definition of rationality is psychology itself entirely unimportant to the so called ‘anti-paternalist’ position. 9 On the contrary, the axiomatic definition of rationality makes it impossible to accommodate some of those features of Bands examples, human beings which are essential to develop an explanatory theory of the production of wealth in society. Trust. The axiomatic approach was adopted not because of its economic meaningfulness, but because it allows the construction of utility frontiers, making economics malleable to mathematical methods. 10 In fact, the very idea of utility function is incorrect as there exists no one-to-one relation between ‘goods’ and ‘states of mind’ or ‘phenomenal order’ (a term used by Hayek ( 1952 ) in Sensory Order ). Rock Essay. In fact, Ludwig von Mises constructs the edifice of his economic theory with the self-proving axiom ‘men act’ and without any rationality assumptions. 11 He thought their ‘rational action’ to be redundant 12 and that anyone who says his fellowmen act ‘irrationally’ is merely making a value judgment.

Adam Smith, Frederic Bastiat, 13 Ludwig von Mises, and F A Hayek, 14 some of the most distinguished proponents of liberty, do not think of men as ‘perfect calculating pleasure machines’, such an assumption was entirely unnecessary (perhaps even problematic) for the logical construction of their philosophical ideas. The special feature of rights-based choices is orpheus film that some value is being attributed to the procedures by which choices are made; what matters is not only (or perhaps even not at all) that the outcomes of choices are good, but that these choices should have been made in a good or just way (Sugden, 1985 , p. Rock. 181). In employing the empiricist-welfarist approach it may be necessary to chilean copper mine, assume the Rock Bands, non-existence of process value in order to focus solely on analysing ‘outcomes’. However, LPNO makes no mention of any such assumption and proceeds to Graphical User Interfaces, prescribe policy sans caveats. One is reminded of Essay examples, Lakatos’s warning that “An ‘impressive’, ‘sweeping’, ‘far-reaching’ external explanation is usually the john keats isabella, hallmark of a relatively weak methodological substructure…” ( 1970 , p. Essay Examples. 119) Two, the empiricist approach is inherently flawed because it systematically underestimates the value of liberty since it cannot foresee the unintended consequences of Interfaces Essay, paternalism. In a society with dispersed knowledge, entrepreneurial reactions to paternalistic interventions are unforeseeable. Milton Friedman ( 2006 ) in Rock Bands Essay an interview with Russ Roberts (on explains how in the USA (V, since you’ve used this acronym earlier do not give full form here) a ban on cocaine resulted in the creation of crack, a far more lethal substance.

Entrepreneurs processed cocaine to produce the more potent crack as it was less bulky and hence could be transported more easily through police check points. This is merely an example. More fundamentally, the welfarist approach ignores the idea of collapse, spontaneous order discussed in Rock Bands Essay examples the next section. 5 Knowledge and spontaneous order. Sunstein ( 2004 ), in his response to an insightful critique of LPNO by Klein ( 2004 ), claims that the case for libertarian paternalism “is strengthened, not undermined, by the suggestion from Hayek … that people are not perfect calculating machines” (p. Graphical User Essay. 273). This is a fundamental misunderstanding.

Hayek, like Marx, constructs an ideology—a consistent set of principles. 17 Each principle is deduced from certain basic definitions and Rock Bands Essay examples is supported by insightful observations. To employ a few observations or principles out of context is User methodologically incorrect; for each observation may be employed to Rock, develop a diametrically opposed principle, and each principle to develop a diametrically opposed ideology. The vital and novel contribution of Hayek does not consist in individual observations or individual principles, but in the way he logically combines these to copper, build the edifice of ideology. In Hayek’s view behaviour lies between ‘instinct and reason’; man is a ‘rule-following’ animal not a ‘Cartesian-rationalist’. 18 And this rule-following nature is essential for the preservation, evolution and development of spontaneous order. If Sunstein’s assertion regarding Hayek is to hold true then libertarian paternalism must be compatible with spontaneous order, because it is in the context of spontaneous order that Hayek emphasises the role of cognitive characteristics in decision making. On the contrary, a consistent application of libertarian paternalism would thwart spontaneous order. The rule-following nature of man which lies ‘between instinct and examples reason’ is a necessary condition for the very existence of a society based on the exchange of specialised ‘pockets’ of knowledge.

The reason why I do not steal from a road-side vendor in a bustling market is not that I ‘rationally’ estimate that the cost of the action would exceed its benefits; on trust vs. mistrust the contrary I make no such calculation. My decision not to steal lies between ‘instinct’ and ‘reason’, and is influenced by Rock Bands, a variety of cultural elements, like thou shall not steal , that have evolved over time. For the same reason my neighbor does not break into my house when I leave for john keats isabella, college in the morning. In fact, the only individuals who do such a cost-benefit analysis are people we typically refer to as ‘criminals’. Living as members of society and dependent for the satisfaction of most of our needs on Bands Essay various forms of co-operation with others, we depend for the effective pursuit of our aims clearly on correspondence of expectations concerning the actions of trust, other on which our plans are based with what they really do (Hayek, 1960 , p. 36). This does not mean, however, that all individual expectations are met. In fact some individual expectations may not be met in a spontaneous order. Clearly, the expectation of firms manufacturing typewriters were thwarted upon the invention of the Rock Bands Essay examples, personal computer. This is a subtle yet vital point. Individual expectations with respect to the specific content of the actions of other individuals may or may not be met in john keats isabella a spontaneous order.

However, individual expectations with respect to the ‘nature’ of the actions of other individuals have to be met for Bands examples, the preservation of spontaneous order. And by nature of actions I mean actions that abide by the laws of private property, torts and contract. But this freedom does not make us lawless. We are taught to respect the magistrates and the laws, and never to alan paper, forget that we must protect the injured. And we are also taught to observe those unwritten laws whose sanction lies only in the universal feeling of what is right (italics added, Popper, 1945 , p. 163). If the desire to Bands Essay, make reasons as effective as possible is what is mean by rationalism, I am myself a rationalist. If, however, the term means that conscious reason ought to determine every particular action , I am not a rationalist, and such rationalist seems to me to be very unreasonable (Italics added, Hayek, 1973 , p. 29). If each singular decision were to be optimised in the cost-benefit sense then resulting order 21 would be chaotic, analogous to Brownian motion. In the same way that sole factors determining the outcome of john, a collision between two molecules in Brownian motion are their respective velocities and the angle of collision, the outcome of any interaction between two individuals would be determined by factors specific to the inter-temporal, inter-spatial cost-benefit analysis.

It is paradoxical that Hayek’s description of unintended and unforeseeable consequences has appeared to Essay, some to be a description of a chaotic system. Spontaneous order is very different from orpheus film, chaos; and it is only the systematic application of Cartesian rationalism that can lead to Bands examples, chaos. Microsoft also discovered that individuals discount large samples of statistical information. At one point, Microsoft started surveying users to see how many of them found it easy to use a particular feature. Software developers often refused to believe the statistics. “The usability group would tell the development group ‘Six out of ten couldn’t do this.’ And the orpheus film, developer’s reaction would be, ‘Where’d you find six dumb people?’ In order to examples, repair this tendency to ignore base rate information, Microsoft made the information more vivid. It built a usability test lab” where developers can watch real users struggle with new products from behind a one-way mirror. Instead of trust, presenting developers with pallid statistics, the Rock Bands Essay, test lab presents them with real people (albeit a much smaller sample). The lab manager says that when developers see a user, twenty ideas just immediately come to mind. First of all, you immediately empathize with the person.

The usual nonsense answer ‘Well, they can just look in the manual if they don’t know how to use it,’ or ‘My idea is brilliant; you just found ten stupid people’…that kind of stuff just goes out the door” (Cusumano and Selby, 1995, p. 379 as quoted in Heath et al., 1998 , p. 18). In short, empirical findings about how certain cognitive characteristics of human begins may lead to inoptimal outcomes in controlled environments cannot be easily extended to keats isabella, real environments within which individuals act. This is because some cognitive characteristics that appear as weaknesses in experimental settings might be useful in real environments that are essentially spontaneous orders, and also because not all cognitive characteristics that influence decisions in experimental settings will influence decisions in Rock Essay real environments due to cognitive repairs within organisations. Collect information on all choices made by all individuals in orpheus film society. Subject these choices to empirical evaluation on whatever ‘welfare’ criteria may be defined by the planner. Identify the Rock Essay, decisions that are not optimal. Develop paternalistic interventions that would alter the nature of the decisions made by the concerned individual. Evidently the mechanisms necessary for the systematic and consistent application of the idea developed in LPNO would involve mapping of all choices made by all individuals and Graphical Interfaces Essay subjecting them to evaluation by the planner. Such planning is theoretically impossible, as established by Mises and Hayek in the ‘rational economic calculation in a socialist economy debate’.

The successful combination of knowledge and aptitude is not selected by common deliberation, by people seeking a solution to their problem in a joint effort; it is a product of individuals imitating those who have been more successful and from their being guided by signs or symbols, such as process offered for their products or expressions of moral or aesthetic esteem for having their observed standards of conduct - in short, of their using the results of the Rock Essay examples, experiences of other (Hayek, 1979 , p. 28). Learning in spontaneous order is Graphical Essay a process of discovery. “Every discovery contains ‘an irrational element’, or ‘a creative intuition’” (Popper 1959 , p. 32). Spontaneous order allows for individuals to make different choices, some of Bands examples, which prove to User Interfaces Essay, be ‘good’ others ‘bad’. In fact, some decisions and actions considered ‘good’ may prove ‘bad’ over Bands Essay examples, time and vice versa. Divergence in individual choices and actions are necessary for vs. mistrust, the discovery process, which would certainly involve some individuals making incorrect choices. “Every action is a speculation, i.e. Rock Essay. guided by a definite opinion concerning the uncertain condition of the turing paper, future” (von Mises 1978 , p. 51).

It is impossible to conceive of a method of preventing ‘bad’ decisions yet preserving the process of Rock Essay, learning; certainly libertarian paternalism is not such a method as it thwarts spontaneous order. User Interfaces. In evaluating all decisions and actions based on certain pre-defined welfare notions, Sunstein and Thaler assume a certain primacy of the Rock Bands examples, planner to know what is ‘good’; the planner is omnipotent and does not need to ‘learn’. It is impossible to conceive of any learning if all individuals are optimising on all decisions at all times, unless of trust, course knowledge is provided by Rock Bands Essay examples, some supernatural powers. Humiliating to human pride as it may be, we must recognize that the advance and even preservation of civilization are dependent upon a maximum opportunity for accidents to happen (Hayek, 1960 , p. 29). ‘Planning’ would clinically destroy ‘learning’. If individuals are aware that they will be ‘driven towards welfare promoting’ directions, then any investment of time, money and intellect in decision-making will be regarded as futile. And in so far as the reflexes definition psychology, process of Rock Essay examples, learning has economies of scale, the mine collapse, irrelevance of the process to certain decisions (State regulated) would make it inefficient to be employed for the remaining decisions (unregulated). The most fundamental of individual liberties will one by one be submitted to the ‘influence’ of the Rock Bands examples, planner, 23 who will decide where junk food should be placed in a cafeteria: towards the end, in keats a dark corner 100 meters away or 10 km away. The criteria for determining the degree of constraints on liberty will be ‘whatever is necessary to achieve optimal choice’.

Also, if individuals sometimes make inoptimal decisions for themselves in the ‘private sphere’ then they are even more likely to make inoptimal decisions in examples the ‘public sphere’, i.e., electing the Graphical User Essay, government (planners). Bands Essay. James M. Definition. Buchanan ( 1954 ) in Bands Essay examples a paper titled “Individual Choice in Voting and Market” discusses the copper collapse, sources of deficiencies in Rock Bands Essay examples the ‘process of electing planners’ as compared to the ‘process of choice in a market with monetary prices’. It logically follows from LPNO that decisions even in the ‘public sphere’ should be driven in orpheus film welfare promoting directions. Therefore planners would decide on the mechanisms that are needed to Rock, influence or drive voting choices even in electing planners themselves! The very idea of democracy would become meaningless. The implementation of the so called ‘libertarian paternalism’ in its complete form requires the wholesale replacement of democracy by psychology, an autocratic bureaucracy, a totalitarian system! However, LPNO is not Marxist in any sense. In fact the Marxian idea of a ‘superstructure’ of law, rules and Rock examples morals that develop over the ‘material modes of production’ to sustain the existing class structure is quite opposed to that of LPNO. A Marxian would never trust the copper, ruling class of a capitalist society to influence the Rock examples, decisions of others in copper mine welfare promoting directions. The totalitarian nature of the LPNO system, however, is not novel; in fact it is examples much older than the Marxian system. It is Platonist 24 in every sense of the word.

The enlightened economists of AD 2000 replace the wise philosophers of 2000 BC in the Pantheon of Rulers. Plato, like Sunstein and Thaler, envisaged a society where the “wise shall command and lead, and that the ignorant shall follow” (Popper 1945 , p. 65). In Plato’s system, as in that of Sunstein and Thaler’s, there exists the trust, concept of wise benevolence and the necessity of one group of people to lead another. However, Plato develops a theory where the Rock Essay examples, central idea is to vs. mistrust, arrest 25 change in society in order to prevent its degeneration. Plato is Essay indeed right in his idea that a totalitarian system would arrest change. However, Sunstein and Thaler do not admit the conclusion that their system would thwart spontaneous order and john keats that an autocratic bureaucracy would replace learning with planning. They escape the Platonist conclusion of Rock, their proposed ideas by not attempting to keats isabella, develop them into a system, i.e., not developing the institutions necessary for Rock Bands Essay, the implementation of their idea. Chilean. However, any idea in the long run must take an institutional form. In short, a consistent application of ‘libertarian paternalism’ is no more than the ‘road to serfdom’! It is apt here to Rock Essay, quote Popper’s insightful warning: “…if we wish our civilization to survive we must break with the habit of deference to great men.

Great men may make great mistakes” ( 1945 , p. vii). ‘Libertarian Paternalism’ is indeed an oxymoron. LPNO fallacies originate from the omission of any definitional discussion, thereby maintaining a mist of reflexes, confusion over the paper. However, a logically consistent and systematic analysis of the idea leads to Bands, the unveiling of the monster lurking within: an autocratic bureaucracy, a totalitarian system. This highlights once again Hayek’s contention that liberty must be defended as a ‘principle’.

According to LPNO this is the turing paper, first of the Bands Essay, two misconceptions on which the Essay, anti-paternalistic position is based. According to LPNO this is the second of the two misconceptions on which the anti-paternalistic position is based. The arguments of Bands Essay examples, LPNO are relevant only with respect to the role of State or government planners, not to private actors. The concept of ‘libertarian pateranlism’ for a private actor is meaningless. The criterion for decision making in private orgnaisations is profit. The only chilean mine collapse way to implement any of the Essay examples, recommendations of LPNO is for the State to regulate individual decisions directly or indirectly by john, regulating profit-making organisations. Of course, private organisations make use of Bands examples, advancements in behavorial economics while structuring the remuneration packages of their employees, schemes for shareholders, etc. Chilean Copper Collapse. However, their ultimate concern is profit, whereas that of LPNO is ‘optimality’; where the two coincide there is no disagreement, where the two part ways, LPNO would recommend State regulation. It is in this sense that the argument in favor of Rock Bands, ‘libertarian paternalism’ becomes meaningful. Hence our discussion is entirely focused on the ‘libertarian paternalistic’ role of the State.

I quote from Adam Smith’s Lectures on Jurisprudence (from Smith’s lecture notes of 1760 s): “…the right to free commerce, and the right to freedom in marriage, etc. when infringed are all evidently encroachments on orpheus film right one has to free use of his person and in Bands examples a word to do what he has a mind when it does not prove detrimental to any other person ” (italics added, Smith 1978 , p. 8). Bastiat’s essay titled “Purpose of Law in Society” is entirely devoted to chilean copper mine, this matter. In the trilogy Law, Legislation and Liberty, Hayek discusses the categorical distinction between ‘taxis’ (order which is a result of human design) and ‘komos’ (order which emerges spontaneously). No part of the aim of normal science is to call forth new sorts of Bands Essay examples, phenomena; indeed those that will not fit the Graphical Essay, box are often not seen at all . Nor do scientists normally aim to invent new theories and they are often intolerant of those invented by others. Instead, normal science research is Bands Essay directed to User Interfaces, the articulation of those phenomena and theories that the paradigm already supplies (italics added, Khun 1970 , p. Bands Essay Examples. 24).

In mainstream microeconomic theory a rational consumer is one whose preferences are: Complete: Either Apple is keats isabella preferred to Orange or Orange is preferred to Apple or she is indifferent between Apple and Orange. Consistent: If Apple is preferred to Orange then it cannot be that Orange is preferred to Apple. Transitive: If Apple is preferred to Orange and Orange is preferred to Banana then Apple is preferred to Banana. If minimal consistency really is a necessary condition of rationality, a whole tradition of liberal thought must be grounded on logical error…when rights are involved, it maybe wrong to impose conventional consistency requirements on social choices (Sugden 1985 , p. 181). Yet some people suppose that other people—who are rarely ever indentified—actually believe the idea that man always chooses in his best interest. The canard probably arises from the journal-article practice among Neoclassical economists of treating the human being as a mathematical apparatus (Klein 2004 , p. 264). First, it must be emphasized that whatever role ‘rationality’ may play in Professor Machlup’s theory, it plays no role whatever for Rock, Professor Mises.

Hutchison charges that Mises claims ‘all economic action was (or must be) rational. This is flatly incorrect. Mises assumes nothing whatever about the rationality of human action (in fact, Mises does not use the reflexes psychology, concept at all). He assumes nothing about the wisdom of man’s ends or about the correctness of his means. Bands Essay Examples. He ‘assumes’ only that men act, that is, that they have some ends, and use some means to try to attain them. This is Mises’s Fundamental Axiom, and it is this axiom that gives the paper, whole praxeological structure of economic theory build upon it its absolute and apodictic certainty (Rothbard 1957 , p. 318). The starting point of our reasoning is not behaviour, but action, or, as it is redundantly designated, rational action (Mises 1960 , p. 23).

We are endowed with the faculty of Essay examples, comparing, of judging, of choosing, and of acting accordingly. This implies that we can arrive at a good or a bad judgment, make a good or a bad choice—a fact that is never idle to remind men of when we speak to them of liberty (Bastiat 1998 , p. 28). Hayek on liberty transcends the copper mine, rationalistic fallacies which disfigure Mill’s liberalism and gives us a defense of Rock, individual freedom without equal in modern thought (Gray 1998 , p. x). How should sensible planners choose among possible systems, given that some choice is necessary? We suggest two approaches to reflexes definition psychology, this problem. If feasible, a comparison of possible rules should be done using a form of cost-benefit analysis, one that pays serious attention to welfare effects…The goal of cost-benefit study would be to measure the full ramifications of any design choice (Sunstein and Thaler 2003 , p. 1190). It is also, for instance, Kant’s central practical doctrine (‘always recognize that human individuals are ends, and do not use them as mere means to your ends’). There is no other thought which has been so powerful in the moral development of man (Popper 1945 , p. 89).

Hayek’s work is to be viewed and understood as a whole. Though his work has developed over six decades and has crossed many disciplinary boundaries, it has throughout exemplified a distinctive conception of the powers of the mind and of the character of Rock Bands Essay, human knowledge (Gray 1998 , p. 116). What is distinctive in Hayek’s Kantian ethics is his insight that the demands of justice need not be competitive with the claims of general welfare: rather, a framework of justice is an indispensable condition of the successful achievement of general welfare. This insight of Hayek’s was indeed nourished by his study of Hume, who always saw clearly that the utility of the rules of justice depended on their not being liable to abridgement for the sake of an apparent gain in welfare (Gray 1998 , p. 60). In social theory, Hayek’s devastating critique of Cartesian rationalism entails that, whatever else it might be, social order cannot be the product of a directing intelligence (Gray 1998 , p. 25). The spontaneous order arises from copper mine, each element balancing all the various factors operating on Rock Essay examples it and by adjusting all its various actions to each other, a balance which will be destroyed if some of the actions are determined by another agency on the basis of john keats isabella, different knowledge and in the service of different ends (Hayek 1973 , p. 51).

By order we shall throughout describe a state of affairs in Essay which a multiplicity of alan turing paper, elements of various kinds are so related to each other that we may learn from Rock, out acquaintance with some spatial or temporal part of the whole to form correct expectations concerning the rest, or at least expectations which have a good chance of proving correct (Hayek 1973 , p. 36). Learning is intricately linked to spontaneous order through Hayek’s conception of ‘phenomenal order’ expounded in the book «Sensory Order: An Inquiry into the Foundation of Theoretical Psychology» . Following are some quotes from the book: There exist now, in fact, at least two different orders in which we arrange or classify the objects of the world around us: one is the order of our sense experiences in which events are classified according to their sensory properties such as colors, sounds, odors, feeling of definition psychology, touch, etc.; the Bands Essay, other is an order which includes both these same and other events but which them as similar or different according as, in conjunction with other events, they produce similar or different other external events (p. 3). What we call ‘mind’ is thus a particular order of a set of events taking place in some organism and in some manner related to but not identical with, the orpheus film, physical order of events in the environment.

The problem which the Rock Essay examples, existence of mental phenomena raises is therefore how in a part of the physical order (namely an organism) a sub-system can be formed which in some sense maybe said to reflect some features of the physical order as a whole, and which thereby enables the reflexes definition psychology, organism which contains such partial reproduction of the environmental order to behave appropriately towards its surrounding environment (p. 16). “It would appear that not only are the events of the world, if defined in examples terms of copper mine, their sensory attributes, not subject to invariable laws, so that situations presenting the same appearance to Essay, our sense may produce different results; but also that the phenomenal world it itself not constant but variable, and that it will in some measure change its appearance as a result of that very process of reclassification which we must perform in order to isabella, explain it (p. 174). If freedom were not treated as the supreme principal, the fact that the Rock examples, promises which a free society has to orpheus film, offer can always be only chances and not certainties, only opportunities and not definite gifts to particular individuals, would inevitably prove a fatal weakness and lead to its slow erosion (Hayek, p. 68). What Plato demands therefore, is the rule of learnedness—sophocracy, if I may say so (Popper, 1945 , 127). He (Plato) believes that the model original of his perfect state can be found in the distant past, in the dawn of history; for Rock Essay examples, if the definition psychology, world decays in time, then we must find increasing perfection the further we go back into the past.

The perfect state is something like the first ancestor, the primogenitor, of the later states, which are, as it were, the degenerate offspring of this perfect, or best, or ‘ideal’ state; an idea state which is not a mere phantasm, nor a dream, but which is in stability more real indeed than all those decaying societies which are in flux, and liable to pass away at any moment (Popper 1945 , p. 19). I wish to extend my sincere gratitude to Ms. Varuna Mohite for the much needed language editing. Many thanks to Prof. Elisabeth Krecke and Mr. Lucas Leger for having read and commented on an early draft of this paper in May 2008. Bands Essay. I was then an Erasmus Master in Law Economics student at University of john keats, Aix-Marseilles III.

Many of the ideas expressed in Bands Essay this paper were first introduced to me by Mr. Reflexes Definition. Sauvik Chakraverti, to whom I shall forever be indebted. Vipin P. Veetil 1 Email author 1. International PhD Program in Comparative Analysis of Institutions, Economics and Law Collegio Carlo Alberto Turin Italy. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.

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Naval History and Heritage Command. USS Arizona (BB-39) USS Arizona (BB-39) Pitching in heavy seas during the 1930s. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the Essay, National Archives (80-G-463589). The Pennsylvania -class battleship Arizona (BB-39) was launched 19 June 1915 at the New York Naval Shipyard, and commissioned to the United States Atlantic Fleet under the command of Captain J. D. McDonald on 17 October 1916.

Arizona spent World War I patrolling the waters of the Northeast as part of vs. mistrust, Battleship Division 8 out of Norfolk, Virginia, where her fuel oil requirements would not tax the short supply in Britain. On 18 November 1918 Arizona made her first trip across the Atlantic Ocean from Hampton Roads, Virginia, to England. From there, she supported the escorting operations of George Washington who carried President Woodrow Wilson to the Paris Peace Conference. Arizona departed the Atlantic Fleet in 1921, and was transferred to the Pacific fleet where she found her new homeport in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. During her time in the Pacific fleet, Arizona carried President Herbert Hoover to the West Indies and performed routine missions and training. Arizona, as well as much of the Pacific Fleet, was in port when Pearl Harbor suffered a surprize attack by the Japanese on 7 December 1941, propelling the U.S. into Bands Essay examples World War II. During this raid, Arizona was hit by one torpedo and eight bombs, one of which passed through a magazine and copper, lit cordite, causing an expansion of gases followed by a massive explosion. The ship quickly sank to the bottom of the harbor along with 1,177 of the Bands examples, 1,512 personnel on orpheus film board, representing about half the total number of Americans killed that day. Click here for Essay, more images of chilean copper, Arizona during the attack on Rock Essay examples Pearl Harbor.

The forward magazines of USS Arizona (BB-39) explode after she was hit by a Japanese bomb, 7 December 1941. Frame clipped from a color motion picture taken from on board USS Solace (AH-5). Orpheus Film! Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives. Aerial view of Essay, Battleship Row moorings on the southern side of alan turing paper, Ford Island, 10 December 1941, showing damage from the Japanese raid three days earlier. In upper left is the sunken USS California (BB-44), with smaller vessels clustered around her. Diagonally, from left center to examples, lower right are: USS Maryland (BB-46), lightly damaged, with the capsized USS Oklahoma (BB-37) outboard. A barge is alongside Oklahoma, supporting rescue efforts. USS Tennessee (BB-43), lightly damaged, with the sunken USS West Virginia (BB-48) outboard. USS Arizona (BB-39), sunk, with her hull shattered by the explosion of the copper mine collapse, magazines below the two forward turrets.

Note dark oil streaks on Rock Essay examples the harbor surface, originating from the sunken battleships. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives. Since the ship was moored in relatively shallow water when attacked, much of the superstructure continued to protrude out of the water. On 5 May 1942, the Navy began to disassemble and cut off the protruding parts , beginning with the foremast, then the mainmast on 23 August 1942. Number 1 and 2 gun turrets were removed from Arizona and placed at Army outposts along the alan, Hawaiian coast for defensive support.

The Navy recovered 105 crewmembers’ remains from the wreckage. The last of the salvaging evolutions occurred in October 1943. Arizona was removed from the commissioned list 1 December 1942. In the end, only the hull and main deck remained at the bottom of the Rock Bands, harbor. Click here for images of salvage efforts following the raid on Pearl Harbor. In 1944, Wilber L. Orpheus Film! Bowers, an Arizona University alumnus, discovered one of Arizona ’s bells corroding in the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Washington. The bell, like many other pieces of scrapped vessels, was waiting to be melted down so it could be reused for wartime efforts. Bowers was able to Rock Essay examples, retrieve the copper mine collapse, bell and have it sent to the University of Arizona in 1946, where it currently resides in Rock the bell tower as an honor to those who had fallen. The other bell that was on Arizona remains at the memorial site. Throughout the rest of World War II, Arizona remained untouched and unnoticed.

It was not until 1950 that a flagpole for ceremonial visits was established on the boat deck of the alan turing, wreck (Tilburg 2003). This salute to the fallen began to raise awareness about the importance of Arizona and the rest of the ships that were attacked in Pearl Harbor. Due to this attention, in 1958 legislation was passed that the Navy would be allowed to erect a memorial for the fallen and receive contributions for funding it. Construction of the memorial began in 1960 and finished in 1962. At the completion of construction, the site was dedicated on Memorial Day to Rock, all of those who had fallen during the attack on Pearl Harbor. In 1980, the chilean copper mine collapse, visitor’s center was constructed, and the Navy turned the memorial over to the National Park Service (NPS) for daily operations. Although the NPS manages Arizona, the Navy and NHHC have been intimately involved from the start and continue to collaborate on a number of research and public education opportunities. In 1983, the Rock Essay examples, NPS’s Submerged Cultural Resources Unit, now known as the Submerged Resources Center (SRC), conducted a ten-day diving operation, taking photographs and measurements of definition, Arizona . Teamed with the park staff and Bands Essay, the Navy’s Mobile Diving and Salvage Unit One, SRC was able to gather a comprehensive amount of information that was not known prior to this. Thousands of measurements of the twisted metal were taken, attempting to orpheus film, get an accurate reconstruction of the ship.

One of the first interesting things researchers found was that at the point of the explosion that caused the ship to Rock Essay, sink, the gunnels were several feet wider apart than in the construction plans. This suggested that the chilean mine collapse, ship had expanded at the explosion site and was confirmed by getting additional measurements by hand and infrared theodolite. When the vessel was pieced together from the data collected, the Rock Bands examples, scaled drawing was longer than the actual ship. During this phase of research, divers also found that the explosion from the magazine caused major structural damage, which collapsed bulkheads and sealed the exits, trapping the isabella, men within. In 1986 a biofouling and corrosion study was initiated by NPS to investigate the excessive corrosion that was taking place upon the outer surface of the ship’s hull. During 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 the SRC conducted multiple research dives and Rock Bands, inquiries that revolved around the corrosion and deterioration prevention of the trust, historic vessel. Another important issue that was documented during this period was the amount of the leaking oil from the ship. Arizona contains several hundred thousand gallons of Bunker C fuel oil that has been slowly leaking since its sinking in 1941. Close monitoring of the situation began in this period, and Rock Essay, research was initiated on how to address the issue. Open hatch and cover just behind the No. 1 gun turret located on the forward port side of USS Arizona.

Image courtesy of the National Park Service, World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument. In 2003, the National Park Service received an official grant from the Legacy Resources Management Program to alan turing, be directed towards the development of a long term management plan for Arizona . The insights gained from this study were designed to prevent environmental hazards from oil release, as well as to examples, establish long-term preservation protocols. Since Arizona’ s sinking, the corrosion of the hull has varied from 1.1 to 6.0 mils per year (1 mil = one thousandth of an inch). From 2003 to psychology, 2004, a number of improved techniques were employed to gain insight into Essay forces affecting the wreck, which include environmental as well as human processes. Researchers used remotely operated vehicles to conduct various tests, including: measuring corrosion potential of metal surfaces, assessing microbial impacts, and collecting oil samples. Annual studies on the wreck beginning in 2004 help to inform further management considerations on the structural integrity of the psychology, ship in order to minimize environmental impacts. Geological studies are important for understanding the movement of the seafloor that may impact hull stability in the long term. Core samples from around the wreck have been taken to provide accurate stratigraphic information and measure the stability of the Rock, sediments the ship rests upon. In 2009, site formation studies were conducted using the finite element analysis (FEA) to create a program that would allow scientists to alan paper, calculate the future structural strength and Rock, integrity of the chilean copper mine, ship. The FEA program uses experimental variables based on known processes and Rock Bands examples, observable data to model the mechanical properties of the ship, dividing the orpheus film, surface into small shapes that reflect the deformations and deflections over time on Rock Bands specific parts of the vessel. PEARL HARBOR (Oct.

21, 2014) Shawn Hurley, a subject matter expert at mine Autodesk, takes photographs of Rock Essay examples, USS Arizona during a data-collection evolution in Pearl Harbor. The underwater photos will be input into software that will create 3D data models of the photographed areas. The National Park Service is working with several companies and agencies to gather data points to create an accurate 3D model of the definition psychology, ship. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Gary Keen/Released) In 2016, research will focus on interior and Rock Bands Essay examples, exterior photo documentation, mapping, and chilean copper collapse, 3D modeling utilizing digital HD video and photography. Efforts are being made to accurately create visual media designed for people that are not able to Rock examples, go visit the memorial or dive underwater and experience the turing paper, ways research is Bands Essay examples done from john keats isabella a submerged perspective.

3D reconstructions will allow visitors to Bands examples, feel, touch, and see history in a unique perspective. Archaeological research allows us to apply scientific techniques to interpret the Navy’s stories and experiences in a way that educates the Graphical User Interfaces Essay, public and honors our veterans. The Navy’s sunken military craft represent a non-renewable, fragile, and untapped repository for science, technology, and history. Arizona is one of the most monitored wrecks in the Navy’s collection. Studies of Arizona have created detailed data sets of the environmental interactions between the harbor and the large steel battleship. Bands Essay Examples! These have provided an invaluable research tool to further archaeological, conservation, and technological advances in several fields. Vs. Mistrust! Archaeology also lets us see the how and why the physical ship itself changed over time to reflect its operational environment.

Starting out as a ship designed to perform in the Atlantic, its gradual transformation to a pacific battleship, and Rock Essay examples, today a memorial of submerged heritage. While it is not common to think of just how much vessels change over time and how they reflect the ideas, strategies, and people during and alan turing, after its service, archaeological studies make these processes more apparent. Active Naval Contribution. The Arizona memorial has many people who run the daily operations of the sight. An important component of the staff is the active duty Navy service members who are part of a detachment that work daily at this sight. These personnel render honors daily over the site, as well as give tours to Rock examples, thousands of people about the history of Arizona and Pearl Harbor. The inclusion of these service members perpetuates the heritage of the United States Navy and alan turing, allows those currently serving to honor those who have gone before them.

PEARL HARBOR (Nov. 7, 2014) Aviation Structural Mechanic 2nd Class Jennifer Usenick, assigned to the Golden Eagles of Patrol Squadron (VP) 9, reads the list of fallen military members following colors aboard the USS Arizona Memorial in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The memorial marks the resting place of more than 1,000 Sailors and Marines who were killed aboard the battleship USS Arizona (BB 39) during the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Amber L. Porter/Released) Along with the rest of the nation, NHHC recognizes the importance of Arizona and the remembrance of those lost during the attacks on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. NHHC continues to Rock Essay examples, preserve a large portion of the Arizona archives. Photographs, official letters, and ship’s logs can all be found in chilean the naval archives based out of the Washington Navy Yard in Washington, D.C. This archival collection is Rock examples not limited to Arizona , but represents all of the other naval vessels involved in the attacks as well. NHHC historians and communication professionals have sought to interview survivors of this attack to gain a better perspective of the heroic actions taken that day. NHHC was also approached for the factual interpretation of Michael Bay’s film, “Pearl Harbor.” NHHC continues to provide new research and analysis of this pivotal moment in American history for trust vs. mistrust, the public. These contributions from the researchers and professionals at NHHC allow for a better understanding and interpretation of the events that occurred on this unforgettable day.

The Sextant blog entries on Pearl Harbor. A thorough take on Pearl Harbor by Vice Admiral Homer N. Rock! Wallin. NHHC photographic collection on the Pearl Harbor Raid. Oral Histories from survivors of the attack on Pearl Harbor. Pearl Harbor 75 th Remembrance Anniversary. Commemorations for the 75 th anniversary of trust vs. mistrust, Pearl Harbor will be taking place from Coast to Bands, Coast.

In December 2016 the National Park Service will host a twelve day event, December 1-11, commemorating the lives lost during the attacks on reflexes definition Pearl Harbor.

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31 Attention-Grabbing Cover Letter Examples. The Muse Editor. Traditional cover letter wisdom tells you to start a cover letter with something to Bands examples the effect of: Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to apply for the position of Marketing Manager with the Thomas Company. We say: The days of cookie cutter cover letter intros are long gone. Here’s the definition, thing: Your cover letter is the best way to introduce to the hiring manager who you are, what you have to offer, and why you want the Rock examples, job—but you have an extremely limited amount of time to do all of those things. So, if you really want to get noticed, you’ve got to start right off the john, bat with something that grabs your reader’s attention. What do we mean? Well, we won’t just tell you, we’ll show you—with 31 examples of original cover letter introductions. We don’t recommend copying and pasting them because, well, your cover letter should be unique to your stories, background, and interests, but you can most definitely use them to get inspired for Bands Essay examples your next application. Don't worry—we've got you covered. Many companies say that they’re looking for people who not only have the skills to do the chilean, job, but who are truly passionate about what they’re spending their time on Rock examples every day.

If that’s what your dream company is really looking for (hint: read the vs. mistrust, job description), try an Bands Essay, intro that shows off why you’re so excited to be part of the team. If truly loving data is vs. mistrust wrong, I don’t want to be right. It seems like the rest of the Rock Essay examples, team at Chartbeat feels the orpheus film, same way—and that’s just one of the reasons why I think I’d be the examples, perfect next hire for orpheus film your sales team. I’ve been giving my friends and family free style advice since I was 10, and recently decided it’s time I get paid for it. Rock Examples! That’s why I couldn’t believe it when I found a personal stylist position at User Interfaces Essay, J. Hilburn.

After about three years of trying out different roles at early-stage startups around San Francisco, watching more “find your passion” keynotes than I’d like to admit, and assuring my parents that, yes, I really do have a real job, I’m starting to Rock come to terms with the trust, fact that I’m only really good at two things: writing great content and getting it out into the world. Rock Bands! When I was growing up, all I wanted to be was one of those people who pretend to be statues on the street. Thankfully, my career goals have become a little more aspirational over the years, but I love to orpheus film draw a crowd and entertain the Rock examples, masses—passions that make me the orpheus film, perfect community manager. When I graduated from Ohio State last May, my career counselor gave me what I consider to Bands be some pretty bad advice: “Just get any job, and figure the rest out later.” While I think I could have gained good transferrable skills and on-the-job experience anywhere, I wanted to make sure my first step gave me opportunities for professional development, mentorship, and rotations through different departments. Enter: Verizon. The other day, I took a career assessment, which told me I should be a maritime merchant. I’m not quite sure what that is, but it did get me thinking: A role that combines my skills in business development with my lifelong passion for the ocean would be my absolute dream. Which is alan how I found this role at Royal Caribbean. Start With Your Love for the Company. Rock Bands Essay! Similarly, many companies want to hire people who already know, love, eat, and sleep their brand.

And in these cases, what better to kick off your cover letter than a little flattery? Bonus points if you can tell a story—studies show that stories are up to 22 times more memorable than facts alone. Of course, remember when you’re telling a company why you love it to be specific and genuine. Definition Psychology! Because, um, no one likes an overly crazed fangirl. I pretty much spent my childhood in Rock the cheap seats at Cubs games, snacking on psychology popcorn and cheering on the team with my grandfather. It’s that passion that’s shaped my career—from helping to establish the sports marketing major at Rock examples, my university to leading a college baseball team to an undefeated season as assistant coach—and what led me to apply for this position at the Chicago Cubs.

Most candidates are drawn to definition startups for the free food, bean bag chairs, and loose dress code. Essay Examples! And while all of those things sound awesome coming from turing, my all-too-corporate cubicle, what really attracted me to Factual is the Rock Bands Essay examples, collaborative, international team. It was Rudy, my Golden Retriever, who first found the operations assistant opening (he’s really excited about the prospect of coming to work with me every day). Graphical! But as I learned more about Bands Essay examples Zoosk and what it is doing to transform the mobile dating space, I couldn’t help but get excited to copper be part of the team, too. When I was seven, I wanted to be the GEICO gecko when I grew up. I eventually realized that wasn’t an option, but you can imagine my excitement when I came across the Rock Bands examples, events manager position, which would have me working side by side with my favorite company mascot. When I attended Austin Film Festival for definition the first time last month, I didn’t want to leave. So I decided I shouldn’t—and immediately went to Bands examples check out job openings at the company. If I could make the alan paper, NYC apartment rental process better for just one person, I would feel like the horrors of my recent search would all be worth it. So, a customer service role at RentHop, where I could do it every day?

I can’t think of Rock Bands anything more fulfilling. Having grown up with the Cincinnati Zoo (literally) in my backyard, I understand firsthand how you’ve earned your reputation as one of the most family-friendly venues in john isabella the State of Ohio. For 20 years, I’ve been impressed as your customer; now I want to impress visitors in Rock the same way your team has so graciously done for me. Psychology! ( Via @JobJenny ) I was an hour out from my first big dinner party when I realized I had forgotten to pick up the white wine. In a panic, I started Googling grocery delivery services, and Bands that’s when I first stumbled across Instacart. Definition! I’ve been hooked ever since, so I couldn’t help but get excited by Rock, the idea of bringing the amazingness of turing Instacart to shoddy planners like me as your next social media and community manager. Though I’m happily employed as a marketing manager for OHC, seeing the job description for Warby Parker’s PR director stopped me in my tracks. I’ve been a Warby glasses wearer for many years, and have always been impressed by the way the Rock Essay, company treats its customers, employees, and the community at large. Start With an Graphical Essay, Attribute or Accomplishment. The unfortunate reality of the Essay, job hunting process is that, for any given job, you’re going to be competing with a lot of other people—presumably, a lot of other similarly qualified people. So, a great way to stand out in your cover letter is to highlight something about yourself—a character trait, an accomplishment, a really impressive skill—that’ll quickly show how you stand out among other applications.

My last boss once told me that my phone manner could probably diffuse an international hostage situation. I’ve always had a knack for orpheus film communicating with people—the easygoing and the difficult alike—and I’d love to bring that skill to the office manager position at Shutterstock. Rock Bands Essay! Among my colleagues, I’m known as the orpheus film, one who can pick up the pieces, no matter what amount of Rock Bands examples you-know-what hits the fan. Which is why I think there’s no one better to fill Birchbox’s customer service leader position. Alan Turing Paper! Last December, I ousted our company’s top salesperson from his spot—and he hasn’t seen it since. Which means, I’m ready for my next big challenge, and the sales manager role at LivingSocial just might be it.

After spending three years managing the internal communications for a 2,000-person company, I could plan a quarterly town hall or draft an inter-office memo in my sleep. What I want to do next? Put that experience to work consulting executives on their communications strategy. While you won’t find the title “community manager” listed on my resume, I’ve actually been bringing people together online and Bands Essay examples off for three years while running my own blog and series of Meetups. Orpheus Film! If you’re looking for someone who can follow orders to the T and doesn’t like to rock the boat, I’m probably not the right candidate. But if you need someone who can dig in to data, see what’s working (and what’s not), and challenge the status quo, let’s talk. Bands! Ever since my first job at Dairy Queen (yes, they DO let you eat the ice cream!) I’ve been career-focused. I completed my first internship with a professional football team while I was still in trust college. I was hired full-time as soon as I graduated, and within six months I was promoted into examples, a brand new department. I thought I knew it all. But as I’ve progressed in keats my career, I finally realized…I absolutely do not.

Shocker, right? Enter The Muse. ( Via @Kararuns729 ). You might be wondering what a 15-year veteran of the accounting world is doing applying to an operations role at a food startup like ZeroCater. While I agree the Rock Essay examples, shift is a little strange, I know you’re looking for someone who’s equal parts foodie and orpheus film financial guru, and I think that means I’m your guy. Over the Rock Bands Essay examples, last 10 years, I’ve built my career on one simple principle: Work smarter. I’m the person who looks for inefficient procedures, finds ways to streamline them, and consistently strives to boost the productivity of mine collapse everyone around me. Examples! It’s what’s earned me three promotions in the supply chain department at my current company, and it’s what I know I can do as the alan paper, new operations analyst for SevOne. Rock Essay! OK, before you read any of these, we feel we have to stamp them with a big disclaimer: Do your homework before trying anything like this—learning everything you can about the company, the hiring manager, and whether or not they’ll appreciate some sass or snark. If they do, it’s a great way to make them smile (then call you).

If they don’t? Well, better luck next time. I’m interested in alan turing the freelance writer position. But before I blow you away with all the Essay, reasons I’m going to be your next writer, I would like to tell you a little about myself: I didn’t grow hair until I was about five years old, which made everyone who crossed my stroller’s path believe me to Graphical Interfaces be a boy (my name is Bands Essay Casey, which definitely didn’t help). Hope I got your attention. Reflexes Definition Psychology! ( Via @CaseCav ) Have you ever had your mom call five times a day asking for a status update on Rock Essay how your job search is going, and vs. mistrust then sounding incredulous that not more progress has been made since the Bands examples, last phone call? That’s my life right now. But I’m hoping that soon my life will revolve around being your full-time social media manager. The good news is, I bring more to the table than just an overbearing mom. Let me tell you more.

Thank you so much for orpheus film offering me the marketing manager position at Airbnb! I wholeheartedly accept. OK, I know we’re not quite there yet. But if we were, here are just a few ideas of Rock examples what I would do once in trust vs. mistrust the role. You’ve slept on Rock Essay it. You’ve made lists of pros and cons. You’ve talked to your life coach, your hairdresser, and every barista on your block. So why haven’t you made your decision yet? When you’re looking for advice, what you need is not more, but better. If you’re constantly plagued with tough career decisions and mine presentation-day butterflies, you need an advocate, a listener, and sometimes, a kick in the pants. Rock Bands Essay Examples! You need Rachel Elizabeth Maley. ( Via @RE_Maley ) I considered submitting my latest credit card statement as proof of just how much I love online shopping, but I thought a safer approach might be writing this cover letter, describing all the reasons why I’m the girl who can take STYLIGHT’s business to the next level.

I never thought that accidentally dropping my iPhone out of a second story window would change my life (it’s a funny story—ask me about it). But thanks to my misfortune, I discovered iCracked—and found my dream job as an expansion associate. If we were playing “Two Truths and a Lie,” I’d say the following: I’ve exceeded my sales quotas by at least 20% every quarter this year, I once won an international pie-eating contest, and I have an alan turing paper, amazing job at Bands examples, Yext. Copper Mine Collapse! The last, of course, is the lie. For now.

Photo of person writing courtesy of Sam Diephuis/Getty Images#46; Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out Rock examples, all the psychology, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Communication impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: challenges and solutions. Authors Holtgraves T, Cadle C. Accepted for publication 20 March 2016. Checked for Rock Essay examples plagiarism Yes. Thomas Holtgraves, Chelsea Cadle.

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is Graphical Interfaces currently the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, showing a prevalence rate of 0#37;–3#37; of the entire population in industrialized countries and #126;1#37; in people older than 60 years. Essay! 1 Although PD has traditionally been classified as a paradigmatic movement disorder characterized by orpheus film muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, resting tremor, and postural instability, recent research has revealed a broad spectrum of nonmotor symptoms, including cognitive deficits (short-term memory, executive functions [EFs]), and language impairment. 2 Although each individual may experience PD symptoms in varying degrees, it is now well established that language and communication deficits appear early on in the disease progression. As effective communication is critical to developing and maintaining relationships, it is important for people with PD and their caretakers/physicians to be aware of changes in communication abilities that might occur. Increased understanding of the Rock Bands, communication impairments and associated cognitive and neural mechanisms stands to benefit both individuals with PD and their physicians/caretakers. Enhanced awareness concerning both production and comprehension deficits associated with PD progression may serve to reduce interpersonal issues and misunderstandings during conversation.

Furthermore, implementing the recommendations suggested in this review may reduce communication deficiencies and help improve overall quality of turing, life. In this paper, we review researches on Bands, a range of communication deficits and associated cognitive and neural mechanisms. We first review what is known about comprehension deficits in PD, followed by turing paper a consideration of production deficits. At the Bands examples, end of each section, we provide a set of recommendations based on the empirical findings. A summary of orpheus film, our recommendations is Rock Essay provided in Table 1. Table 1 Summary of recommendations based on documented communication deficits in Parkinson’s disease. There has been a considerable amount of research examining the extent to which PD is associated with various comprehension deficiencies and associated cognitive and neural processes that may contribute to those deficits. In general, this research can be organized around syntactic comprehension, emotion recognition, and keats pragmatic comprehension (ie, recognition of examples, speaker meaning). Syntactic comprehension deficits. The role of syntactic comprehension is Graphical Interfaces Essay crucial in normal language understanding. Successful processing of syntactic information allows people to extract meaning from utterances by combining words in examples, a particular order and rejecting unlikely word arrangements.

Increasing evidence suggests that people with PD display impaired syntactic comprehension abilities, which negatively affects overall understanding of utterances received during conversation. Friederici et al 3 studied nondemented PD patients, all of keats isabella, whom were taking medication and Essay were not suffering from reflexes definition, depression. Patients’ syntactic processing skills were investigated using event-related brain potentials. The results suggested that, while early semantic processing appears to Bands Essay examples remain normal, late-stage syntactic integration is impaired. 3 Such findings support the earlier work performed by Grossman et al, 4,5 which suggested that medicated PD patients without dementia consistently suffer from comprehension difficulties when presented with syntactically complex sentences.

Findings further indicated that these difficulties are dependent upon john keats deficient attention systems. 4 In attempting to delineate what characterizes a “complex” sentence that PD patients may struggle to comprehend, Grossman et al 6 monitored cerebral blood-oxygen-level dependent activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging, while PD patients were presented with sentences differing in their grammatical structure. Findings suggested that individuals with PD show significantly reduced recruitment of the striatum in sentence comprehension. Bands Essay! 6 In the frontal–striatal–thalamic loop, the orpheus film, striatum is understood to Bands examples function as a cognitive resource for working memory (WM) and information-processing speed. Taken together, studies by Grossman et al 4–6 suggest that people with PD struggle to comprehend sentences that are grammatically structured with an objective-relevant clause and have difficulty with utterances that impose increased short-term memory demands resulting from long antecedent-gap linkages.

Findings from the studies of Grossman et al 4–6 implicate impaired executive processes as possible sources for keats isabella language comprehension deficits that result from PD. Indeed, several studies suggest that various comprehension deficits may be attributable to certain cognitive deficits, such as the role of WM in Essay examples, syntactic processing. Another relevant cognitive deficit is set shifting or the ability to alter behavior according to the relevance of the stimuli. A review of this area by Dirnberger and Jahanshahi 7 contained several interesting conclusions about chilean mine collapse EFs in PD and set shifting in Rock Bands Essay examples, particular. According to these authors, attention deficits in PD occur primarily for reflexes definition psychology tasks involving internally generated cues, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; when an external cue is Rock Essay available, attention deficits for PD relative to control participants are minimized. 8,9 As a result, individuals with PD will have difficulty with nonroutine tasks requiring effortful processing, a deficit that can manifest in unusual forms of language (eg, nonliteral language described later). Moreover, this internal cue processing deficit likely underlies the keats isabella, difficulty PD individuals have with planning (ie, internal cues are required) as evidenced by their inferior performance on the Tower of London and related tasks, 10 a deficit that can impact language production as described later. Impaired emotion recognition in PD.

The ability to examples infer the emotional states of trust, others is made possible through accurate recognition of facial expressions 11 and correct interpretation of implied meaning through tone of voice. Assessing these nonverbal cues often reveals what a speaker is truly attempting to accomplish by allowing the listener to qualify the explicit meaning of a sentence. Though the literature is Rock Essay inconsistent, several findings of studies suggest that emotion recognition abilities, utilizing facial expression or speech prosody are impaired in people with PD. Orpheus Film! Dewick et al 12 investigated a variety of face processing skills in a group of idiopathic, nondemented PD patients, all of whom were taking anti-Parkinsonian medication at the time the study was conducted. Face processing skills assessed during the investigation included: 1) the Rock Bands Essay examples, ability to match unfamiliar faces by chilean copper mine their identity; 2) discriminate faces by sex or emotional expression; and examples 3) discriminate faces according to which speech sound was being produced. The results from this early study indicated that PD patients were significantly impaired on all facial processing skills compared to reflexes definition healthy control participants. 12 This study led to Rock Bands examples an early conclusion that PD causes a basic deficit in definition, encoding facial expression, which was then suggested to cause impaired processing for all later interpretation stages. However, additional research investigating similar nonverbal communication deficits suggests that not all individuals with PD exhibit such global impairment in Rock Essay examples, facial expression encoding. Sprengelmeyer et al 13 found that idiopathic PD patients can accurately process and discriminate the identity of faces but then fail to correctly process the emotional expression in later stages of the task. The researchers further noted that PD participants exhibited greater deficits when attempting to identify specific emotions.

Specifically, individuals with PD misidentified “disgust” more frequently than age-matched controls, while both PD and control participants made frequent errors when assessing “fear”. Importantly, facial recognition impairments may be mitigated when patients are receiving dopamine-replacement therapy, as indicated by reduced error rate for medicated PD participants compared to medication-free PD participants when identifying disgust. 13 Somewhat consistent with the paper, findings of Sprengelmeyer et al, 13 Suzuki et al 14 found an emotion recognition deficit for participants in Essay examples, the early stages of idiopathic PD, all of whom were receiving dopamine replacement therapy, that was specific to disgust. Evidence from early studies investigating emotion identification impairment in PD emphasized the chilean copper collapse, need for clarification when nuances, such as medication status, were considered. In response to this call for integration and Rock Bands examples clarification, Gray and Tickle-Degnen 15 reviewed a multitude of studies on emotion recognition in PD. John Keats! Specifically, their review addressed possible impairments for emotion recognition based on task type, stimulus modality, specific emotion interpretation, medication status, depression status, and correspondence to the level of executive functioning impairment.

The results indicated that the effect of PD on emotion recognition as a function of stimulus modality was more severe when interpreting prosodic expression compared to facial expressions. 15 The moderating role of task type was investigated by comparing performance on three tasks: emotion identification, emotion discrimination, and Rock a rating task. Findings indicated that individuals with PD show the greatest error rate when assessed via an identification or discrimination task for both facial and reflexes psychology prosodic expression measures. 15 Both of Rock Essay examples, these emotion recognition tasks require participants to categorize the intended meaning of either a facial or a prosodic expression; however, an identification task requires the additional demand of definition, producing a semantic label. Interestingly, all reported emotion recognition deficits did not appear to be related to level of motor disability nor depression level. Essay Examples! These findings suggest that comprehension deficits in all forms (ie, cognitive, pragmatic, emotion) are strongly influenced by alan turing WM impairment. 15. Several theories have been suggested to explain why facial recognition abilities are compromised by PD. The simulation theory suggests that the constructive and unconscious tendency for a perceiver to Rock Bands mimic the emotional expression of the interlocutor is what allows us to figuratively place ourselves in another person’s situation. 16 Through a process known as facial feedback, the spontaneous mimicry of a partner’s emotional state in one’s own facial expression allows the listener to gain insight into the proper classification of the speaker’s true emotional state by simulating the affective component of the speaker’s perspective. As PD commonly results in a decline in reflexes definition psychology, the ability to express emotions via the face, the theory proposes that it is the inability of individuals with PD to properly mimic the speaker’s displayed emotion that results in impaired emotion awareness.

17 Though this theory accounts for an affective component seemingly essential to accurate emotion recognition, it has not been clearly established that to recognize an emotional state, one must also be able to express that state, thus the Essay examples, theory lacks an equally essential cognitive component. Several neural regions and interconnecting “loops” have been proposed as the underlying mechanism controlling emotion recognition. Alexander et al 18 proposed that the neurophysiology of the basal ganglia consists of three separable loops, which serve to connect the putamen, the caudate nucleus, and the nucleus accumbens with several cortical and subcortical regions. The circuit contains the critical nigrostriatal and alan turing paper mesolimbic dopaminergic systems, which conjointly function in modulating information processing within the Rock examples, striatum. As each of the three loops differentially connects and affects distinct brain areas, Alexander et al 18 hypothesized that a specific pattern of motor, cognitive, and emotional impairment can be anticipated.

Indeed, research suggests that the dorsal putamen, which is directly affected by the “motor loop”, shows severely reduced metabolism in Graphical User Essay, early stages of the disease. Reduced functionality in the motor loop can result in reduced control over Bands movement preparation, movement direction, and the velocity and amplitude of chilean mine, movement. Rock Essay Examples! 13 Evidence further suggests that as PD progresses, the dorsal caudate nucleus, which receives projections from the “complex loop”, and the posterior parts of the ventral putamen, associated with the “limbic loop”, also show significant metabolism reduction. Alan Turing Paper! Importantly, loss of dopamine within the limbic loop has been considered the primary cause for deficient recognition of disgust in people with PD. Bands Essay Examples! As previously discussed, Sprengelmeyer et al 13 provided strong evidence of right ventral putamen activation in parallel to chilean collapse viewing facial expressions of disgust. Pragmatic meaning comprehension deficits in PD. Pragmatic meaning comprehension refers to the ability to understand what a speaker intends to convey with an utterance and is normally focused on nonliteral language such as metaphor, irony, and sarcasm. Successful comprehension requires the integration of multiple sources of information, including the social context, the speaker’s emotional state, and so on.

Several studies within the Rock Bands Essay examples, past decade suggest that nondemented and medicated PD patients exhibit deficits in several nonliteral language domains. 19–21 As some degree of shared understanding of a recipients’ utterance is reflexes psychology essential for successful language use, early deficits in this domain should be examined when determining early diagnosis and strongly considered when approaching conversations. Monetta and Pell 20 studied metaphor comprehension in a group of medicated PD patients and found that individuals with PD committed more metaphor interpretation errors and were slower to respond compared to control participants. Interestingly, metaphor comprehension was only impaired in PD participants who also demonstrated extreme deficits in Rock examples, WM. John Keats! 20 In a later work by Essay Monetta et al, 19 irony comprehension and lie detection were examined in a similar nondemented group of reflexes, PD patients.

Results revealed that PD patients exhibit impaired irony identification, while lie detection remained unimpaired. Rock Examples! Consistent with the authors’ previous findings, 20 two assessments measuring verbal WM and Graphical Interfaces fluency were strongly related to deficits in Essay, the lie detection story task. 19. In addition to vs. mistrust nonliteral language, pragmatic meaning comprehension can also refer to illocutionary force or what a speaker intends to achieve with an Rock Bands Essay examples, utterance. Definition! 22 Holtgraves and McNamara 21 investigated PD patients’ speech act comprehension by Bands Essay having nondemented PD patients and age-matched controls perform a timed lexical decision task following an utterance that performed a specific speech act (ie, beg) or a matched utterance that did not perform that speech act. John Keats! Participants in the control group exhibited the expected priming for Rock Bands Essay examples the action verb after the alan, speech act utterance. However, the PD participants did not exhibit this priming effect, suggesting that speech act activation is Essay slowed or is no longer an automatic component of comprehension.

21 Additional analyses indicated that this speech act processing deficit was significantly correlated with both symptom severity and EF (Stroop test) performance. 21 In a follow-up study, the same participants read scenarios and orpheus film utterances and Rock Essay were asked to provide a single word that they believed best described the action the speaker was performing. Orpheus Film! PD participants correctly identified significantly fewer speech acts than did the control participants, demonstrating a deficit in speech act recognition in PD that is independent of temporal constraints. Lloyd 23 also studied illocutionary force in terms of receptive prosodic loss or the ability to comprehend behavioral and Bands verbal nuances during conversation. Results indicated that nondemented PD patients who were not suffering from depression showed impaired ability to accurately identify utterance prosody and displayed deficits for definition utterance prosody comprehension. Such findings suggest that verbal and Rock Bands examples emotional nuances, such as a subtle change in tone of trust, voice or facial expression, may go undetected by Bands PD patients. 23. Finally, Berg et al 24 examined nonliteral language comprehension in PD patients without cognitive deficits. Trust Vs. Mistrust! Though language comprehension was studied using a variety of subtasks, only inference accuracy and sentence analysis were significantly impaired in PD participants compared to controls. 24 Understanding the degree to which pragmatic comprehension deficits impact overall understanding of everyday conversation is essential if language use is to be successful. We offer the following empirically based suggestions that may facilitate communication with PD patients.

However, we note that these strategies can be overdone with the speaker being perceived as condescending. Hence, judicious care should be taken when following these recommendations so as to Rock Bands examples lessen this risk. In addition, just as each individual’s experience with PD is unique, utilization of definition psychology, these recommendations are subject to an individual’s specific area(s) of impairment. Thus, physicians, caretakers, and PD patients should discuss particular circumstances in which these recommendations may best serve to facilitate communication. Avoid complex syntax. Research suggests that PD patients display a processing deficit for sentences with a complex syntax.

3 Hence, speakers should make an effort to avoid complex constructions such as the use of center-embedded clauses. Avoid taxing WM. Rock Bands Essay Examples! Research suggests that reducing the amount of information requiring maintenance in WM can diminish processing deficits in people with PD. 4–6 In addition to simpler syntax, speakers are advised to actively ground their conversational contributions, 25 that is, to chunk the mine, information they are conveying into smaller units and wait for acknowledgment before proceeding. (Note that acknowledgment sometimes may need to be elicited from the Bands examples, individual.) Clearly delineate topics. Trust Vs. Mistrust! Conversations should be structured so as to thoroughly discuss a single subject in a compartmentalized manner before shifting to a new and unrelated topic. Essay! Grouping conversation topics will reduce WM load and allow for greater topic understanding even if the turing, patient exhibits impaired processing speed. Set shifting is another EF that has consistently been found to be impaired due to PD. 7 This suggests that people with PD may sometimes have difficulty following subtle topic shifts. It is recommended, then, that speakers use topic markers (eg, “Returning to what we were talking about earlier…”) and make it clear when transitioning to a new topic.

In addition, it may be beneficial to elicit a verbal acknowledgment of topic shifts when discussing related subject matters. Avoid reliance on emotional expressions. People are typically in Essay examples, the habit of relying on their emotional expressions (either facial expressions or emotional prosody) to allow others to disambiguate their meaning. However, individuals with PD show a deficit in recognizing others’ emotional expressions, especially in terms of reflexes definition psychology, emotional prosody. 15 People should be aware of this and Bands Essay examples not rely so much on reflexes psychology, emotional expressions to Rock Bands Essay help disambiguate their utterances. Avoid nonliteral meaning. When conversing with people with PD, there should be an turing paper, attempt to convey meaning directly, so that recipients are not required to engage in extensive inferential processing in order to correctly recognize one’s intended meaning. Furthermore, speakers should encourage patients to give feedback on the interpretation of the Rock Bands Essay, conveyed utterance to orpheus film ensure the Rock Bands, intended meaning was accurately received. Use performative verbs. Isabella! In addition to the recognition of Essay, nonliteral meaning, it appears that some individuals with PD may be impaired in terms of recognizing speech acts.

21 One way to deal with this is to use performative verbs, that is, verbs that name the speech act that is being performed. Hence, to User Interfaces remind someone of something, use a form of the verb “remind” rather than leaving it implicit. Minimize distractions. Conversations with PD patients will be enhanced if they are held in Rock Essay examples, a quiet environment with minimal background distractions and the speaker is oriented to alan paper face the Essay, listener. Also, when speaking to individuals with PD, the speaker should try to speak at an octave slightly above normal range and at a reduced rate, particularly when communicating complex information. Chilean Mine Collapse! To facilitate understanding, phrases should be kept short when possible, and additional pauses should be incorporated when long sentences are required. Relative to research on Rock, comprehension deficits, there has been less research examining production deficits in reflexes, PD.

This imbalanced emphasis on comprehension deficits reflects the innate difficulty in Rock Bands examples, disentangling the two communication domains. That is, failure to respond appropriately to an utterance could reflect impaired ability to formulate an appropriate response utterance. However, it is just as possible that an inappropriate response results from a failed attempt to comprehend the entirety of an utterance just provided by a speaker. Nevertheless, in alan paper, this section, we review literature on possible language production deficits that result from PD and conclude with our recommendations on factors, which we hope will serve to Bands Essay minimize communication impairments. Reduced language production and alan informational content in PD. Information has accumulated over the past several decades indicating a significant reduction in Rock Bands Essay examples, language production and informational content in utterances produced by individuals with PD. In an early study, Cummings 26 examined language production in patients with PD (both with and without various types of dementia). Turing Paper! Overall, the language of nondemented PD patients contained lower information context and simpler syntax (relative to expected, norm-based performance). In a related language production study, Illes et al 27 supported Cummings’ 26 findings of Rock Essay examples, PD patients displaying lower syntactic complexity relative to control participants. Orpheus Film! However, significant deficits were reported only in those patients who were moderately (and not mildly) impaired. A possible explanation for this caveat was provided by the additional finding that syntactic complexity was strongly correlated with dysarthria severity and Bands Essay examples PD severity.

27 Other research programs have found similar deficits when examining spontaneous language production rather than using standardized tests. For example, using a spontaneous task, Small et al 28 found significant differences in sentence length, number of propositions, and grammatical complexity between nonimpaired controls and PD participants with moderate dementia; no significant language differences were found between the controls and nondemented and orpheus film mildly demented PD participants. Rock Bands Essay Examples! Using a picture-describing task, Murray 29 reported that PD patients produced fewer grammatical sentences, as well as sentences with reduced informational content, relative to controls. A related study conducted by Murray and orpheus film Lenz 30 examined language production in conversational discourse and reported no syntactical impairment in the PD group, although the degree of Rock Essay, dementia was negatively related to syntactic complexity and sentence length. Speech fluency abnormalities, inappropriate pauses, and impaired grammar in PD. In addition to a reduction in utterance informational content 26,29 and an overall drop in speech production, 28–30 PD has also been associated with abnormalities in definition psychology, speech fluency in the form of prolonged and inappropriate pauses and Rock examples incorrect verb usage. Illes 31 examined spontaneous language production in copper collapse, patients with PD and Bands examples found fluency disruption in the form of long-duration silent hesitations as well as open-class verbal paraphasia. However, in keats isabella, contrast to Cummings, 26 PD patients in this study did not significantly differ from controls in terms of syntax. 31 This finding was also demonstrated by Rock Bands Hammen and Yorkston 32 who report that PD patients also demonstrated a tendency to pause inappropriately (eg, within a phrase or a clause) relative to controls. Verbal fluency deficits in PD have been investigated frequently. Henry and Crawford 33 conducted a meta-analysis and concluded that people with PD display significant impairment on trust, measures of both semantic and phonetic fluency.

In addition, the semantic fluency deficit appears to be significantly larger than the phonetic deficit and examples independent of cognitive speed and effortful retrieval, suggesting that semantic memory is particularly impaired in PD. Furthermore, the relative prominence of semantic to User Essay phonetic deficits in PD with dementia is a feature that serves to differentiate it from other types of dementia such as Alzheimer’s type. Interestingly, Zanini et al 34 examined sentence production in bilingual PD patients and found more grammatical errors for PD patients, relative to controls, but only for their first and not their second language. The authors suggest that participants’ first language is more likely to reflect implicit, procedural processing and Bands Essay hence more likely to engage basal ganglia structures, which are impaired with PD. In contrast, a participant’s second language is more likely to reflexes psychology reflect explicit processing and Rock Essay hence more likely to engage neocortical structures. 34.

More recently, Troche and Altmann 35 examined the correlation between cognitive deficits and language production in copper mine collapse, PD using sentence repetition and generation tasks. PD participants produced more fluency irregularities and fewer acceptable sentences than healthy participants in the sentence repetition task. For the sentence generation task, PD participants were impaired, relative to healthy participants, on fluency, grammaticality, and completeness, although the impairment was largest for fluency. However, when cognitive abilities were controlled, deficits seen in repetition tasks were no longer significant, whereas impairment on the sentence generation task remained. 36 Finally, Coleman et al 37 reported a more specific grammatical impairment in PD, a deficit in terms of producing a correct verb form, whereas noun production was not impaired. In sum, there is considerable evidence for a cluster of specific language production deficits in PD, including lowered informational content, speech fluency abnormalities, long and inappropriate pauses, and impaired grammar, all of which can influence one’s ability to contribute appropriately to Bands Essay examples a conversation. These deficits are not necessarily independent.

For example, impaired semantic fluency likely contributes to reduced informational content. Also, some of paper, these production deficits (eg, lowered informational content) may reflect a comprehension deficit (failure to Bands Essay examples understand a prior turn) rather than a production deficit per se. In general, these deficits are related to overall cognitive ability and are usually related to disease duration and severity. Respiratory physiologic issues and production deficits in copper collapse, PD. Successful speech production relies not only on language planning and cognitive resources but also on the capacity to perform proper motor plans and Rock Bands Essay examples movements of the chilean copper mine, respiratory, laryngeal, and supralaryngeal systems. Research on PD-related physiological impairments has shown that people with PD show deficits in each of the examples, mentioned systems during speech production. Alan Paper! For example, Huber and Darling 38 found that PD patients produced shorter utterances compared to control participants and that this reduction was directly related to decreased lung volume initiation and weaker inspiratory duration in the PD group.

Furthermore, Solomon and Hixon 39 found that individuals with PD showed reduced rib cage volume and larger abdominal-based respiration during speech initiation. Rock Bands! In addition, these PD patients produced fewer words and Graphical User decreased overall time producing speech than did control participants. 39 Although impaired respiratory-related physiological factors result in the diminished ability to adjust speech volume, studies have also shown that irregular neuronal activity in the globus pallidus caused by increased rates of apoptosis may underlie the respiratory abnormalities associated with PD. 40,41. Such physiologic deficits need to Essay be considered when engaging in prolonged conversations with individuals who demonstrate this specific impairment. Psychology! Further emphasizing the need for increased attention to respiratory system deficiency in examples, PD populations, Ho et al 42 investigated the john keats, irregularities in speech volume control (hypophonia) caused by PD and its significant impact on overall satisfaction gained through human interaction, and specifically conversation. The first two experiments examined the impact of PD on Bands examples, an individual’s ability to automatically regulate speech volume when background noise and instantaneous auditory feedback were manipulated. Results showed that compared to controls, PD participants were less able to increase their speech volume when background noise increased and similarly showed reduced tendencies to Graphical User decrease volume as instantaneous auditory feedback increased. 42 These findings illustrate that individuals with PD tend to demonstrate overconstancy with speech volume and thus fail to accurately respond to Rock Essay contextually appropriate implicit cues. However, in the third experiment carried out by Ho et al, 43 individuals with PD were verbally instructed to increase/decrease their speech volume to determine if participants previously failing to respond to subtle context cues were capable of appropriately modulating their speech volumes.

Findings showed that when verbally instructed to do so, PD participants expressed normal fluctuations in volume and keats thus maintained the Rock, capacity to vary vocal range. 43. Some researchers have examined how the speech of individuals with PD influences the manner in which they are perceived. Pitcairn et al 44 had participants listen to semi-structured interviews with either PD or unimpaired speakers. Orpheus Film! The PD participants were rated more negatively than controls on several dimensions; they were perceived as more hostile, unhappy, tense, and Rock Essay anxious. Acoustically, PD individuals displayed less pitch variation and more pauses than the controls. Graphical User Essay! However, acoustic variability was not significantly related to any of the perceptual dimensions.

44. More recently, Jaywant and Pell 45 used a similar procedure and found, consistent with Pitcairn et al, 44 that PD speakers were perceived as less friendly, happy, involved, and interested than control speakers. Acoustically, PD speakers displayed lower mean intensity, high variability of intensity, and shorter total discourse duration, relative to controls. 45 Unlike Pitcairn et al, 44 this acoustical variability was significantly related to several of the perceived personality dimensions. Bands Essay Examples! In terms of perceptions of the content of talk, there was an unexpected finding for the content of the PD speakers’ talk to be perceived more positively (eg, coherent, comprehensible, interesting) than that of the control participants’ talk. The authors speculate that the briefer descriptions provided by the PD speakers were more to the point, hence resulting in greater perceived coherence.

In any event, the authors emphasize the negative consequences of PD speech in that they tend to be perceived as less friendly, happy, and involved. 45. Pragmatic production deficits in chilean collapse, PD. An early report examining pragmatic production deficits in PD was conducted by McNamara and Durso, 46 in which, participants (PD and control) engaged in Rock examples, brief conversations with a member of the research team. The conversations were coded using the pragmatic checklist of Prutting and Kirchner 47 , a scheme for classifying social language skills in terms of verbal features (eg, topic selection, topic maintenance, turn taking, lexical variation), paralinguistic features (prosody, vocal quality), and nonverbal features (eg, gaze, gestures). PD participants were impaired on 20.4#37; of the items relative to orpheus film the control participants. However, the PD and examples control participants did not vary significantly on measures of mental status or verbal fluency (although the scores of the reflexes definition psychology, former were lower than the Bands Essay, latter on both), suggesting that the orpheus film, pragmatic impairment was not simply reducible to Rock examples global cognitive deficits or poverty of speech. 46 At the same time, there were significant PD–control differences on the performance of tasks related to frontal lobe deficits (Stroop test and design fluency), and for the PD participants, these measures were significantly correlated with their pragmatic performance. 46 In a separate study, PD participants were asked to rate themselves on dimensions derived from the protocol of Prutting and Kirchner, 47 and their spouse or significant other also rated them using the trust vs. mistrust, same items.

The PD participants consistently overestimated their pragmatic abilities, relative to the ratings provided by their spouse or significant other, differences that were significant for speech acts, lexical selection, stylistics, and conversational appropriateness. A similar study was conducted more recently by Hall et al 48 using the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago’s Rating Scale of Pragmatic Communication Skills, 49 a scale that evaluates ten categories of pragmatic function, four nonverbal dimensions (intonation, eye contact, facial expressions, gestures and proxemics) and six verbal dimensions (conversational initiation, turn-taking, topic maintenance, response length, presupposition, referencing skills). Rock Essay Examples! PD participants were significantly impaired overall, and the impairment was greater for nonverbal dimensions than for Graphical User Interfaces verbal dimensions. In addition, there were substantial correlations between the degree of examples, overall pragmatic impairment and keats isabella mental status, motor severity, and Bands disease duration. 48. A more specific pragmatic production deficit, the production of uninformative utterances, was examined by Holtgraves et al. 50 PD and healthy control participants’ were interviewed regarding family, work history, daily activities, and so on. These interviews were taped and later coded by two raters (blind to group membership) in terms of degree of utterance informativeness. PD participants produced a significantly larger number of under-informative turns than did control participants.

Importantly, the degree of informativeness was significantly correlated with automatic speech act recognition (as reported in Holtgraves and McNamara 21 ). Vs. Mistrust! That is, the Rock Bands Essay, less PD participants were able to recognize the intention behind another’s remark, the greater their degree of turing paper, under-informativeness in Rock examples, the interview. 50. One promising approach to pragmatic production deficits in PD is politeness theory. 51 In this approach, language users are assumed to be attentive to situation-based interpersonal considerations and structure their utterances so as to be responsive, to varying degrees, to these considerations. Reflexes Definition Psychology! Holtgraves and McNamara 21 used politeness theory to examine the possibility that individuals with PD might suffer a deficit in Bands Essay examples, terms of chilean collapse, conversational appropriateness. Rock! Using a role-playing methodology, PD and healthy controls were asked to indicate what they would say in various situations in which request imposition and power were manipulated. In general, PD participants produced lower levels of politeness and, more importantly, were less sensitive to variations in request size than were healthy controls; the former failed to modulate the politeness of their requests as a function of request size to the extent that the control participants did.

Insensitivity to power differences also occurred, but only for participants who were on large dosages of medication. Specifically, PD participants who were on higher dosage levels, relative to PD participants on lower dosage levels and control participants, did not vary their politeness as a function of the recipient’s power. 21. More recently, researchers have begun to analyze the manner in which individuals handle some of the pragmatic difficulties that may occur when interacting with PD patients. Considerable complexity emerges when an trust vs. mistrust, interacting dyad is treated as a system, and PD communication deficits can impact that system in multiple and complex ways.

The approach taken by these researchers – conversation analysis (CA) – is Bands a rigorous empirical approach that attempts to uncover regularities in conversation. Reflexes Definition Psychology! 52 Although there is a substantial CA literature, attempts to use this methodology in the examination of pragmatic difficulties in PD are recent and rare. Saldert et al 53 and Griffiths et al 54 examined in detail naturally occurring conversations between PD patients and nonimpaired others (Griffiths et al 55 for a more general discussion on the use of CA for analyzing PD interactional difficulties). Bands Examples! These interactions were recorded and analyzed using common CA techniques. Trust Vs. Mistrust! Several consistent patterns emerged. First, Griffiths et al 54 focused on talk overlap.

Although overlapping talk occurs in conversation, it is relatively infrequent and Rock Essay examples typically handled quickly and orpheus film efficiently with repair (ie, attempts to correct) sequences. 56 But timing is critical for Bands examples these sequences to function, and since individuals with PD produce more silent pauses, 31 the integrity of keats isabella, this system can be undermined. Also, as has been demonstrated, there is a strong systematic preference for self-repair over other-repair. 57 However, PD speakers, due to both speech production (dysarthria) and cognitive deficits, are at a disadvantage in Rock Essay examples, initiating repair sequences. And, in fact, this difficulty appears to frequently result in the deletion of PD turns at talk. Saldert et al 53 focused primarily on trouble sources in conversations with PD participants. An important contribution of their work was the Graphical User Essay, identification of cognitive difficulties as contributing to the initiation of repair sequences. Specifically, 70#37; of the instances of other-repair in these conversations were related to the semantic content of a turn produced by the individual with PD, typically word-finding difficulty or use of atypical wording. Examples! The approach taken by these researchers is extremely important because it points specifically to the interactional difficulties that may occur in PD and how speech and cognitive deficits associated with PD may be magnified in interactional settings.

We provide below a set of recommendations based on the literature reviewed earlier. As with our previous recommendations, these should be applied judiciously in john keats isabella, order to avoid being perceived as condescending. Do not judge. Individuals with PD display a variety of language production deficits (long and inappropriate pauses, reduced information content, impoliteness) that may result in negative perceptions. Awareness that these features may be part of the symptomatology resulting from this disorder is Bands helpful in avoiding these unwarranted perceptions. Keats Isabella! Note also that research suggests a lack of awareness on the part of people with PD regarding their communication deficits. 58. Be patient/do not rush.

One of the clearest PD production deficits is the occurrence of long and sometimes inappropriate pauses. Bands Essay Examples! 27 These can be problematic because of the trust, critical role played by Rock pauses in the management of conversational turn-taking. When interacting with PD individuals, it may be helpful to maintain awareness of their tendency to pause and give them time to complete any turns before initiating one’s own turn. It is orpheus film clear that there are multiple communication deficits associated with PD. The purpose of this paper was to organize and summarize existing empirical research on these deficits and examples provide recommendations for dealing with these deficits in orpheus film, order to facilitate communication with those who suffer from PD. The deficits we review manifest as both difficulties comprehending others, what we refer to as comprehension deficits, as well as difficulties contributing satisfactorily to verbal interactions with others, what we refer to as production deficits. Many of these communication difficulties worsen with disease duration and disease severity, and some are helped with dopaminergic medication. Rock Essay Examples! In addition, some of these deficits are a result of general cognitive decline, especially impaired WM and set-shifting abilities.

It is important to realize that people suffering with PD may not be aware of mine, their deficits. In general, we recommend awareness and sensitivity to these communication deficits, an approach that can contribute to more satisfactory and informative interactions. The authors report no conflicts of Rock, interest in this work. de Lau LM, Breteler MM. Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol . 2006;5(6):525–535. Garcia-Ruiz PJ, Chaudhuri KR, Martinez-Martin P. Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease A review… from the mine collapse, past. J Neurol Sci . 2014;338(1):30–33. Friederici AD, Kotz SA, Werheid K, Hein G, von Cramon DY. Syntactic comprehension in Rock Essay, Parkinson’s disease: investigating early automatic and late integrational processes using event-related brain potentials. Neuropsychology . 2003;17(1):133.

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Saldert C, Ferm U, Bloch S. Mine! Semantic trouble sources and their repair in conversations affected by Parkinson’s disease. Int J Lang Commun Disord . 2014;49(6):710–721. Griffiths S, Barnes R, Britten N, Wilkinson R. Rock Bands Examples! Potential causes and consequences of overlap in talk between speakers with Parkinson’s disease and their familiar conversation partners. Keats Isabella! Semin Speech Lang . 2012;33(1):27–43. Griffiths S, Barnes R, Britten N, Wilkinson R. Investigating interactional competencies in Rock examples, Parkinson’s disease: the potential benefits of a conversation analytic approach. Int J Lang Commun Disord . 2011;46(5):497–509. Sacks H, Schegloff EA, Jefferson G. A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language . 1974; 50(4):696–735. Levinson SC. Pragmatics (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics) . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1983.

Seltzer B, Vasterling JJ, Mathias CW, Brennan A. Clinical and neuropsychological correlates of impaired awareness of deficits in Alzheimer disease and trust Parkinson disease: a comparative study. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol . 2001;14(2):122–129. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Rock Essay, Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the chilean mine, work you hereby accept the Bands Essay, Terms.

Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is keats isabella properly attributed. For permission for Rock Bands Essay commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and reflexes definition 5 of our Terms. Copyright 2017 • Dove Press Ltd • Website development by • Web Design by Adhesion. The opinions expressed in all articles published here are those of the specific author(s), and do not necessarily reflect the views of Dove Medical Press Ltd or any of its employees. Dove Medical Press is part of Taylor Francis Group, the Academic Publishing Division of Informa PLC. Copyright 2017 Informa PLC. All rights reserved. This site is owned and operated by Informa PLC ( “Informa”) whose registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. Bands! Registered in England and orpheus film Wales. Bands Essay! Number 3099067.

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Human Resources Dissertation Topics. A dissertation on Human Resources (HR) can encompass a wide range of Rock Bands topics, therefore it is vital to start wide and then focus in on a specific subject area. This can either be presented as a case study approach, which will compare an actual organisation (or organisations) to the literature on the subject, or as study of the contemporary research. The case study approach adds depth to trust the paper, introducing real life scenarios and how organisations identify and react to Rock Bands Essay them. The following are only suggestions of Human Resources Dissertation Topics and reflexes psychology can be adapted to meet individual needs and preferences for a Human Resources Management (HRM) dissertation. Theory of Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There are fundamental differences in the approach to Human Resources (HR), for example the ‘hard’ and `soft’ versions of Human Resources Management (HRM). The ‘hard’ version places little emphasis on workers’ concerns and, therefore, within its concept, any judgments of the effectiveness of Human Resources Management would be based on business performance criteria only.

In contrast, ‘soft’ Human Resources Management, while also having business performance as its primary concern, would be more likely to advocate a parallel concern for workers’ outcomes. These models of Human Resource theory, will give explanation for the increase in this management practice. Rock Essay Examples? It has been defined as “mutual goals, mutual influence, mutual respect, mutual rewards and mutual responsibility”. The ‘psychological contract’ under this unitarist, high commitment model is one of mutuality, but it is a mutuality strictly bounded by the need to operate within an essentially unitary framework. The following are some suggestions within the area of Human Resources (HR) Theory that you could base your human resources dissertation topics on. Comparison of models HR in practice, a modern study Can HR provide all the answers to people issues The dark side of HR Trade unions’ place in the organisation HR behind closed doors Can line a manager execute HR policies, or does it dilute the practice?

HR as a shared service HR and control practices Taylorism versus HR. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Challenging HR “The Workers Verdict” This was a very compelling and powerful article published in 1999 by D Guest in the Human Resources Management journal.

Good human resources dissertation topics would be to re-visit this article and then compare this to employee’s current opinion of the intervention. This article claimed Human Resources was another management tool to control the workforce, and in the wrong hands would bring back control and command management practices. It questioned the ability of management to Graphical User Interfaces Essay acquire the soft skills needed to implement Human Resources in its purist form. Rock Bands Essay Examples? This article is orpheus film one of the most damming written on the HR practice, therefore a good dissertation could either conclude after nearly ten years of practice since, practitioners are delivering value for Essay, all or the workers verdict of the practice is still negative. With all the sections there are numerous areas that can be reviewed. Reflexes Definition? I have discussed one area and then added suggestions on how to Bands Essay focus the research. For an individual dissertation paper any controversial or contentious article can be used as a framework to explore the theory within. This can be tested against individual’s feelings, experiences and beliefs. Challenging HR is a subject close to many workers hearts and would make for isabella, a compelling human resources management dissertation. Theory in action (an example and study of the theory in practice). Essay? Is the Human Resource valued?

Can the mine collapse HR function always drive change? Outsourcing (can the gate keeper of culture be outsourced?) Outsourcing, what do we do now? Who pushed who out Bands Essay, (a decline of the unions with the increase in HR practices). Reflexes Definition? Employee bargaining power. Does HR work?

Managing the Rock HR function. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Training and Development of Human Resources Dissertation Topics. Recognition of the importance of mine collapse Human Resources has increased in recent years; this is a result of competition from Bands overseas economies. In countries, for example Japan, Germany and Sweden, investment in employee development is higher than in the UK. Vs. Mistrust? This has led to Rock Bands examples some organisations reviewing their policies on chilean mine, training, introducing continuous investment in their employees. The latest recession’s impact on Bands Essay examples, business is the alan credit crunch and whether this will have an impact on training and development. Bands Essay? It is well discussed within literature that the “ training budget is vs. mistrust first budget cut during hard times”, although theorist do not believe in general that this is the best action for the Human Resources department, and the long term benefits of training outweigh the short term monetary savings. With the credit crunch a year old, an organisation, for example in financial services, could be studied to see the effect on Bands Essay examples, their training budget.

To add context two organisations could be compared, with a small section on their financial performance to orpheus film test the statement above. Below are some suggestions as to how to narrow your human resources dissertation topics on training and development down to a specific topic. How do organisations survive economic crisis (from the training and development perspective)? Does training and development really impact on the bottom line? What skills are needed for today’s turbulent climate?

Who trains the trainers? Is training a Panacea? Soft skills, who needs them? Training on a budget. Where now, post disaster survival? Soft versus hard skills. Can poor selection processes be remedied through training and Rock Bands Essay examples development? Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and vs. mistrust impressive.

Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. HR as the Bands Essay examples last competitive advantage Dissertation Topics. This could be based on simply “If you snooze you lose”. This is a strange statement for Human Resources, but there is so much written in contemporary literature that preaches that Human Resource is the orpheus film final competitive edge for organisations; therefore those that have not introduced this practice are at a disadvantage. This paper could compare two organisations, for example one operating a best practice HR policy and Rock the other with little or no HR policies. This would identify what added value there is in best practice Human Resources, and if this adds the same value to all organisations. The organisations for the study would need to be in turing, similar markets and employ the same number of employees. Change is endemic, and the Human Resources department should be a forefront of change, driving it though the organisation.

Suggested topics you could choose as human resources dissertation topics could include: If you snooze you lose. Keeping up with change, how do organisations cope with change? HR replaced personnel, what can replace HR? Value, how do you assess the HR value? Why bother, I will catch the next fad. A study on an organisation to advise them of their options. A study of change in an organisation. Examples? Change for change sake (is new always best?). Benefits of orpheus film HR.

Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Performance Management Dissertation Topics. Reward systems that are implemented under the umbrella of Human Resources are frequently a tool used to Bands Essay examples raise commitment, competence and equivalence, and these instruments are extremely cost effective when executed correctly. Today the individualism of contract gives employees more control on their reward. At the orpheus film basic level this can motivate, and at the higher level can introduce self-esteem and self worth. Bands Examples? Performance reward or incentive pay is a tool that can be used to set targets and psychology then reward when theses targets are met. Rock Examples? Performance management consists of trust a cycle, consisting of five parts (1) setting of performance objectives (2) measuring the outcomes (3) feedback of results (4) reward linked to the outcomes and (5) amendments to objectives and activities. There are many companies that use performance management strategies, and use them in different ways, giving you different topics to Bands research and companies to compare and contrast.

Some ideas for User Interfaces, good human resources dissertation topics are listed below. Is performance management effective? Can skills be increased through performance management? Is it possible to manage all? Can wages be capped through performance management? Do individuals have control over their reward? Upskilling.

Reviewing and reacting on results. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. A topic area could be the Bands subjectivity of the appraiser.

Performance management is turing paper widely used to Rock Bands assess employees’ capabilities and to set targets for the next year. The main contentious issues with performance management are the appraisals; they are conducted with the subjectivity of the reflexes psychology appraiser, who will often enter the appraisal interview with pre-conceived conclusions of both the Rock Bands examples appraisee and the interview. The gravity of this is immense as it forms the foundations of performance management. If they are not conducted fairly, there are no beneficial outcomes to either the appraisee or the organisation. A paper on the “Subjectivity of the Appraiser” could be based on the theory from psychology and management practice, and reviews methods and techniques to reduce bias from the appraisal interview. If you are interested on basing your human resources management dissertation on appraisals, there are some suggested human resources dissertation topics below. Can subjectivity be removed? Halo, what Halo? Was that fair?

A comparison. Can I have a pay rise? Are they honest? 360 degree appraisals. Public sector appraisals and the spinal pay reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and alan turing impressive.

Human Resources Dissertation Topics for Bands examples, only ?39.99. In theory a motivated worker is User Interfaces Essay a productive worker. Contained within the function of all organisations are numerous individual interrelated components (including the Bands Essay examples human aspect), which have a direct impact on the organisational performance. It is widely recognised that the “human resource” is regarded as the most valuable resource an mine collapse, organisation has. However, this resource does not always receive the attention, respect and the financial recognition to develop, to allow the employees’ full potential to be realised. The complex relationship between employee and employer has been studied from Rock Bands both a psychological and sociological aspect. The findings from both these fields of research have identified four main categories of theories on reflexes psychology, employees’ motivation. (1) Economic needs of Rock Bands Essay examples man, money is the motivator for example: Taylorism (2) Social man from the Hawthorne studies: (3) Self actualisation – this extended the results from the Hawthorne studies to include psychological issues: (4) The contingency approach – this identifies that individual motivation is influenced by a number of copper mine variables. If you are keen to discuss motivation within your dissertation, here are some human resources dissertation topics to get you started. Contemporary versus traditional theory.

HR and motivation. Motivation and job satisfaction. Examples? Cross organisation comparison, who gets it right? HRM is a motivator. Link between motivation and performance. Motivation and retention levels. Does motivated work force increase productivity?

Motivation versus total reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and orpheus film impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for Rock Bands, only ?39.99. Strategic Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There has been a significant rise in the interest of strategic Human Resource Management in the past decade. These contemporary theories on strategic Human Resource Management introduce different levels of integration within organisations. Although there are various differences in models, most commentators agree that Strategic Human Resource Management increases the organisation’s value. With the global economy and the increase in competition this brings, the human resource is viewed as the last competitive edge.

It is chilean copper how this resource is managed and the value that is place on it, that makes a difference between organisations. Bands Essay Examples? When the organisational strategy has not considered the implications to alan turing the human resource i.e. are there enough trained employees or do we need to employ more, the strategy runs a high risk of failure. Therefore it is vital to align the Bands Essay human resource with the organisation’s strategy. Orpheus Film? Strategic HRM lends some interesting human resources dissertation topics for you to discuss. Does HR sit and Essay fit on the board? Future planning or fire fighting?

Reactive or proactive? Future planning or justifying role? Can HR be strategic? SHRM, another new fad? HR driving the organisation. Operations or planning the HR function? Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. The underlying assumption is the way “things get done” in Interfaces, the organisation and that individuals know how to behave. Rock Bands? When an assumption is broken, it is questioned by members of the organisation.

This helps to maintain the culture (Phelan 2005). The culture is significant and alan turing paper important to an organisation and its members. For the individual and Rock Bands group member, culture is the “social glue that helps hold the organisation together by providing appropriate standards for what employees should say and do”. Consequently, the culture will reduce an alan turing, employee’s uncertainty and Rock Essay examples anxiety about expected behaviour. This behaviour is individual to the organisation, and is difficult to transfer. The organisation’s culture differentiates it from others, and trust vs. mistrust partly explains why employees are attracted to one employer versus other employers. The culture of an Bands examples, organisation can reduce uncertainty and complexity, providing a consistent outlook that its values make possible. This is visible in the decision-making process, co-ordination and control. Excellent leaders are not merely aware of the organisation’s basic assumptions, they also know how to take actions and mould and refine them.

To discuss culture in you dissertation, some human resources dissertation topics are suggested below. Gatekeeper or owner? Placing values in the organisation. Culture is the organisation. It’s the way we do it around here. Inducting new employees into the culture. Recruiting to change the culture. Managing cultural change.

Training and alan culture. Change agent. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for Bands Essay examples, only ?39.99.

Over the past few decades the nature and trust the composition of the work force has been changing. There are numerous challenges and Rock Bands Essay examples opportunities for organisations within the new formation. In reply, diversity management has become an chilean copper collapse, essential component of human resource management (HRM). Diversity management is a relatively new, but significant area of HRM. This new area of management brings learning and challenges to the individuals that supervise and manage employees. Diversity management does assume different forms and models in practice, but is defined as an organisation’s active investment in Bands Essay, the integration, development, and advancement of turing individuals who collectively represent the work force. Bands? When developing an organisational strategy, diversity is placed in the culture, policies, and orpheus film practices which support respect and communication, as well as individual, team and Bands examples organisational performance in a diverse environment.

Possible human resources dissertation topics on diversity are: Differences between diversity and chilean copper collapse discrimination. Rock Bands Essay? Managing the new workforce. Cross national diversity. Can discrimination be removed?

Managing diversity and alan turing cultural differences. Training for diversity. The line and Rock Bands examples diversity. Diverse and cosmopolitan. The global village. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99.

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