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It is easily customizable once downloaded. Customer Service Rep Resume Template. Symbolize. Customer Service Agent Resume Template. Have everything organized structurally and jefferson proceed downwards after mentioning your details under bio data. Kick-ass Movie. If you are not so sure about what should come before what and jefferson contain what then you are better off having someone else do it for oligopoly is a is characterized by a:, you, or download the thousand of BPO resume format for freshers available on the internet then edit to thomas essay, reflect your person. Kick-ass Movie. You can also see Resume Examples for Job Seekers . A common mistake occurs in the job experiences section where people mention each post they have ever handled without thinking about it for a second.
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Nov 17, 2017 Thomas jefferson essay,
MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is essay asking you to format the page and present the content in a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to format an kick-ass movie essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about putting the thomas jefferson, final formatting touches on how many people vote your essay, you have questions about what to write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in the body of your paper. (no comma between the thomas essay, author and scarlet ibis short, page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by the order the quotes appear in essay, your paper)
For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the Works Cited page of an kick-ass movie MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. Thomas Jefferson Essay? For MLA style, you need:
1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the christianity spread throughout the world, title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to essay, MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman)
1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in kick-ass movie, MS-Word (Mac) My copy of thomas jefferson Microsoft Word for did the cultural revolution end, Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the left and right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low.
Change it to 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) In the top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an automatic page number and your surname. 2.1 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Windows)
Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for thomas jefferson essay, you to t ype your surname . Click anywhere in the body of the paper to exit the header area. 2.2 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of what does Page (header)” and “Alignment” to thomas jefferson, “Right”) Click just to was the of the thirty war, the left of the new page number, and jefferson essay, type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number and section, and today’s date. Centered on what was the cause thirty years the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and Macbeth”). Like all the thomas jefferson essay, other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is double-spaced . Revolution End? The title is in the same font as the rest of the paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged.
There is no extra space above or below the thomas essay, title. A truly informative title will include the christianity throughout, general topic, and jefferson essay, your precise opinion on that topic. Scarlet Ibis Story? (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to make about essay Hamlet and Macbeth. Reuse part of how many people dont vote your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on how you format the page. (For a resource to jefferson, help you determine how to what, cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and essay, the second happens on a separate page at the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines)
Long quotes can start to look like filler. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to kick-ass movie, include the thomas jefferson, whole passage. (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right). Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the period . How Many Vote? (This is different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the author’s name and the page number. Thomas Essay? If the quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in 2010, the noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the when did the end, importance of citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to jefferson essay, develop your own original ideas. What Does Symbolize? (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an thomas jefferson Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to quote is what cause less than three lines long, use inline style. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in thomas, order to fit it into our own sentence.
To let the reader know what we changed, we put  around it. How Did Christianity? Again, note the absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the body of the thomas essay, paper. Let’s imagine we want to symbolize, reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to jefferson, establish credibility, but we don’t need to include any of the technical details. We can save space, and make it much easier on thirty our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. If we use an thomas jefferson author’s idea, rephrased in our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited. What Of The War? This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it. Start a new page . Thomas? MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page.
MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to vote, Create an essay Individual Works Cited Entry.
Exactly what goes into short, each item in jefferson, your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry. If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an how did christianity throughout the world electronic source (such as an email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. Essay? How to Organize Your Works Cited list.
Sort the entries alphabetically by the author ‘s last name. If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely. Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in scarlet ibis short, a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in jefferson, your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item. Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of how did christianity Word, I select the thomas jefferson, text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. (In my copy of word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999.
06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the dont vote, Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in thomas, an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an explanation about page numbers. That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the scarlet ibis short, significant area. Section 2 explains how to thomas jefferson essay, put page numbers in the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in what, citations.
How do you in thomas essay, text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the did the end, text appears on within the thomas jefferson essay, authors works? That means the quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by scarlet Wordsworth-Fuller.
Thank you for jefferson, valuable information. Did The End? Before my college year in America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for useful information about thomas how to write MLA format essay. Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of when did the revolution essay. When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to thomas, write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again. I’m glad to know you found this page helpful. Kick-ass Movie? Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of any assignment involving writing. With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the thomas essay, authors works?
In this case, your paper would be referring to what, something you found on page 20 of the jefferson essay, text by Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the what cause of the, Table of Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google. Im in middle school and I have to thomas jefferson essay, do this. I have never heard of MLA Format and this helped ALOT. Thanks so much!
Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the how did christianity spread the world, question. Jefferson Essay? I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and what was the war, paintings, created for essay, different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of paragraphs, written for different reasons.
that was beautiful. I am writing to when cultural, request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to essay, our website. Lansdale School of Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and christianity spread throughout the world, a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to thomas essay, an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an how did spread throughout Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option.
Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. (They aren’t for documenting sources — use an in-text citation and a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about whether you really do need to thomas jefferson essay, use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the does, book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above. This page is about formatting the jefferson, paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example.
I followed everything to the “t” and my professor says that my header is scarlet short indented and my paragraphs are double indented and the page numbers are in wrong format. Thomas Essay? What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from thiis handout for years, and when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for scarlet short, the revision. But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions. I agree. .let me ask you this. Thomas? Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from a page that I created following the instructions for what does symbolize, using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the thomas jefferson essay, instructions that are on the page. But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor. Cultural? Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the thomas, information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and evaluates it according to his or her own criteria.
I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for an opportunity to kick-ass movie, make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about what “format” the college application essay should be in. Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e. seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in the APA system? And what lends itself to the Humanities with the thomas essay, MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into sections.
Authors who use APA style tend to short, publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of thomas essay date more quickly; so the date is was the thirty years war prominent in APA citations, and thomas, page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to when did the revolution end, write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and thomas jefferson essay, “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and books, re-interpreting and when cultural revolution end, quoting passages from thomas essay them. Scarlet Ibis Short? MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and thomas, further the work of what cause of the thirty years war scholarship as it is conducted in thomas jefferson essay, the humanities. Thanks for the reply. When Did The End? What do you mean by ” MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by “procedure” and “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is thomas essay different but is ibis short story it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the thomas jefferson, subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure.
Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. But it’s best for you to talk to your teacher about the specifics of did the revolution any asisgnment. Ok, thanks. I just wanted to ask and clarify it. Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and is often used for atheists, for example… or am I wrong? I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the essay, culture of scarlet ibis short humans,” without intending the more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me.
thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at thomas, all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written. The first section includes links to pages about how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for dont vote, me to write an essay in thomas jefferson, mLA format about evolution. People Vote? I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here.
In middle school I never wrote an essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and thomas jefferson, the name of an does the raven author is not a good paper title, and thomas jefferson, I would ask them to what does the raven symbolize, write a title that catches the reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and identifies what position the paper is going to jefferson, take on scarlet story the topic. But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the book title in thomas, italics. Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course. Thank you very much.
which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of how did christianity throughout the world social sciences, media sciences and business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on “Citing” at the top of the page. One of the options on the other end of that link is how to cite a web page. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Essay? Especially the citation builder. Thank you!
cool it was helpful. is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on what symbolize the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the thomas jefferson essay, model, the digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model? There is no single correct way to people dont, cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph. Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice.
In general, though, the 8th edition of the thomas essay, MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.” Photograph. The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the picture on a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly. If you found the image as the result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to advise you on what to do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help.
There is no specific answer to kick-ass movie, how much a paper should be worked on. It depends on what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is thomas willing to meet with you before the cause of the thirty years, due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to jefferson, revise your work, and what symbolize, many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the jefferson essay, citation builder. Vote? Thank you!
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Pornography/Andrea Dworkin, A Detrement To The Feminist Movement term paper 9834. Andrea Dworkin has been an influential write, speaker, and thomas jefferson, activist for over two decades. She claims to be a feminist, and that her ideas are beneficial to women. Cause Of The? This paper will show that many of her most popular beliefs are not only essay detrimental to society, but also not in the best interests of women. In letters from a war zone, Andrea Dworkin presents a collection of speeches and short articles she has composed during her career as a writer and activist. Many of her articles deal with censorship and pornography. One claim is central to all of these, pornography is an act and not an idea, thus censorship is not relevant to it. In response to a New York Time Review of throughout the world her 1981 book, Pornography: Men Possessing Women, Dworkin writes, Pornography says the jefferson essay women want to be hurt, forced, and abused; pornography says women want to be raped, battered, kidnapped, maimed; pornography says women want to be humiliated, shamed, defamed, pornography says that women say no but mean yes - Yes to scarlet story, violence, yes to pain. (Dworkin p 203) In response to Dworkin s fiery rhetoric, Wendy Mcelroy writes that Dworkin has scientific backing and even cites evidence to the contrary. In Japan, where pornography depicting violence is thomas, widely available, rape is much lower per capita than in the United States, where violence in porn is restricted. Mcelroy attacks the belief that pornography cause violence, stating that even if a correlation is present, is what, does not necessarily mean there is a causal relationship. (McElroy 102) Lynne Segal sees in inherent harm in trying to link the thomas two together. She believes that feminists who try to do so are wasting valuable time that could be spent on other important issues.
In the end, anti-pornography campaigns, feminist or not, can only enlist today, as they have invariously enlisted before, guilt and anxiety around sex, as well as lifetimes of confusion in our personal experiences of sexual arousal and short story, activity. Jefferson Essay? In contrast, campaigns which get to the heart of cause of the years men s violence and sadism towards women must enlist the widest possible resources to empower socially. (Gibson 19) Another argument of Dworkin s is that pornography should not be protected as free speech under the thomas essay first amendment. It is her contention that protecting what pornographers say, is when, protecting what pornography does. Pornography is jefferson essay, more than words. They are acts against women. Pornography happens to when revolution, women. As a result, bans on jefferson essay, such material are warranted, not only because it is ibis, harmfully and discriminatory to women, but also because there are no civil liberties that are violated in preventing an act. (Dworkin 185) Since it is uncertain whether there is even a correlation between violence against women and essay, pornography, any attempt to ban it must be viewed as censorship. What ever it is referred to, it still has the same effect. In many of Dworkin s writings, she laments the silencing of women. She is partially responsible for this silencing.
In 1992, The Canadian Supreme Court ruled in favor of a legal restriction on scarlet short story, pornography based on thomas essay, the psychological damage it does women. Ironically, this obscenity law has been used almost exclusively against kick-ass movie gay, lesbian, and feminist material. (McElroy 87) The effect of censorship is absolutely detrimental the weaker voice, as is the case with the Butler decision. Dworkin herself fell victim, when her book, Pornography, was seized by thomas essay Canadian customs officials. Was The Of The Thirty? Censorship in contradictory to feminist goals, because freedom of speech is the most powerful weapon in the feminist arsenal. Medical journals used by thomas essay medical students, and the testimony of what cause of the thirty women victimized by thomas essay sexual abuse are prime targets of censorship. (Strossen 77) An episode involving Dworkin and her cohort in censorship, Catherine MacKinnon, demonstrates the dangers of kick-ass movie censorship. At a symposium at A Michigan law school, at which Dworkin and MacKinnon were speaking, a group of feminists had prepared a series of documentaries of the topic of the conference, prostitution. Dworkin refused to speak at the symposium if adversarial speakers were there, so the documentaries were the only voice of thomas jefferson essay opposition to them. When work got out that the documentaries could possibly pornographic, Dworkin and how did throughout, MacKinnon insisted on their removal. When the presenter refused, they coerced the students with threats of leaving, to force the removed of the documentary exhibit. What had started out as an academic symposium quickly turned into a forum for the exclusive advocacy of Dworkin ideals. Her action epitomized the danger of thomas jefferson essay censorship to society and vote, other feminists, she silenced the weaker voice. (Strossen 211-214) Dworkin s opinions on thomas jefferson essay, pornography are summed up nicely by Wendy McElroy; Pornography is morally wrong; Pornography leads directly to cause war, violence against women; Pornography, in and of itself, is violence against women.
Five individual allegation are made based of the third point; Women are physically coerced into jefferson essay, pornography; Women in christianity throughout, porn who have not been coerced have been so traumatized by patriarchy that the cannot give real consent; Capitalism is a system of economic coercion that forces women into pornography in order to make a living; Pornography is thomas jefferson essay, violence against women who consume it, and thereby re-enforcing their own oppression; Pornography is violence against women, as a class, who must live in fear because of the atmosphere of kick-ass movie terror it creates. Thomas Jefferson Essay? (Mcelroy 91) The first three allegations deal with coercion. The first claim is based on a few isolated cases and should not be used to characterize the entire industry. The second allegation is not only arrogant, but degrades women because it undermines a woman's ability to choose. If women s choices are being trashed, why should radical feminists (i.e. Dworkin) fare better than other women? This sends a dangerous message that woman lack full capacity to make choices. The third allegation fails in a similar manor as the second. Dworkin draws no line between consent and coercion, and thus she rejects a woman s right to contract. (McElroy 92-95) The fourth and fifth claim of Dworkin s are also in contradiction with women s best interests. The fourth claim completely ignores the possibility that women might actually enjoy pornography without falling victim to scarlet story, it.
Allowing women access to a means of sexual expression with actual sex grants them increased sexual freedom. The final allegation is based on the notion that, Women are not individuals, but members of a class with collective interests. In making this claim, Dworkin must destroy the thomas essay notion of how did individuality, and condition unsuitable for not only essay women, but all humanity. (McElroy 96) Another criticism of Dworkin, is that many of her arguments contain logical inconsistencies or outright contradictions. For one thing, Dworkin wants to validate the experience of women who have be silenced by patriarchy yet refuses to what does, accept the essay voices of women who participate in pornography. Dworkin also believes that pornography is the bastion of does the raven symbolize patriarchy, yet conservatives, tradition champion of patriarchy, also crusade against pornography. (McElroy 98) In one of writings of cesarean sections, Dworkin make staunch, graphic, remarks about the topic. It is laced with information about conspiracies and loaded with vulgarity. Such extreme language may work against the interests of women, because even though a problem might exist, it might be written of by readers due to Dworkin s hyperbolic harangue. (Strossen 196) In general, Dworkin s writings while claiming to be feminist, are often in thomas jefferson essay, direct conflict with mainstream feminist agenda.
Many of her views portray women as helpless victim incapable of rational thinking. In her support of censorship, she is also met be harsh resistance from prominent women s groups such as N.O.W.. Many of her view are seen as harmful to the cause of women s equality, and in this regard are more dangerous then anti-women's factions, because it is written under the banner of feminism. (Gibson 118) Andrea Dworkin s influence has created an environment where free speech and equality are compromised. Though she claims it to be in the best interest of ibis society, this just is not true. Most feminists reject her ideas as counterproductive to their goals. Her writing are not only detrimental to women, however, everyone is affected. By advocating censorship, she undermines every principle that this country was founded on and every ideal that keeps it unified and essay, free from oppression. Ironically, Dworkin seeks freedom from oppression for women, but in doing so advocates universal oppression for all people, women and men. Works Cited 1. Dworkin, Andrea Letters from a War Zone. Lawrence Hill 1993. 2. McElroy, Wendy A Woman s Right To Pornography St.
Martin Press 1995 3. Gibson, Pamela Church and kick-ass movie, Gibson, Roma Dirty Looks British Film Institute 1993 4. Strossen, Nadine Defending Pornography Doubleday 1995. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Thomas? Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the entire process and will receive the paper by did the end e-mail/download. The projects are never resold and will remain your unique property for a lifetime.
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dna destiny essays International Socialist Review Issue 38, November#150;December 2004. Genes, Evolution, and Human Nature. THE IDEA that human society and jefferson, behavior are to some significant degree determined by our biological inheritance is both widely believed and enormously influential. One version of this argument bases itself on evolutionary theory, claiming that human evolution has made such characteristics as social hierarchy, gender inequality, competition, and violence inevitable features of short every social system. Claims of this kind are closely linked to arguments that claim that significant aspects of human behavior#151;from alcoholism to criminality#151;are genetically determined.
1. Newspaper reports and TV programs, for thomas essay, example, inform us almost daily that scientists have uncovered evidence for the genetic basis of one human characteristic or another. Sometimes the characteristic in does symbolize, question is thomas essay, a disease, such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington#146;s disease. But just as often the reports are about kick-ass movie, psychological characteristics and patterns of behavior, such as violence and criminality, or sexual orientation. A Time magazine cover story asked Why Are Men and Women Different? It Isn#146;t Just Upbringing. New Studies Show They Are Born That Way. Thomas Jefferson Essay? The picture showed a little girl in short story, a dress watching a little boy make a muscle.
2 The following month, a Newsweek cover story was headlined Is This Child Gay? Born or Bred: The Origins of Homosexuality. Thomas? 3 Another Time cover pictured a cracked wedding ring and proclaimed Infidelity: It May be in Our Genes. 4 And U.S. Christianity Throughout The World? News and World Report ran an article titled Sex: It#146;s All in Your Brain, claiming that men and women think differently and that Every social explanation has been exhausted. It is innate.
5. Leading U.S. scientists have made similar claims. James Watson (co-discoverer of the structure of DNA and thomas, former head of the Human Genome Project) says, We used to think that our fate was in our stars. Now we know, in large part, that our fate is in our genes. 6 Daniel Koshland, former editor of Science , the most prestigious scientific journal in the country, has claimed that genetic research can help to eliminate key social problems.
According to Koshland, the did the cultural homeless are impaired#133;. Indeed, no group will benefit more from the thomas jefferson essay application of human genetics. 7. There is no question that there have been important advances in genetic research in recent years. But the claim that these advances contain the solution to how did christianity spread the world pressing social problems is not only false, but dangerous. Thomas Jefferson Essay? Such claims are deeply ideological.
They are, in effect, an attempt to use the prestige of science to dont defend the status quo, which is why they are given prominent coverage in the media. The attempt to explain important features of society in evolutionary or genetic terms#151;biological determinism#151;has two goals. First, it tries to convince us that the social order is a consequence of unchanging human biology, so that inequality and injustice cannot be eliminated. Second, in the case of problems that are impossible to ignore, it tells us to look for jefferson essay, the solution at the level of the individual and not at spread the level of social institutions. Jefferson? The problems lie not in the structure of society, but in how did, some of the individuals who make up society. The solution is thomas essay, thus to change#151;or even eliminate#151;the individuals, not to challenge existing social structures. From eugenics to genocide. The claim that biology holds the key to solving social problems and the related claim that biology demonstrates the limits of social reform and the impossibility of radical change, both have a long history, going back even before the birth of modern genetics. In 1865, Charles Darwin#146;s cousin Francis Galton published an article called Hereditary Talent and Character 8 in which he claimed that talent is how did christianity throughout, biologically determined and jefferson essay, proposed improving society through better breeding. Cultural Revolution End? A few years later he introduced the thomas essay term eugenics#151;meaning good birth#151;to describe his proposal.
9. In his most famous book, Hereditary Genius, 10 Galton attempted to demonstrate that intelligence is inherited by kick-ass movie tracing the thomas jefferson essay genealogies of what cause of the thirty war well-known English families and showing that, generation after generation, the members of such families tended to acquire prestigious social positions. The alternative explanation, that what is inherited is not intelligence but access to jefferson essay social power and influence, seems not to have occurred to him. Since biological theories of this kind assume that existing inequalities reflect fundamental facts about human nature, it is not surprising that Galton reached racist conclusions. He claimed that [T]he average intellectual standard of the short story negro race is some two grades below our own, 11 and that the Jews are specialized for a parasitical existence upon other nations. 12. Despite the thomas jefferson essay fact that there was no evidence whatsoever for the underlying assumptions of eugenics, organizations promoting better breeding gained numerous supporters by the early part of the twentieth century.
Eugenics was adopted most enthusiastically in the U.S., where it was used by the nativist movement as part of scarlet ibis short its attack on immigration. One of the principle advocates was the biologist Charles Davenport, who was the founder of the Cold Spring Harbor Lab and the Eugenics Record Office. The latter#151;which was financed by the widow of the thomas jefferson railroad magnate E.H. Harriman#151;gathered information on thousands of American families for genetic research. Davenport was a serious scientist. He demonstrated the heritability of eye, skin, and hair color. But he also held that characteristics such as pauperism, criminality, and feeble-mindedness were biologically inherited. Davenport even claimed that the capacity to be a naval officer is an inherited trait, composed of two subtraits: thalassophilia (love of the sea) and hyperkineticism (or wanderlust). When Did The? Because there were no women in the navy, Davenport concluded that the trait is unique to males. 13.
Davenport#146;s tendency to postulate a genetic basis for thomas, nearly everything would be amusing if the consequences had not been so tragic. Against evidence that pellagra, an often deadly disease that was at epidemic proportions in the South, was caused by dietary deficiencies, Davenport (who was also head of the U.S. Pellagra Commission) argued that there was a genetic susceptibility to the disease. Successive administrations used Davenport#146;s false claims to the raven symbolize avoid spending money on nutritional programs. As a result, hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, died unnecessarily between the time of the First World War and the New Deal, when the policy was finally changed. Eugenicists such as Davenport encouraged nearly thirty states to enact laws permitting the forced sterilization of thousands of jefferson people in prisons and mental hospitals who were judged to be feeble-minded or defective in some other way.
The first sterilization law was passed in Indiana in 1907. A quarter of a century later, the German Nazis used laws such as these as a model for their own racist legislation. Eugenicists in the U.S. also urged the federal government to restrict the immigration of undesirable races and played an important role in helping to pass the viciously racist federal immigration laws of christianity spread throughout 1921 and 1924. Their arguments dovetailed with those of thomas psychologists like H.H. Goddard and Lewis M. Terman, who developed the first standardized intelligence tests, which unsurprisingly reflected the racist and did the cultural end, cultural biases of their designers. Even when testing led to jefferson essay the conclusion that half the U.S. When Cultural Revolution End? population#151;including most Blacks and immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe#151;were of essay substandard intelligence, the results were taken seriously.
Terman advocated vocational training and placement for such unfortunates, warning that they could drift easily into the ranks of the anti-social or join the army of Bolshevik discontents. Carl Brigham of Princeton University (who later developed the Scholastic Aptitude Test, SAT) warned that [t]he average intelligence of what symbolize succeeding waves of immigration has become progressively lower and essay, that the situation was made worse owing to the presence here of the negro. Brigham advocated not only severely limiting immigration but also prevention of the continued propagation of the scarlet short story defective strains in the present population. 14. The passage of immigration restrictions also didn#146;t satisfy Davenport, who complained in 1925 that. our ancestors drove Baptists from thomas essay, Massachusetts Bay in to Rhode Island but we have no place to drive the Jews to. Also, they burned the witches but it seems to be against the mores to how did spread burn any considerable part of our population. 15. This was not mere hyperbole. Thomas Jefferson Essay? Earlier he had written that. though capital punishment is a crude method of grappling with the difficulty [of those with inferior genes] it is infinitely superior to that of training the feeble-minded and kick-ass movie, criminalistic and then letting them loose upon society and thomas jefferson essay, permitting them to how many people dont vote perpetuate in their offspring these animal traits.
16. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that a few years later, leading U.S. eugenicists were praising Nazi race laws in Germany. The Eugenical News called the thomas essay Nazi sterilization law of how did christianity 1933 clean-cut, direct and #145;model.#146; In 1935 the jefferson American Eugenics Society argued that crime and dependency keep on increasing because new defectives are born, just as new cancer cells remorselessly penetrate into sound tissue, and it reminded its members that we treat cancer by means of the surgeon#146;s knife. Frederick Osborn, secretary of the American Eugenics Society, wrote in 1937: The German sterilization program is apparently an excellent one. Taken altogether, recent developments in Germany constitute perhaps the most important social experiment which has ever been tried. And Charles R. Stockard, president of the board of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, warned that the human race faced ultimate extermination unless low grade and defective stocks could be absolutely prevented from reproducing. Eugenicists in the U.S. The Raven? continued to advocate the sterilization of millions of Americans right up until 1940.
17. Thus the idea that society#146;s problems are due to defective individuals played an important role in thomas essay, paving the way for the Nazi Holocaust. But largely because the Nazis took these ideas to their logical extreme, by the end of the Second World War, biological determinism in general and ibis story, the eugenics movement in particular became completely discredited in the eyes of most mainstream scientists. Yet this period in which biologists rejected racist pseudo-science was remarkably short-lived. The return of jefferson essay biological determinism. Biological determinism first began to make a comeback in the late 1960s as part of the ibis short ruling-class response to the movements for social change in essay, the U.S. and elsewhere. In 1969 Arthur Jensen, a professor at Stanford, published a paper arguing that Blacks are innately less intelligent than whites, based on the fact that the average African American IQ score is consistently lower than the average score for whites and the claim that IQ has a high degree of heritability.
18 Soon afterwards, the Harvard psychologist Richard Herrnstein defended the view that socioeconomic status is a direct function of inherited intelligence. In future generations, said Herrnstein, the tendency to short story be unemployed would run in families just like the tendency to have bad teeth. 19. But these claims that social inequalities have a biological basis were no better supported than the earlier claims of the eugenics movement. Jensen claimed that IQ is 80 percent heritable, citing as evidence research done on identical twins by the British psychologist Sir Cyril Burt. According to Burt, the thomas jefferson IQs of scarlet short identical twins who were separated and raised in distinct environments are much more closely correlated than the IQs of other individuals from the two environments. But Burt#146;s data seemed suspicious to the Marxist psychologist Leon Kamin, and a careful examination of Burt#146;s research revealed that it really was too good to be true. Thomas Jefferson Essay? For example, Kamin discovered that even though Burt#146;s sample sizes got bigger, some of the correlation coefficients he claimed to kick-ass movie have calculated stayed identical to three decimal places. 20 It soon emerged that Burt#146;s work had been perhaps the biggest scientific fraud of the thomas jefferson twentieth century. His supposed coauthors and research assistants did not exist, the twins he claimed to have studied were fictitious, and his data had been completely fabricated.
21. Not only is the claim that IQ is highly heritable unsupported, it is also irrelevant to Jensen#146;s main conclusion, which was that compensatory education programs are doomed to fail. Even if IQ was highly heritable, it would not follow that differences between groups could not be overcome by improved educational opportunities. Heritability is a measure of the variation in a trait due to genetic differences within a group, and is irrelevant to the issue of whether a characteristic can be altered by changing the environment. The same genotype (or collection of genes) may be expressed differently in different environments, so heritability estimates apply only to short story a specific population in a specific range of environments. Hereditarians such as Jensen simply assume that we have already done all we can to alter the environment#151;a laughable assumption when it comes to education.
More generally, the idea that IQ tests measure an individual#146;s innate and fixed degree of intelligence, or that intelligence can be measured on a single scale, are equally dubious. Jefferson Essay? 22. Who knows what IQ measures? asked the does the raven biologist Stephen Jay Gould. It is a good predictor of #145;success#146; in school, but is such success a result of intelligence, apple polishing, or the assimilation of values that the leaders of society prefer? 23 Historically, IQ tests have been used to justify existing social hierarchies.
The tests are calibrated to ensure that those who occupy more privileged positions in jefferson, the hierarchies receive higher scores. The scores are then used to claim that social inequalities reflect natural differences. The philosopher of science Hilary Putnam has argued that the notion of how many people IQ is built on the assumption that there are a few #145;superior#146; people who have this one mysterious factor#151;#145;intelligence#146;#151;and who are good at everything, and jefferson, a lot of slobs who are not much good at anything. If this assumption seems plausible to some people, it is only because we live in a society that is people dont, highly stratified. Thomas Jefferson Essay? In fact, ordinary people can do anything that it is in their interest and how did, do it well when (1) they are highly motivated and thomas, (2) they work collectively. As Putnam points out: That motivation plays a decisive role in acquiring almost any skill is a matter of what cause years war everyone#146;s experience. Thomas Essay? The importance of working collectively is also evidenced in what does the raven, many ways. The Black and thomas jefferson, Latin prisoners in Attica Prison are presumably part of [what Herrnstein calls] the low IQ residue. But they organized brilliantly. Every popular revolution in history makes the kick-ass movie same point#151;that ordinary people in a revolution can perform incredible feats of organization, planning, strategy, etc.
But collective intelligence is not restricted to the context of revolution. Essay? Since the 1950s a series of studies have shown that even in when revolution end, the context of modern capitalist production, workers perform better, and find their jobs less dissatisfying, when the managerial hierarchy is reduced. 24. The claims of Jensen, Herrnstein, and other biological determinists, were simply an attempt to rationalize race and class inequalities as more or less inevitable. As genuine science, they lacked all merit. 25. From sociobiology to evolutionary psychology. From the thomas jefferson mid-1970s, new attempts were made to years war use biology to explain social phenomena.
In his widely read book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, 26 the thomas jefferson essay Harvard entomologist E.O. Wilson attempted to what cause of the thirty years war extend evolutionary explanations of social behavior in non-human animals to explain human behavior as well. Wilson argued that certain forms of human behavior are universal, and that the best explanation for this is essay, that they are the result of natural selection and hence are coded for in our genes. Like the eugenicists of the early twentieth century, Wilson postulated genes for scarlet ibis short story, a wide variety of traits, including entrepreneurship, creativity, spite, conformity (human beings are absurdly easy to indoctrinate#151;they seek it), xenophobia, and homosexuality. 27 Again, like the essay earlier eugenicists, Wilson claimed that these supposed biological facts made certain aspects of society, such as male domination of christianity public life, all but inevitable. My own guess is the genetic bias is essay, intense enough to does cause a substantial division of labor even in the most free and egalitarian of essay future societies, he wrote shortly after Sociobiology was published. Thus, even with identical education and how did christianity spread throughout the world, equal access to thomas all professions, men are likely to play a disproportionate role in ibis, political life, business, and science.
If we attempt to create a more egalitarian society, Wilson continued, we will place some personal freedoms in jeopardy. 28 Concerning Marxism in particular, Wilson reportedly joked later, Wonderful theory. Thomas? Wrong species. 29. Sociobiological claims about human society received massive attention in the media. A Time magazine cover story was headlined Why You Do What You Do. According to the accompanying article, the theory can explain loyalty to church, corporation and nation.
30 BusinessWeek soon claimed that sociobiology provided A Genetic Defense of the Free Market. Sociobiology means that individuals cannot be molded to fit into socialist societies without a tremendous loss of efficiency. How Did Christianity The World? Bioeconomists say that government programs that force individuals to thomas jefferson be less competitive and selfish than they are genetically programmed to be are preordained to fail. 31. Even Playboy got into the act: Do Men Need to Cheat on Their Women? A New Science Says Yes. Inside, the magazine#146;s readers were told that. Males are#133;driven by their genes to reproduce.
They tend to be more promiscuous because in time past that was their best way to does the raven symbolize reproduce the most offspring. If you get caught fooling around, don#146;t say the devil made you do it. It#146;s the devil in your DNA. 32. Like their eugenic predecessors, these sociobiological speculations lacked any serious evidence in their support. 33 Consider for instance the claim that supposed human universals have a genetic basis. The mere fact of universality (if it is a fact) does not show this, since there might easily be a non-genetic explanation. German speaking is nearly universal in Germany, but the explanation is not that inhabitants of the country are genetically predisposed to speak a particular language. Often sociobiologists claimed that non-human animals share the thomas essay characteristic in question#151;aggression, for instance#151;and that this shows that it probably has a genetic basis.
But this kind of reasoning is quite unpersuasive, as Wilson#146;s Harvard colleague Richard Lewontin has pointed out: How do we decide that slavery in ants and ant queens are like human slavery and the raven symbolize, like human royal families? How do we decide that the coyness we see in people is the same as the behavior in animals called coyness? What happens is that human categories are laid on animals by analogy, partly as a matter of convenience of language, and then these traits are discovered in animals and thomas jefferson, laid back on humans as if they had a common origin. There is in fact not a shred of evidence that the when end anatomical, physiological, and genetic basis of what is called aggression in jefferson essay, rats has anything in common with the German invasion of Poland in 1939. 34. Similarly, there is no convincing evidence for short, the claim that various behaviors have been selected for in humans because they increase our biological fitness. Sociobiologists were initially interested in the question of why some animals are apparently willing to reduce (or even give up) their own chances of reproducing in order to benefit others. An extreme example is the essay existence of kick-ass movie sterile members of insect colonies. How could such traits have evolved? One possible explanation is that an individual might give up its own prospects of reproducing in order to increase the chances of its relatives reproducing, thus passing on some of its genes to the next generation indirectly.
These are known as cases of kin selection, in contrast to cases of individual selection, in which the thomas jefferson organism attempts to pass on its genes directly by having offspring. Another possible explanation in people dont vote, cases in which the sacrifice is temporary is that the individual that benefits is likely to reciprocate in the future. This is known as reciprocal altruism. Kin selection and reciprocal altruism are important ideas in evolutionary biology, but whether or not they are the correct explanation for thomas essay, any particular trait has to be demonstrated. Cause Thirty? But sociobiological explanations of essay human behavior simply assume what they need to was the of the thirty years war prove. When we combine individual selective advantage with the possibility of kin selection and reciprocal altruism, it is thomas, hard to imagine any human trait for which a plausible scenario for its selective advantage could not be invented. The real problem is to find out whether any of throughout the world these stories is thomas jefferson, true .#133; At the very minimum, we might ask whether there is ibis, any evidence that such selective processes are going on at the present, but in essay, fact no one has ever measured in any human population the actual reproductive advantage or disadvantage of how did christianity throughout any human behavior. All of the sociobiological explanations of the evolution of jefferson human behavior are like Rudyard Kipling#146;s Just So stories of how the camel got his hump and how the elephant got his trunk. They are just stories.
Science has been turned into a game. 35. But perhaps the vote most basic point is that the behaviors that sociobiologists claimed are coded into thomas, our genes, are not universals at all. Not every human society has exhibited the christianity spread throughout the world same sexual division of labor as our own. And not every human society has been capitalist or even competitive. For example, the anthropologist Peggy Sanday conducted a survey of about 150 different societies going back as far as the sixth century BC to see whether they were male-dominated, female-dominated, or based on collective decision-making. She found a huge diversity of sex roles in thomas, these societies, showing that such roles derive not from ibis, human nature, but from specific historical and thomas jefferson, political circumstances.36 More generally, there has been tremendous cultural evolution in the past few thousand years that cannot be explained in biological terms because there simply hasn#146;t been enough time for natural selection to how many people vote operate. 37.
Sociobiology reinvents itself. Sociobiology, however, has proven too ideologically useful to die, and it has reemerged over the past decade renamed as evolutionary psychology. Books by thomas essay New Republic editor Robert Wright, 38 science writer Matt Ridley 39 and Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker 40 have popularized the ideas of evolutionary psychology for a general audience. Pinker is particularly pugnacious. He claims that inequality and conflict are inevitable features of what was the cause of the human society. He attacks Marxists, academic feminists and cafe intellectuals and thomas jefferson, says The standard Marxist theory of human nature has probably been refuted by many sources of evidence, including the what anthropological record and Darwinian theory. 41. Evolutionary psychology claims to be an advance of old-style sociobiology in at least two respects. First, it proposes that it is not specific behaviors but underlying psychological mechanisms that are shaped by thomas essay natural selection.
This leads evolutionary psychologists to adopt a modular theory of the human mind, which sees it as consisting of a large number of distinct informational processing devices (or modules), each with a specialized task#151;in other words a Swiss army knife model of the mind. There is does the raven symbolize, considerable evidence that at least some aspects of the mind#151;such as language abilities and the visual system#151;are independently functioning modules, but evolutionary psychologists take this idea to absurd extremes, proposing such modules as a cheater detector (able to tell you when someone is deceiving you) and a sexual attraction module (which supposedly leads human males to be attracted to young females, and females to be attracted to thomas jefferson high-status males). Even more modest versions of the modularity thesis leave us with a picture of the mind that is atomized and how many people, relatively inflexible. Thomas Jefferson? 42. Second, the more technical work in evolutionary psychology makes use of sophisticated mathematical models in order to determine what kinds of spread throughout the world psychological mechanisms would have been optimal for our ancient ancestors to evolve in thomas essay, the supposed environment of evolutionary adaptation that they had to face. When Did The Revolution? The underlying assumption is that the human mind evolved to solve the problems faced by hunter-gatherers hundreds of thousands of jefferson years ago in the Pleistocene era and that its basic psychology has remained unchanged ever since. Contemporary social problems are thus rooted in the fact that we find ourselves with a Stone Age mind in an increasingly complex modern world.
43. But this whole approach is highly problematic. First, we have very little detailed knowledge of the environment of kick-ass movie evolutionary adaptation faced by our early ancestors, so anything we say about this is thomas, highly speculative. Dont Vote? Second, just like sociobiologists before them, evolutionary psychologists often ignore alternative explanations of human behavior, as well as evidence that the psychological characteristics that they claim were built into the human mind hundreds of thomas jefferson essay thousands of years ago are not universal after all. I#146;ll consider just one example#151;violence. It is certainly true that human history is characterized by high levels of violence#151;including war, blood feuds, and murder#151;much of which seem on the face of it highly irrational.
So why have generations of what does human beings killed each other rather than cooperating in ways that might have been mutually beneficial? Here is one possible explanation. Our distant ancestors, hundreds of thousands of jefferson essay years ago, found themselves in an environment in which violence was necessary to survive. Those individuals who developed a psychology that distinguished between members of their own group and strangers, and who were psychologically prepared to use deadly violence against the latter, were better adapted to scarlet this environment than those less inclined to use violence, and so these psychological characteristics were selected for in early humans. This tendency to violence continues to exist in modern humans even when it is no longer beneficial and the only way to keep it under control is to set up a strong central state that can, at least to some extent, hold these tendencies in check. Thomas? That, in a nutshell, is the kick-ass movie story that Steven Pinker tells about violence in his most recent book The Blank Slate , where he argues that human beings have a bloody prehistory stretching back hundreds of thousands of years and thomas jefferson essay, that violence in humans is#133;part of our design. 44. Unfortunately for Pinker, and story, fortunately for the rest of us, this view of jefferson human prehistory is quite simply a myth.
In support of the claim that long before history began murderous strife was universal and throughout the world, unending, 45 Pinker cites the work of the University of Illinois archaeologist Lawrence Keeley, who claims that humans have always made war. 46 In fact, Keeley demonstrates nothing of the kind. His evidence consists of a compilation of jefferson various instances from the archaeological record in which humans died violent deaths at the hands of others. But what Keeley fails to show is that these cases were typical or common, rather than relatively isolated aberrations. According to kick-ass movie the Rutgers anthropologist R. Thomas Jefferson? Brian Ferguson, probably the when did the cultural revolution end leading expert on the early history of war, the thomas global archaeological record contradicts the idea that war was always a feature of human existence; instead, the record shows that warfare is dont, largely a development of the past 10,000 years. 47 In a continuing global survey of all the available archaeological evidence, Ferguson has so far discovered no evidence of systematic violence in thomas essay, pre-historic human societies in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, or North America. Ferguson argues that warfare became a feature of human society only as a consequence of specific historical developments, including the establishment of how did christianity spread permanent settlements with accumulated wealth and the emergence of social hierarchy, an elite, perhaps with its own interests and rivalries. Essay? The fact that for most of human existence there is no evidence of what of the thirty years systematic large-scale violence, totally undercuts Pinker#146;s theory, which is really just a restatement of one of the oldest elements of ruling-class ideology#151;that states exist to protect us from jefferson essay, ourselves, not to protect the interests of the christianity spread throughout elite and to thomas essay keep the did the mass of the population in jefferson essay, its place. But the what cause war problem is not just what Pinker says about violence. Essay? The whole idea that human psychology is relatively rigid and unchanging#151;one of the central claims of evolutionary psychology#151;is incompatible with what we actually do know about human evolution. Was The Cause Years War? The first modern humans are believed to have evolved in southern Africa about 120,000 years ago.
According to Marta Lahr, Professor of Evolutionary Studies at Cambridge University, these creatures had the potential of invention that we have. And I think that#146;s actually what makes them modern#151;they [could] invent solutions to new problems. 48. Around 50,000 years ago groups of modern humans began to migrate from thomas essay, Africa and disperse around the world, coming into contact with other hominid species that had left Africa about ibis, a million and thomas, a half years earlier. People Vote? Modern humans arrived in Europe around 35,000 years ago, where they lived side by side with Neanderthals, a closely related but distinct human species. Neanderthals, unlike modern humans, were physiologically well adapted to the cold European climate, but they were intellectually inferior to our ancestors. According to the archaeologist Paul Mellars, the most remarkable thing about Neanderthal technology is the way it hardly changes significantly over about a quarter of a million years. You get essentially the same shapes of tools made by thomas jefferson essay the same techniques over this whole period. Kick-ass Movie? Now as soon as you get modern humans on thomas essay, the scene you get a whole range of dramatic changes. The Raven Symbolize? They suddenly start producing new shapes of stone tools obviously designed for thomas jefferson essay, different functions, and they start producing tools from bones, antler and christianity, ivory, which had never been used before. 49.
It was this creativity and ingenuity of our ancestors#151;also exhibited in their elaborate ornaments, art, and thomas, burial rituals, and what the raven, the complex networks of trade and exchange they established#151;that explains why they survived and the Neanderthals did not. When temperatures in Europe began to plummet with the onset of a new ice age, Neanderthals were unable to essay adjust to the new conditions. How Did Spread? But modern humans continued to thrive, even in mountainous areas. Thomas Essay? By 28,000 years ago the last remaining Neanderthals had disappeared. Scarlet? Similar developments took place around the world, where modern humans replaced other hominid species. Thus the jefferson essay key to our ancestors#146; success was their enormous flexibility and ability to learn, not patterns of behavior hardwired into their brains. 50. Sociobiologists and evolutionary psychologists distort Darwin by adopting an ultra-adaptationist view that tries to explain every significant aspect of when human behavior or psychology as a biological adaptation, shaped by jefferson natural selection. But while human intelligence was surely the subject of natural selection, it is scarlet ibis short story, highly implausible to think that specific behaviors or psychological characteristics are hardwired into our brains. Thomas? As Stephen Jay Gould once put it: The central feature of our biological uniqueness also provides the major reason for doubting that our behaviors are directly coded by specific genes.
That feature is, of course, our large brain. [M]arkedly increased brain size in what cause thirty years, human evolution. added enough neural connections to thomas jefferson convert an inflexible and rather rigidly programmed device into a labile organ, endowed with sufficient logic and memory to substitute non-programmed learning for direct specification as the ground of how did christianity throughout social behavior. Jefferson? Flexibility may well be the what symbolize most important determinant of human consciousness; the direct programming of behavior has probably become inadaptive. 51. The evidence for sociobiology and evolutionary psychology is thomas jefferson, just as weak as for earlier versions of biological determinism. Next issue: The New Eugenics. Phil Gasper is what was the cause of the thirty, a member of the ISR editorial board. He teaches philosophy of science at Notre Dame de Namur University and jefferson essay, is an associate editor of the story online journal Human Nature Review (www.human-nature.com). 1#9;The arguments are linked because natural selection can only operate on characteristics that have a genetic basis. 2#9; Time , January 20, 1992.
3#9; Newsweek , February 24, 1992. 5#9; U.S. News and World Report , February 27, 1995. 7#9;Quoted in Evelyn Fox Keller, Nature, Nurture, and the Human Genome Project, in Daniel J. Kevles and Leroy Hood (eds.), The Code of Codes (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), 282. 8#9;Originally published in Macmillan#146;s Magazine , 12, 157#151;66, 318#151;27, available online at http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Galton/talent.htm. 9#9;Francis Galton, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development (London and thomas, New York: Macmillan, 1883; second edition, Dent and Dutton, 1907), 17. 10#9;Francis Galton, Hereditary Genius (London and New York: Macmillan, 1869; second edition 1895). 11#9;Ibid., second edition, 338.
12	Correspondence With Alphonse de Candolle, from the how did christianity Web site Life of Francis Galton by Karl Pearson, Vol. 2, 1884, available online at http://www.mugu.com/browse/galton/search/pearson/_vol2/pages/vol2_0239.htm. 13#9;On Davenport and the history of the eugenics movement see Allan Chase, The Legacy of essay Malthus: The Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975), Daniel J. Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), and Edwin Black, War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America#146;s Campaign to Create a Master Race (New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2003). 14#9;Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York: Norton, 1981), 182, 227, and 230. 15#9;Letter to when did the Madison Grant, April 7, 1925, quoted in C. E. Rosenberg, No Other Gods: On Science and American Social Thought (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976), 95#151;96. 16#9;Quoted in Chase, The Legacy of essay Malthus , 159#151;60. 17#9;All quotations from this paragraph are from kick-ass movie, Barry Mehler, Eliminating the Inferior: American and Nazi Sterilization Programs, Science for the People (Nov#151;Dec 1987), available online at http://www.ferris.edu/isar/archives/mehler/eliminating.htm. Osborn, incidentally, was also one of the founders of The Pioneer Fund, which still promotes theories of black inferiority and is a major financial supporter of the jefferson essay ultra-right Federation for American Immigration Reform. 18#9;Arthur Jensen, How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? Harvard Educational Review 39: 1#151;123. 19#9;Richard Herrnstein, IQ, Atlantic Monthly , September 1971, 43#151;64.
20#9;Leon J. Kamin, The Science and Politics of IQ (Potomac, MD: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1974). 21#9;Gould, The Mismeasure of Man , Ch. 6. R.C. Vote? Lewontin, Steven Rose, and Leon J. Kamin, Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology and Human Nature (New York: Pantheon, 1984), 101#151;06. Other genuine studies of identical twins are problematic on other grounds. See for example Lewontin, Rose, and jefferson, Kamin, 106#151;16 and Jay Joseph, Twin Studies in Psychiatry and Psychology: Science or Pseudoscience? Psychiatric Quarterly , 73:1, Spring 2002, 71#151;82. 22#9;The originator of IQ tests, the French psychologist Alfred Binet, viewed them as simply a diagnostic tool to how did christianity the world determine which school children needed additional assistance, not as a measure of fixed intellectual capacity.
It was only when the jefferson essay tests were adopted in scarlet short, the U.S. in the early twentieth century that American hereditarians began interpreting the results in this latter way. See Gould, The Mismeasure of thomas essay Man, 146#151;58. For the most influential critique of the idea that intelligence is a single entity or capacity, see Howard Gardner, Frames of Mind: The Theory of kick-ass movie Multiple Intelligences (New York: Basic Books, 1983; second edition, 1993). 23#9;Steven Jay Gould, Racist Arguments and IQ, in Ever Since Darwin: Reflections in Natural History (New York: Norton, 1977), 245. 24#9;Hilary Putnam, Reductionism and the Nature of Psychology, Cognition 2:1, 1973, 141#151;43. 25#9;This, of course, did not stop either Jensen or Herrnstein from continuing to get a respectful hearing for essay, their pseudo-scientific views. Jensen elaborated his views at length in throughout, Bias in Mental Testing (New York: Free Press, 1979). Herrnstein later collaborated with the right-wing pundit Charles Murray to thomas write the racist tract The Bell Curve: The Reshaping of American Life by Difference in Intelligence (New York: Free Press, 1994). Jensen#146;s views are demolished by Stephen Jay Gould in Jensen#146;s Last Stand, in An Urchin in the Storm: Essays about Books and Ideas (New York: Norton, 1988).
For an what does, equally devastating demolition of The Bell Curve , see Ned Block, Race, Genes, and IQ, Boston Review , December 1995/January 1996, available online at http://www.bostonreview.net/BR20.6/block.html. 26#9;E.O. Wilson, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975). 27#9; Sociobiology , chap. 27. 28#9;Quoted in Human Decency is Animal, New York Times Magazine , October 12, 1975. 29#9;Quoted in J. Getlin, Natural Wonder: At Heart, Edward Wilson#146;s an Ant Man, Los Angeles Times , October 21, 1994. 30#9;Time, August 1, 1977.
The article also reported a claim by the sociobiologist Robert Trivers that feminism was going to jefferson essay decline because feminists were not having children and, therefore, would not pass on kick-ass movie, their feminist genes! 31	A Genetic Defense of the Free Market, BusinessWeek , April 10, 1978. 32#9;Do Men Need to Cheat on Their Women? A New Science Says Yes, Playboy , August 1978. In a 1981 issue, Playboy went further, claiming that rape is jefferson, very likely genetically based. a strategy genetically available to low-dominance males that increases their chances of reproducing by making more females available to them than they would otherwise acquire.
Claims of this kind remain a staple of sociobiology and its more recent descendant evolutionary psychology, most notoriously in Randy Thornhill and Craig Palmer, A Natural History of Rape (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000). For a thorough critique of Thornhill and Palmer see Cheryl Travis (ed.), Evolution, Gender and Rape (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003). 33#9;The most comprehensive critique of sociobiology is Philip Kitcher, Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985). Revolution End? Kitcher, who is perhaps the most respected contemporary philosopher of science, concludes that most human sociobiology is based on thomas jefferson essay, unrigorous analyses, problematic concepts, dubious connections, and spurious arguments. Also see Marshall Sahlins, The Use and Abuse of Biology: An Anthropological Critique of Sociobiology (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1976), and Lewontin, Rose, and Kamin, Not in Our Genes, Chap. 9. 34#9;Richard C. Kick-ass Movie? Lewontin, Biology as Ideology: The Doctrine of DNA (New York: HarperPerennial, 1993), 95#151;96. 35#9;Lewontin, Biology as Ideology , 100. 36#9;Peggy Reeves Sanday, Female Power and Male Dominance: On the Origins of Sexual Inequality (New York: Cambridge University Press, l981). 37#9;Attempts by sociobiologists to deal with cultural evolution have not been successful. Jefferson Essay? See Kitcher, Vaulting Ambition , Chap.
10 and Gould, Genes on the Brain, in An Urchin in scarlet ibis, the Storm . 38#9;Robert Wright, The Moral Animal: The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology (New York: Pantheon, 1994). 39#9;Matt Ridley, The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994). 40#9;Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (New York: Norton, 1997) and The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (New York: Viking, 2002). 41#9;Quoted in John Horgan, Darwin on His Mind, Lingua Franca , November 1997. 42#9;For critiques of jefferson essay evolutionary psychology see Hilary Rose and Steven Rose (eds.), Alas Poor Darwin: Arguments Against Evolutionary Psychology (New York: Harmony Books, 2000); David Buller, Evolutionary Psychology, in Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa (eds.), A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind (An official electronic publication of the kick-ass movie Department of Philosophy of University of Rome 3, 2000), available online at http://host.uniroma3.it/progetti/_kant/field/ep.htm; John Dupré, Human Nature and the Limits of Science (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001); and Travis (ed.), Evolution, Gender and Rape . Buller#146;s forthcoming book, Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and thomas essay, the Persistent Quest for Human Nature (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), due out in 2005, promises to be the scarlet ibis short story most comprehensive critique to date. 43#9;Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, Evolutionary Psychology: A Primer, available online at http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/_research/cep/primer.html.
Buller calls this the Flintstone theory _of human nature. 44#9;Pinker, The Blank Slate , 306 and 314. 45#9;This is a quotation from Winston Churchill with which Pinker begins his chapter on violence. Thomas? The quotation, together with the fact that most of the chapter borrows heavily from the pessimistic seventeenth century philosopher Thomas Hobbes, suggests that Pinker#146;s views reflect old prejudices rather than a careful assessment of the available scientific evidence. 46#9;Lawrence Keeley, War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). 47#9;R. Brian Ferguson, The Birth of kick-ass movie War, Natural History , July/August 2003, available online at http://www.naturalhistorymag.com/0703/0703_feature.html. 48#9;Quoted in jefferson essay, Dawn of Man: The Story of Human Evolution , a BBC/The Learning Channel documentary, originally broadcast on TLC in August 2000.
Also see Robin McKie, Dawn of how did christianity spread throughout the world Man: The Story of Human Evolution (New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 2000). 49#9;Quoted in Dawn of Man . 50#9;For more on the Neanderthals see Paul Jordan, Neanderthal: Neanderthal Man and the Story of thomas Human Origins (Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing, 1999). For an up to date guide to what is currently known about human evolution see Roger Lewin et. al., Principles of Human Evolution, second edition (New York: Blackwell, 2004). 51	Potentiality vs. Determinism, in Ever Since Darwin , 257.