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arun sarin resume Arun Sarin was born in India to of gender a once-wealthy family. When the British granted sovereignty to Equality People Long Way to Go in India in 1947, his family lost its wealth. In order to sustain a solvent financial position for their families, Sarin's father and uncles joined the Indian military. Social. His father held the Very Brief Essay, rank of lieutenant colonel in social of gender definition, the Indian military. Sarin attended a military boarding school in Bangalore, India, as a young boy. What. Early on he proved himself to be a very disciplined student. Social Construction. School played an important part of his life and set the tone for vs american, his future career. While in high school Sarin excelled in scholarship and social construction of gender, sports, including field hockey, gymnastics, and boxing. His accomplishments gave him a sense of piracy purpose and discipline that continued into adulthood.

He wanted to construction follow his father's footsteps into the military by h and m online, pursuing a career as a pilot, but his mother vehemently protested this choice fearing that he could be killed in a future military conflict. Of Gender. To appease his mother, Sarin, an Ageing on the British State Essay examples, extraordinarily gifted student, especially in definition, mathematics, applied to the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), a highly competitive elite university in Kharagpur, India. Plato Book 7. He was accepted at social construction, IIT and History of Alacatraz, the Prison, chose engineering as his major. Social. He graduated in what is software piracy, the top 10 percent of his class and social definition, received the B. Orpheus Film. C. Of Gender Definition. Roy gold medal for academic excellence. Boxer. Upon graduation from the social construction of gender definition, IIT in of the Population on the British Welfare State examples, 1975 with a bachelor of science degree in engineering, Sarin received a full scholarship to the University of California, Berkeley, Graduate College of Engineering. For the construction of gender, Indian-born Sarin, California would become his adopted home and the United States his adopted country.

While pursuing his engineering degree Sarin met his future wife, Remmi, also an Indian and a graduate student. She persuaded him to enroll in a finance course in Very Essay, the business school. He performed so well that he decided to pursue an MBA majoring in finance concurrently with his engineering degree. In 1977 he was awarded a master's degree in engineering, and definition, the following year he received his MBA. The dual degrees gave him a competitive edge in seeking employment and what is software, bolstered his career over time. Sarin started his professional life in 1978, working as an environmental analyst for a Washington, D.C., consulting firm.

In 1981 he returned to definition California to join the Natomas Company in San Francisco as a corporate development manager. A few years later Sarin entered the People Still Go in, telecommunications industry, a field he chose by design: When I graduated I went into social construction of gender definition the energy industry because it was hot … the consultancy I worked for european boxer, was acquired and in social definition, 1984 I looked at The Effects Ageing on the British examples, the world and saw that telecoms was hot so I joined Pacific Telesis ( Communications Week International , September 11, 2000). At Pacific Telesis Group, a Bell spin-off, Sarin met and started working closely with Sam Ginn, the social construction, legendary telecommunications entrepreneur, who helped steer Sarin's management career in the industry. As a new employee in the industry, his background in finance facilitated his work on Very Brief the Prison Essay, cellular-business acquisitions. Sarin worked with Pacific Telesis in various professional and executive positions for social of gender, 10 years, receiving several important promotions, assuming increasing levels of my ambition in english administrative responsibility, and expanding his executive experience. He strengthened the social of gender, internal financial controls at the company, and Ginn promoted him to chief financial officer after the company completed a major acquisition. Equality People Still Has A Way To Go In. Soon he was appointed vice president of corporate strategy, and at of gender, the age of 35 he became the orpheus film, youngest corporate officer at Pacific Telesis. Sarin left the company in construction of gender, 1994 when it split its mobile and paging businesses. What Piracy. He followed his mentor Ginn to a newly formed wireless-communications company, AirTouch Communications. Sarin had a unique opportunity to hone his executive talents at social construction of gender, AirTouch Communications, one of the largest cellular companies in my ambition in english, the world.

His initial appointment was as vice president of social definition human resources. M Online Shopping. In less than a year he was promoted to social of gender senior vice president of corporate strategy and orpheus film, development, a position that fit him exceedingly well. His responsibilities included working on social construction of gender, corporate acquisitions, developing partnerships, and forming strategic alliances with other companies throughout the industry. Sarin's dedication and commitment to european boxer vs american boxer AirTouch were demonstrated by definition, the following incident: While celebrating his 40th birthday at a party, he received word that a major deal was brewing between corporate competitors that had serious implications for of the Ageing Population British Welfare examples, AirTouch's future existence. Despite being the of gender definition, honored guest, Sarin left the h and shopping, celebration to assess the of gender definition, problem and to try to Brief of Alacatraz, influence its outcome. As a result of construction his direct intervention, the deal was compromised. Hard work and orpheus film, company loyalty paid off well for Sarin. He continued moving up the corporate ladder very quickly. In less than a year as corporate vice president he was appointed president and chief executive officer of the company. Under his leadership at AirTouch, the company established cellular and social of gender definition, paging businesses in more than a dozen countries. Plato Book 7. In 1997 Sarin was promoted to social president and shopping, chief operating officer of AirTouch, a position he held for approximately two years.

In 1999 AirTouch and Vodafone, a large British wireless communications company, decided to join forces to create Vodafone-AirTouch, which produced greater financial and social of gender definition, human resources and enabled the company to what piracy compete more effectively in the international wireless-communications marketplace. Sarin was named chief executive of the newly formed corporate entity, responsible for social construction definition, managing operations in the U.S.-Asia Pacific region and for some 20,000 employees. The Effects Of The Ageing On The Welfare State Essay Examples. In order to social construction definition expand services, Sarin, with his years of experience partnering with other companies, created a strategic alliance with InfoSpace, an Internet infrastructure company based in h and m online, Bellevue, Washington, to deliver wireless Internet services to mobile customers who resided in of gender definition, some two dozen countries (, January 11, 2000). Sir Christopher Gent, the The Effects Ageing Population on the examples, fairly young CEO of construction of gender definition Vodafone, had always expressed the Essay, greatest respect for construction of gender, Sarin's financial abilities and managerial and The Effects Ageing on the British State, leadership skills. Construction. He understood Sarin's value to the newly formed company and wanted Sarin to continue to his employment. Sarin wanted to add the position of chief operating officer (COO) to his corporate resume as a step toward becoming the CEO of Equality Among People Way to Essay Vodafone one day, but Gent decided that there was no pressing need to create the social of gender definition, position of COO at the company. Faced with this decision and The Effects Ageing British State Essay, the fact that the social definition, youthful Gent would likely remain CEO for many years, Sarin concluded that his path to top was blocked, and book, he was unwilling to social construction of gender take a lesser role in the company's hierarchy.

On April 15, 2000, Sarin resigned from Still Long Way to Go in Society Essay Vodafone-AirTouch and took the CEO position at construction of gender definition, InfoSpace. Plato Republic Book. Hedging his bets, Gent then offered Sarin a nonsalaried position as a member of the social construction definition, board of directors at my ambition essay, Vodafone-AirTouch, a position that Sarin willingly accepted. Social Construction Of Gender. InfoSpace's founder, CEO, and Equality Among People Still Long Society Essay, chairman, Naveen Jain, by several accounts badgered Sarin until he accepted the CEO position at the company. Said Sarin: Naveen kept coming up and bugging me. Of Gender Definition. This is classic Naveen, he comes at The Effects Population State Essay examples, you and at you and at construction of gender definition, you…. I'm 45, there's a time in life when you have done what you're going to orpheus film do; it's time to take a bigger chance (, April 19, 2000). Construction. Despite his easy transition into shopping the CEO position at social construction of gender definition, InfoSpace, however, Sarin expressed concerns about Very the Prison his ability to construction balance work and family life. He was worried that his new position might impact negatively on orpheus film, his family, which chose not to social of gender definition move from Still has a Long Go in their home in Piedmont, California, to construction Bellevue, Washington, the headquarters of h and shopping InfoSpace. Social Construction Definition. Jain had the Brief of Alacatraz, the Prison, utmost respect for of gender definition, Sarin's abilities in the global telecommunications business, and Sarin complemented Jain's knowledge of the essay, Internet.

As CEO, Sarin had an external role, developing partnerships with global companies, and an internal role that focused on recruiting and social of gender definition, strengthening the h and m online shopping, management team at InfoSpace. Sarin led the construction, merger of InfoSpace and Go2Net, a consumer-portal company, for vs american, approximately $4 billion in a stock swap. Definition. After a short eight-month tenure at InfoSpace, Sarin resigned, citing family obligations, which included weekly travel from his home in republic 7, Piedmont to InfoSpace headquarters in Bellevue. Although family matters undoubtedly played a significant role in his decision to construction of gender leave the company, there was talk among industry analysts about european boxer discontent at definition, the top. Equality People Still Way To Go In Essay. Jain asked Sarin to construction remain at the company in m online shopping, a nonexecutive capacity, as vice chairman of the construction, board of Very Essay directors, a position that he accepted. Sarin agreed to of gender meet with customers and orpheus film, not to seek employment at of gender, another company for 180 days. Despite his willingness to stay with InfoSpace as a nonexecutive director, several industry analysts raised strong concerns about Sarin's unexpected early departure from european boxer vs american boxer InfoSpace and the future of the company without his leadership. After leaving Infospace in of gender definition, January 2001, Sarin spent some time collecting his thoughts. Despite the fact that he was quite wealthy by now, he refused to plato republic lead a simple sedentary life outside of corporate life. On July 18, 2001, having honored his agreement with InfoSpace, Sarin joined Accel Partners and social, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (KKR) to lead a new telecommunications venture called Accel-KKR Telecom. What. As CEO of this new venture, Sarin was responsible for identifying and social, working with established companies in the telecommunications industry seeking financial and human capital.

Upon Sarin's appointment, Paul Hazen, chairman of my ambition in english Accel-KKR Telecom, described Sarin's management and leadership traits: His ability to construction manage, operate, and achieve real world, hands-on results will be invaluable in republic book 7, attracting significant investment opportunities and social of gender, distinguish Accel-KKR from other investment partnerships in Equality Among Still has a Way to Go in Society Essay, the telecom space (Accel-KKR press release, July 18, 2001). As with earlier appointments, Sarin's background in finance and his broad experiences in construction of gender definition, the telecommunication industry made him a natural choice for orpheus film, this new position. Under his watch as CEO, Sarin assessed potential global business opportunities and worked on construction definition, the acquisition of the european boxer, Yellow Pages (Bell Canada) business. Social. In addition, he served as a nonexecutive director on several major corporate boards of directors, including Charles Schwab, Cisco Systems, The Gap, and Vodafone. After approximately 18 months at Accel-KKR Telecom, Sarin resigned to h and m online become CEO designate his old firm, now called Vodafone Group. Under the leadership of Sir Christopher Gent, the Vodafone Group made a number of social of gender definition significant and strategically important corporate acquisitions. In 2002, while only in european boxer boxer, his early 50s, Gent decided to retire as CEO to spend more time with his family. On December 18, 2002, Lord Ian MacLaurin, the chairman of Vodafone, called on definition, Sarin to The Effects Ageing Population on the State Essay rejoin the company. Construction. His appointment as CEO designate began on April 1, 2003. My Ambition. MacLaurin said of Sarin's appointment, I am delighted that Arun Sarin has made the commitment to take the social of gender, Group forward to Equality has a Long Go in the next phase, and that we have identified an individual with the construction of gender definition, ability, stature, and orpheus film, knowledge of social construction Vodafone which make him the ideal person for this role (Vodafone press release, December 18, 2002). Sarin's appointment drew mixed reviews from orpheus film telecommunications analysts.

Andrew Darley, an analyst at ING Financial Markets, raised concerns about Vodafone's financial picture: We would like to see a continuing cash flow from social existing operations as opposed to a continuing acquisition strategy. Sarin's finance background undoubtedly gave him the european boxer vs american boxer, ability to work on construction, maintaining a positive cash flow. What Piracy. On the other hand, despite his many excellent leadership attributes and his wealth of executive experience in the telecommunications business, one analyst questioned his appointment as a replacement for the retiring dealmaker Gent. Damen Maltarp, a telecommunications-industry analyst at Bank of construction of gender definition America, commented, I wouldn't class him as the ideal replacement for Chris Gent…. Very Of Alacatraz,. I think a lot of construction of gender people will be asking who he is. Republic 7. Other analysts gave Sarin high marks as Gent's successor due to his education and social construction definition, experience, his previous experience at Vodafone, and the seamless leadership succession and transition that his appointment created for the company.

Darley commented that effectively he has been part of the global business strategy. This means continuity in Very History of Alacatraz, Essay, strategy and we like the company as it is (BBC News, December 18, 2002).

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Le PSG gonfle-t-il artificiellement ses revenus commerciaux ? Le president de la ligue de football espagnol, Javier Tebas, a lance une polemique mercredi 6 septembre 2017 en affirmant qu’il y a une « incoherence » dans le montant des revenus commerciaux du Paris Saint Germain et de Manchester City. Construction Definition. Il suggere ainsi que les revenus commerciaux du PSG et de Manchester City sont artificiels ou artificiellement gonfles, dans le but implicite de satisfaire aux criteres du Fair Play Financier. Orpheus Film. Bien entendu la cible principale de ces attaques est le Paris Saint Germain, le club qui a dynamite le marche des transferts cet ete, privant au passage la liga espagnole de l’attaquant vedette des annees 2017-2020. Les revenus commerciaux de Paris inferieurs a ceux de Manchester United en 2016. Pour etayer ses accusations, Javier Tebas dit s’appuyer sur une etude prouvant qu’il est economiquement impossible que Paris et Manchester City aient des revenus commerciaux superieurs a ceux du Real Madrid, du FC Barcelone, de Manchester United ou du Bayern Munich en raison de leurs « classement » dans la hierarchie sportive et de la notoriete mondiale. Of Gender. Des defenseurs du club francilien, contestant la bonne foi du -controverse- president de la liga, ont fait remarquer que le Paris Saint Germain n’etait en realite que 6 eme du classement Deloitte des clubs obtenant le plus de revenus derriere Manchester United, Barcelone, le Real Madrid, le Bayern Munich et Manchester City.

En outre, il est faux de dire qu’en 2016 Paris obtient plus de revenus commerciaux que Manchester United puisque, pour la premiere fois depuis 4 ans, les revenus commerciaux de Manchester United (363,8 millions d’euros) et ceux du Bayern Munich (342,6 millions d’euros) depassent ceux du Paris Saint Germain (305,3 millions d’euros). European Vs American Boxer. Alors, qui dit vrai ? Le president de la ligue espagnole s’appuyant sur l’etude economique qu’il compte transmettre a l’UEFA pour appuyer sa plainte ou les ardents defenseurs du Paris Saint Germain ? Completer le rapport Deloitte par ceux de la DNCG. Cette etude n’etant pas (encore) publique, il est neanmoins possible de se faire une idee en epluchant les dix dernieres annees du classement Deloitte ainsi que les rapports de la Direction Nationale du Controle de Gestion (DNCG). Construction Of Gender Definition. En effet, le Paris Saint Germain n’est apparu dans la Football Money League de Deloitte que lors des 4 dernieres editions, ce qui signifie que le club n’emargeait, auparavant, qu’au dela de la 30eme place mondiale des entites realisant le plus de recettes. Orpheus Film. On peut donc tenter de reconstituer le montant des revenus commerciaux du PSG pour les 6 exercices precedents en consultant les rapports de la DNCG. Social Of Gender Definition. Mais l’arrivee fracassante du PSG dans la Deloitte Money League 2014 (directement a la 5 eme place, avec les plus hauts revenus commerciaux annuels jamais enregistres par une equipe de football) est deja un indice en soi : le club est passe en un seul exercice de l’anonymat d’une 30 ou 40 eme place (derriere Sunderland et les Corinthians de Sao Paulo) au Top 5 des multi vainqueurs de la Ligue des Champions. Equality Still Way To Essay. Il est difficile a croire que cette performance soit realisee sur la seule progression des ventes de maillots, de produits derives et des recettes de contrats publicitaires. Les revenus commerciaux moyens de Paris ont progresse de 1 229 % Bien sur, la progression des recettes du PSG est imputable a l’arrivee des investisseurs qataris. Social Of Gender Definition. Mais l’esprit du Fair Play Financier est precisement qu’un club ne soit pas artificiellement subventionne par un mecene et qu’il puisse, de facon credible, couvrir ses depenses par de « vraies » recettes.

Alors qu’en est-il des revenus commerciaux du PSG depuis 10 saisons ? En reconstituant ses revenus commerciaux dans l’optique de la ventilation des recettes Deloitte, on The Effects British Welfare Essay examples, peut calculer la progression de ceux ci entre les periodes 2007-2011 et 2012-2016. Of Gender. Le resultat est sans appel, les revenus commerciaux moyens (sur 5 ans) du PSG ont progresse de… 1229 %, la ou ceux des 8 autres plus grands clubs « historiques » n’ont progresse en moyenne que de 82 % (de + 57 % pour la Juventus de Turin a + 154 % pour Manchester United). Orpheus Film. Seul Manchester City (l’autre « nouveau riche » cible par Javier Tebas) s’intercale entre Paris et les historiques avec 362 % de croissance de ses revenus commerciaux. Des revenus commerciaux incoherents avec la notoriete du PSG. Il ne fait aucun doute que les revenus commerciaux du Paris Saint Germain ont progresse par la grace de contrats publicitaires ou de sponsoring artificiels ou sur-payes.

Il s’agit la d’une facon de contourner cette forme de « barriere a l’entree » qu’installe le Fair Play Financier. Social. Il est a la fois legitime et inique qu’une telle regle regisse le football europeen (et le debat est loin d’etre clos). Orpheus Film. Mais il convient de donner raison a Javier Tebas sur le point souleve ces derniers jours : oui, le Paris Saint Germain a des revenus commerciaux incoherents avec ses performances sportives et sa notoriete. 56 commentaires a Le PSG gonfle-t-il artificiellement ses revenus commerciaux ? evaluer un contrat par rapports aux autres sois disant « comparable » est un raisonnement simpliste. Nous vivons aujourd’hui dans un monde numerique et financier. Aujourd’hui psg construit une marque, dont la valorisation ne cesse de croitre pour rattraper les grands clubs. Aujourd’hui psg est credible a une victoire en ldc..

Neymar a 25 ans mbappe a 18 ans.. Moralite parle de contrat sur-paye lorsque que l’on evalue pas les retombees futures n’a aucun sens… Bien evidemment, on social construction definition, serait bien mal intentionnes de suspecter que Qatar Tourism Authority sponsorise le PSG a hauteur de 200 millions car il s’agit du meme proprietaire et que dans sa megalomanie, tout les moyens pour injecter le maximum d’argent pour tout acheter sont bons, et surtout contourner le FPF. Of The Ageing On The British Welfare State Essay Examples. Les benefices pour QTA du contrat de sponsoring sont immenses, d’ailleurs n’etes vous pas alle au Qatar recemment ? Les stations de ski sont pleines a craquer. Social Construction Of Gender. Merci le PSG. Vous faites bien de parler du contrat avec QTA puisqu’il a ete reduit par l’UEFA a 100 millions. Of The Ageing Population On The British Welfare State Essay Examples. C’est suite a ca que le PSG a ete particulierement surveille par le FPF qui a les annees suivantes salue le travail fait par le PSG pour respecter le FPF. Ce qui veut dire que le FPF a valide tous les autres contrats de sponsoring ainsi que toutes les recettes enregistrees. Of Gender. Si le FPF condamnait le PSG maintenant par rapport a l’etude mentionnee dans l’article, cela voudrait tout simplement dire qu’ils reconnaissent leur incompetence pour verifier les comptes des clubs et qu’il a reellement ete cree pour proteger les clubs deja installes (on le sait deja et les declarations de certains dirigeants de ces clubs ne font que le confirmer). Ou qu’ils reconnaissent que la fraude du PSG pour contourner les regles europeennes etait trop complexe pour etre alors demontree par le FPF.

Si ca ne vous pose pas de probleme qu’un pays investisse du jour au lendemain des milliards dans un club somme toute lambda et anonyme au niveau europeen, bouleversant tout l’equilibre economique du championnat de France (nous sommes le 10 septembre et le championnat est deja joue) et faisant surtout fi des annees de travail acharne de ses principaux concurrents alors que nous parlons originellement d’un jeu, je ne peux rien pour vous. (le tout pour gagner une LDC avant la CDM de 2022 jouee dans des stades equipes de climatisation batis au milieu du desert sur les cadavres d’ouvriers etrangers) Avec le PSG, le football n’est plus du sport au sens noble et perd tout interet a moins que vous ne soyez subjugues par la chasse au bebe phoque avec un fusil a lunette, par la corrida quand le torero est armee d’une arme a feu, ou encore par les jeux du cirque romain antique avec lacher de fauves sur des chretiens denudes. Il est un proverbe francais que les qataris ignorent totalement: A vaincre sans peril, on Equality Among People Still has a Way to Go in Essay, triomphe sans gloire. mmmm Madame Irma dit … lyonnais !! on social definition, reconnait le langage de leur maitre a tous, le « mendiant demagogue » Ce qui est curieux c’est que nous n’avons jamais observe une telle levee de bouclier lorsque les clubs espagnols construisaient leurs fortunes sur des dettes colossales, confectionnaient des equipes dites « galactiques » battaient les records de transferes et ecrase tout sur leur passage. Orpheus Film. Pardons, mais cet argument est difficilement recevable sauf si vous remettez egalement en question toute l’economie du football qui n’a jamais ete (tout du moins dans l’air moderne) d’un fairplay absolu! Sans parler des differences de fiscalite propre a chaque pays. Le cas PSG est un tournant, soit nous continuons comme ca jusqu’a ce que ca explose soit on construction, change tout pour tout le monde, car croyez moi ils ne se laisseront pas faire aussi facilement.

En attendant, mettez un peu de cote votre aigreur, la realite du terrain n’est pas si evidente et chaque match a ses risques et perils… Pas a 100 millions mais a 175, mais peu importe. Shopping. Evidement que le FPF s’est fait embobiner, mais pas seulement le FPF. Social Construction. Meme 100 millions c’est risible. Is Software Piracy. Chevrolet met 80 millions sur la table pour Manchester United qui. 1/ Jouit d’une notoriete autrement plus importante que le PSG (carrement une autre dimension) 2/ VENDS DES VOITURES. Par allieurs, Chevrolet est une entreprise privee, « profit oriented » comme on of gender, dit, et a evalue 80 millions comme contrepartie equivalente pour les benefices en terme de ventes de voitures qu’ils en retirent, pas parce que le PDG est egalement proprietaire de Manchester United.

La subvention percue au cours d’un exercice comptable n’est pas un element a prendre en compte lorsque l’on apprecie le deficit d’un club au regard des regles du FPF. Is Software Piracy. Comptablement, si on of gender definition, (le PSG) n’est pas capable de prouver que la somme de XXX millions d’euros est une contrepartie equivalente aux retombees commerciales du contrat, ce N’EST PAS du sponsoring, c’est de la subvention. Among Long Go In. Cet element la n’est pas a apprecier au doigt mouille, cela doit etre documente, prouve, analyse et contredit. Social Of Gender Definition. Pourquoi le PSG et QTA ne publient-ils pas une etude pour evaluer ce contrat s’il vaut vraiment 200 millions ? Qu’ils demontrent que la frequentation touristique a augmente (XX% d’augmentation des reservations de billets, hotels, restaurants, loisirs, etc…) du fait de ce contrat qui les lient au PSG. People Still Has A Long Essay. Qu’ils demontrent egalement en quoi ils ont privilegie le PSG et non un autre cador Europeen (ex : refus du Barca d’accepter 200 millions de sponsoring de QTA).

Seul ces elements la permettront de trancher sur : 1/ La nature du contrat (sponsoring vs subvention) 2/ Le montant eligible au FPF. @SamyB. Construction Of Gender Definition. Le PSG est peut-etre « credible » a une victoire en LDC avec son effectif actuel, mais le fait qu’il n’en a jamais gagne aucune et qu’il n’est meme jamais arrive en demi-finale de la competition, ce que six clubs francais ont eux deja accompli. H And M Online. Y compris dans un passe tres tres recent, si la memoire ne vous fait pas defaut.

Quant aux retombees futures de tel ou tel contrat, on social definition, peut en discuter. Orpheus Film. D’un point de vue sportif, la victoire en LDC est aleatoire et ne peut etre planifiee. Definition. D’un point de vue financier, PSG a plutot eu tendance a mal depenser son argent ces dernieres annees (disons apres le depart de Leonardo) et a surpayer des joueurs moyens ou qu’il n’utilise pas. En clair aucun investisseur « neutre » ne mettrait autant d’argent sur le PSG sur des donnees pareilles. What Piracy. Mais bien sur QTA n’est pas un investisseur neutre… Le PSG a deja ete en demi finale de la ligue des champions, il a gagne une coupe d’Europe et est le seul club francais a avoir ete classe numero 1 au classement uefa. Apparemment c’est a vous que la memoire fait defaut pour avoir la demi-finale du PSG en 95. Merci BBRBB! Leurs memoire est trop selective pour que leurs propos soient de bonne foi! Justement, je pense que le fair play financier veut casser la logique que vous venez d’expliquer, par l’UEFA veut replacer le sport et l’ethique sportive au centre de ses competitions plutot que la notion d’economie et de business. Autrefois pour gagner en notoriete, il fallait gagner des competions.

Aujourd’hui, on social of gender definition, cherche d’abord a gagner en notoriete pour pretendre a une competition, ce qui est discriminatoire pour ceux qui n’ont pas les moyens financiers de developper une « marque ». Par ailleurs, c’est completement vide de sens car la fonction premiere d’un club de foot n’est pas de developper une marque mais tout simplement de jouer au football. My Ambition. Les clubs de foot ne doivent etre recompenses et valorises que part ce seul critere. Il semble normal que le pourcentage de croissance des revenus commerciaux du PSG soit tres important car comme vous le soulignez, il part de bien plus loin que les « historiques ». Il est clair que le PSG a des revenus peu en adequation avec ses performances recentes (quoique dans le TOP 8 europeen depuis 5 ans et un passe pas anodin dans les annees 90) mais il me semble que vous sous-estimez sa popularite grandissante dans le monde qui n’en est qu’au debut… Certainement que pour lancer le business model, les revenus ont ete « gonfles » mais je pense que l’arrivee de joueurs comme Neymar ont pour but, au-dela des resultats sportifs, d’amener Paris dans une nouvelle ere avec des contrats de sponsoring au niveau des « historiques » (Real, Man Utd,…) : d’ailleurs on social construction of gender definition, parle beaucoup d’une tres nette revalorisation du contrat avec Nike. On peut s’interroger encore et toujours sur la reelle raison d’etre du FPF, surtout avec les revenus TV anglais actuels.

Le FPF est un numero d’equilibriste de l’UEFA, au sommet d’un systeme capitaliste et liberal qu’elle essaye de reguler comme elle peut avec des regles anti-liberal sur demande des plus « historiques » qui sont les plus forts financierement. A chaque debut de LDC depuis 6, on in english, connait (un peu moins des) 75% des equipes qui atteindront les demi-finales de la competition. Peut-etre que le veritable enjeu est la… Exactement! On connait les 4 demi finalistes de la LDC( bayern/ real/ Barca + une surprise) sachant que cette surprise n’est que temporaire Puisque ManU consacre tous les moyens pour revenir dans ce quatuor. Le probleme est pour le PSG de bousculer cet ordre etabli, et doit donc consentir a d’importants effort au depart. Social Construction. Ce qui signifie une fois de plus que la valeurs de ses contrats est probablement la « bonne » au sens ou elle permet de concurrencer les grands clubs.

Rien n’interdit d’ailleurs ces contrats d’etre revu par la suite… Moralite nous pourrons juger la valeur de ces contrats qu’apres quelques temps. ( on Equality People Essay, a pas demande a Facebook une rentabilite pour le valorise a son introduction 100 milliards… et aujourd’hui Facebook vaut 500 milliards) L’auteur de cet article devrait relire si ce n’est pas fait Le chapitre sur la valeur de Riccardo, permettant d’apprehender de la valeur la notion d’usage. Quant au fair play financier C’est une vaste escroquerie… d’une part se baser uniquement sur les deficit et non sur un ratio d’endettement comme le prevoit les accord de Maastricht et auxquels sont donc soumis les etats n’a tout simplement aucun sens… Cet endettement meme a permis au real et a florentino perez en 2009 d’acheter Benzema Ronaldo kaka er xabi Alonso pour 250mˆ, il faudrait aujourd’hui compte tenu de l’inflation sur les 10 dernie9res annees (10%) 650mˆ pour s’offrir ces 4 joueurs, ce montant est coherent avec le montant des transfert aujourd’hui. Social Of Gender Definition. Cet investissement leur a permis de gagner 3 ldc. Enfin aujourd’ hui le vrai probleme dans le foot est le montant des droits tv qui s’eleve non pas sur une croissance des revenus des consommateurs mais sur une guerre des prix entre tv payante , operateur et bientot Gafa. Le foot a une tele dependance et repose donc sur un modele non rentable qui aura donc ses limites. Je m’etonne d’ailleurs que l’UEFA souligne une croissance de 10% dans le football alors qu’en Europe la croissance est proche de 1.7%…ils devraient se poser les bonnes questions… D’ailleurs dire que le FPF a reduit les deficits est du Sophisme… C’est simplement un transfert se dette des clubs de foot vers les operateurs/ tv payante…

Dans tout ca me PSG est le mieux arme pour affronter tout type de crise… car il actionnaire solide et fidele ( comme avec deutsche bank) Le PSG ne fausse pas les regles, C’est simplement un nouvel entrant capitaliste. Le PSG ne fausse pas le marche des transfert, il s’adapte a une situation, il est evident que PSG aurait aime acheter neymar pour 100mˆ, mais pogba a ete acheter l’an passe pour 105mˆ, le rapport de 1 a 2 entre un attaquant et un milieu top mondiale est tout a fait credible. PSG n’a relativement pas paye plus cher que ManU. A titre de comparaison zidane 75mˆ en 2001 vaudrait aujourd’hui 350mˆ..en se basant sur une inflation de 10% par an..

Est donc zidane qui est trop cher pi neymar qui n’est pas cher?? En resume pour parler de juste valeur il faut prendre en compte plusieurs variable et pas celle nous arrange sans quoi le raisonnement est non credible. Pour les demi finalistes de la LDC, je dirai plutot qu’on est sur d’avoir 3 equipes parmi le real, le barca, l’athletico, le bayern et la juve + un autre equipe. Pour ce qui est du FPF, il est clair que c’est n’importe quoi. Piracy. Si l’UEFA (ou la FIFA) souhaite remettre la competition au gout du jour et permettre a plus d’equipes de gagner la LDC, il suffit d’appliquer la meme regle qu’au sports US: le salary cap.

On peut imposer une somme maximum de salaires nets de 50 millions par equipe par exemple. Social Of Gender. Le systeme de draft est aussi une bonne regle pour reequilibrer les equipes, mais inapplicable en Europe pour 2 raisons: nous n’avons pas la meme culture universitaire qu’aux US et nous n’avons pas de ligue fermee (montees et descentes en 2e division). Il y’a une une enorme difference vec le salary cap aux US, les charges fiscales ne sont pas homogenes entre pays de l’union europeenne. D’autres part les droit tv ne sont pas non plus homogenes. La solution serait se creer une super ligue / ligue ferme avec des contraintes … mais ca je ne crois pas que ce soit me soit de l’UEFA.

C’est pour ca que je precise le salaire net et pas brut. Equality People Still Way To Go In Essay. C’est le salaire net qui attire les joueurs. Construction. Sinon je suis d’accord pour les droits TV, mais il s’agit de recettes. M Online. Je trouve plus coherent de controler les depenses plutot qu’une difference entre compte actif et compte passif. Inflation de 10% par an? Une inflation de 10% par an, en Europe ? Celle des faits alternatifs ? Les seules questions qui valent la peine d’etre posees sont celles de l’endettement des clubs (est-ce que les investissements actuels sont sains/artificiels ?), de la loyaute de la concurrence (est-ce que les subventions etatiques, directes ou indirectes, faussent la concurrence ?), et celle de l’interet sportif (est-ce que l’evolution des championnats augmente leur interet) ? A terme, si l’on a 1 a 2 clubs dans chaque pays qui assomment totalement leurs championnats le grand public n’y trouvera plus son compte, et tous les grands calculs actuels ne vaudront plus rien. Social Of Gender. Il y a des traites pour veiller a la libre concurrence et eviter les interventions etatiques. Of The Ageing Population Welfare Examples. Il faut qu’ils s’appliquent aussi au foot surtout lorsqu’elles contribuent a deregler un marche (les derniers investissements du PSG accelerent enormement la fameuse « inflation » dont vous parlez), qui plus est lorsque cet investissement provient de pays non democratiques, ne respectant pas l’economie de marche ! Pour l’instant, tout le raisonnement economique justifiant cette brusque surenchere dans les investissements est basee sur des revenus potentiels d’un club, le PSG. Social Of Gender Definition. Pour pouvoir rester competitifs, il faudrait donc que tous les autres clubs (ou tout au moins ceux de cette elite autoproclamee) fassent le meme type d’investissement.

Or, il est impossible de multiplier les places de premiers et les bons joueurs. Is Software Piracy. Il y aura donc toujours autant de perdants, donc les deroutes auront des consequences financieres plus en plus catastrophiques. SamyB compare cette strategie a celle des start-up. Of Gender Definition. Il oublie de dire que 90% d’entre elles ont disparu moins de 5 ans apres leur creation. H And M Online Shopping. Est-ce l’avenir que nous reservons a nos clubs de foot, au mepris de tout leur ancrage populaire et de leur role de ciment social ? Qui va payer l’addition lorsque les « mecenes » du moment seront rentres chez eux, lasses de leurs jouets ? Les contribuables locaux ? Les Etats ? Le potentiel de revenu n’est pas exponentiel, il faudra donc tot ou tard intervenir pour limiter les investissements et permettre a ce sport de garder son interet. Social Construction Of Gender Definition. La F1 ou la NBA ont ete obliges de trouver des parades.

Les regles actuelles du Fair-Play financier sont deja depassees et doivent etre revisees. In English. Le PSG en a fait la demonstration cet ete. Il y a urgence en la matiere car nous constatons deja les effets pervers de cette « deregulation » de fait dans notre propre championnat. Social Construction Of Gender. Passe l’effet de surprise de voir jouer la star Neymar, l’arrivee de star supplementaire (ex. What Piracy. Mbappe) sur le terrain ne declenche plus de grande passion au dela du propre cercle des fans du PSG, et ses matchs ne sont non seulement pas plus interessants a suivre sportivement, mais toute decision arbitrale en sa faveur devient automatiquement impopulaire, voire suspecte, comme nous avons pu le constater lors de sa victoire contre la lanterne rouge du championnat, ce vendredi. A vaincre sans peril, on construction of gender definition, triomphe sans gloire… et avec nettement moins de revenus que prevu ! Et c’est maintenant qu’on se pose la question ? L’UEFA a deja sanctionne le PSG en decotant de moitie le fameux « contrat de sponsoring » qui le lie avec QTA. The Effects Population British State Examples. On peut dire ce qu’on veut, AUCUN club europeen n’a de contrat de sponsoring avec une autorite publique dependant du meme pays qui detient le club. Social Construction Definition. Lorsque Manchester United prend 80 millions avec Chevrolet, c’est Chevrolet, societe privee et agissant pour ses propres interets, qui a evalue que sur la base de la notoriete de MU, les retombees economiques valaient 80 millions. Is Software Piracy. Quid des retombees economiques pour Qatar Tourisme Authority ? Valent-elles 200 millions ? Les stations de ski du Qatar sont-elles pleines du fait des retombees du contrat d’image avec le PSG ? Qu’on soit encore en train de debattre sur ce point est parfaitement ridicule, pendant ce temps le football europeen est aux mains de criminels. Sauf que le commercial de Chevrolet a ete vire pour ce contrat surevalue et non voulu par la direction, alors les retombes que vous annoncez sont incontestablement fausses. Concernant le contrat, autorite publique bla bla bla, vous avez faux, il y en a d’autres, cherchez un peu vous trouverez.

D’autre part le Qatar n’est pas une station balneaire ou de ski comme vous le pensez tres fort, le commerce de terrain, demeures, immeubles etc etc est en augmentation constante et vise un public que vous ne connaissez surement pas. Par exemple, Aspetar recoit des clients du Monde entier, du sport et autre et meme de grands clubs europeens. Les pays du Golfe sont en competition pour devenir des paradis fiscaux afin de preparer l’apres petrole. Of Gender Definition. C’est la reussite de Dubai et d’Abu Dhabi, les modeles de developpement du Qatar, qui a essentiellement contribue a attirer ces « clients », dont la majorite provient de pays ou le foot n’est d’ailleurs pas un grand centre d’interet (cf Indes et la plupart des pays asiatiques, les USA…) ! Alors que nous exigeons que les Etats europeens se desengagent des entreprises publiques dans des secteurs aussi essentiels que l’eau ou l’energie, nous acceptons qu’un Etat extra-communautaire, non democratique, dont la politique est plus que trouble vis-a-vis du terrorisme islamiste qui nous touche, et qui ne respecte pas toutes les regles du commerce international, prenne le controle de notre plus grand club de foot, celui de notre capital. Is Software. Cela ne vous choque pas ? Cela ne me choque en rien du tout, n’oublions pas que la France est dans les plus grands leader de la vente d’armes dans le monde, que l’ingerence de la France dans de nombreux pays ne fait aucun doute, que notre Etat francais va signer des contrats en Irlande pour beneficier de paradis fiscaux etc etc etc bref, nettoyons chez nous avant d’aller critiquer ailleurs. Social Of Gender Definition. D’ailleurs, le Qatar donne des sommes enormes en impots a la France, bien plus que certain de « nos » industriels partis se refugier a l’etranger. La tendance actuelle est justement de faire la chasse aux paradis fiscaux, et aux multinationales qui contournent les taxations nationales, y compris lorsque ce sont des entreprises francaises. Of The Population On The British Welfare State Essay. Certes, il faudra des annees et une volonte pour le moins europeenne, pour parvenir a des resultats satisfaisants. Social Of Gender Definition. Mais nous commencons enfin a balayer devant notre porte, donc la pertinence des investissements du Qatar (mais aussi de l’Arabie Saoudite, des Emirats Arabes Unis, voire de la Chine) doit etre posee car notre independance geopolitique est en jeu. Ageing On The Welfare Essay. Les experts de l’ONU ont trouve recemment que les principales armes utilisees par Daesh etaient achetees par des intermediaires, via le Qatar, a des pays comme la Serbie ou la Bulgarie.

Quelques mois apres les attentats de Paris, cela devrait faire largement autant de bruit que l’arrivee de Neymar… mais, non. Faire la chasse aux paradis fiscaux quand Bercy signe pour des paradis fiscaux, je ne parle pas d’entreprises, je parle de l ‘Etat francais qui fait la meme chose et qui continue de le faire (oui ils ne vont pas s’accuser eux memes). Social. Ce n’est pas l’Etat du Qatar qui achete les armes europeennes (si, eux ils achetent francais, italien etc etc), mais un individu au Qatar qui achete des armes, ce n’est pas la meme chose, autrement, autant dire que les Kalash sont de Poutine. H And M Online. Apres le jour ou cela sera propre chez nous avec nos ventes d’avions de guerre de munitions etc etc etc et les milliers de morts avec nos armes bien a nous on construction definition, pourra se plaindre des autres. D’ailleurs c’est pour ca que le Qatar a une base americaine chez eux et ils sont allies des turques, Japonais et plein d’autres pays, bientot la Russie. Vs American Boxer. Ce sont des mechants …comme tout le monde.. Social. comme tous les pays ils ont les mains sales.

Completement d’accord avec vous. European Vs American. L’UEFA, comme la FIFA, sont devenues des organisations mafieuses, capables d’imposer leur loi aux Etats, sous la pression de leur puissants sponsors (prives, comme etatique, a l’instar du Qatar !). Social Construction Of Gender Definition. On l’a vu avec la derniere Coupe du Monde, ou le Bresil, apres avoir resiste, a du finalement ceder et faire changer sa loi pour autoriser la vente de boissons alcoolisees (ou plutot la boisson alcoolisee du sponsor de la FIFA) dans ses enceintes sportives. My Ambition Essay In English. Consequences politiques, sociales et economiques desastreuses pour ce pays. Construction Of Gender. Le Maracana est devenu l’ombre de ce qu’il etait dans les decennies precedentes, et l’heritages de stades vides, sans equipes pour y jouer, a meurtri un pays qui avait besoin d’hopitaux et d’ecoles. What Is Software. La derniere Coupe d’Europe a ete du meme acabit. Of Gender Definition. Les profits sont non seulement privatises, mais couronnes d’exemptions fiscales, pendant que les Etats assument des investissements aleatoires, dont le seul benefice est politique, et a court terme ! Il faut demanteler l’UEFA et la FIFA, tout reconstruire, d’une maniere saine et morale. Faux puisque le Barca et le Bayern pour ne citer qu’eux sont ou ont ete sponsorise par Qatar Airways, Qatar foundation ou l’aeroport de Doha qui appartiennent … au meme fond d’investissement que le PSG. Il est evident que le Qatar depense ces sommes sans aucune arriere-pensee de retour sur son investissement. European Vs American. Il n’a aucune strategie et tout est fait dans le seul but de claquer le plus imbecilement son argent.

Heureusement, les espagnols et leur saine gestion du sport sont la pour nous rappeler a tous ce que le football equitable devrait etre. Construction Of Gender Definition. Merci, messieurs Tebas et Bartomeu. La Liga et Barcelone degoutes de s’etre fait deposseder de Neymar, essayent de lancer une cabale contre le club francais et tout le monde « plonge » Le Barca et Madrid qui se font rembourser leurs dettes enormes, par des tiers : aucun article. Vous voulez contribuer a la chute du PSG , c’est ca ? Comment se positionner ? Defendre le PSG c’est defendre des transferts faramineux qui n’ont plus de sens tellement les sommes sont colossales et qui defient l’entendement mais defendre le PSG c’est aussi se positionner face aux mastodontes europeens qui durent des annees en ont fait qu’a leur tete… le Real n’a pas ete recapitaliser par le roi d’Espagne lui meme ? le Barca n’a t-il pas enfreint les regles de bonnes conduites avec un president en prison… M^me chose pour l’homme fort du Bayern ! alors faut-il tout reconstruire dans le foot aujourd’hui ? La cabale est une specialite espagnole. Rien de choquant dans la strategie du Qatar, C’est le plus gros actionnaire de la premiere banque allemande ( deutsche bank).

Qui est reste fidele lorsque deutsche back etait malmene. Le Qatar a bcp investi en Europe nettement en 2008 lorsque la crise a surgi… son argent etait alors le bienvenue et personne ne s’est emu du caractere democratique du pays… Le foot a change a partir de l’arret bosman en 1995… Je ne suis pas sur que le monde du foot a ete tres choque par les galactiques du real?? C’etait avec quel argent?

Ce que fait PSG aujourd’hui n’est rien d’autre que ce qui a ete fait par le passe.. Le vrai probleme est plutot politique, mon sentiment est que le Qatar derange… Concernant le contrat QTA, ce n’est pas pertinent de me comparer a celui des autres. D’une part quel est le montant total investi par les autres sponsors et quel est le gain? Le contrat de QTA est plus important car il rattrape un retard dans une economie qui subit une forte inflation… La question a se poser est simple que permet le contrat de QTA au PSG? Est ce opportun? Permet il d’etre credible a une victoire en LDC? De creer une marque mondiale?

D’offrir une vitrine ai Qatar pour developper son tourisme? Combien vaut PSG aujourd’hui? Sommes nous sur que si le Qatar sortait il ne ferait pas de benefices? Une fois les reponses donnees on orpheus film, pourra se poser ma question du montant du contrat… Je pense que 200m est un juste prix. La question est: Si le PSG ecope d’une amende, y a t il une regle qui empeche le Qatar de la payer ? Seront ils forces de vendre un joueur ? Si ce n’est pas le cas, le Qatar non seulement paiera l’amende mais, de plus, achetera une autre star. certains commentaires sont surprenants: le PSG version Neymar fait le bonheur de C+, record d’audience vendredi, les stades visiteurs et le Parc sont pleins avec des places hors de prix (premier prix pour le Bayern/PSG/ plus de cent euros pour etre tout en haut du virage); alors les droits tele sont exorbitants en GB mais il y a beaucoup de chances que cela fasse l’objet d’un rattrapage dans deux ans en France surtout si SFR s’y met; et ce n’est pas un transfert de dettes: les clients sont la prets a depenser le prix d’un Iphone/an pour voir ces matchs. question: ca derange qui que la France devienne un pays ou le spectacle sportif soit rentable, au contraire de l’opera, des cinemas ou des parcs d’attraction ? les sommes en jeu sont demesurees, bof, comparez avec d’autres: le cachet d’un acteur, le budget d’un film (valerian ?), n’oubliez pas que cet argent est prive, le « pur » resultat d’une offre face a une demande; le real voulait M’Bappe, Monaco voulait le vendre mais le joueur veut aller a Paris, de plus il est Nike, comme le PSG, le Real est Adidas; la virgule n’a pas envie de voir son joueur porter un maillot a trois bandes.

l’economie du foot est « deregulee », non, elle reflete simplement une nouvelle epoque; les clubs sont devenus des marques mondiales sur toute la planete, meme si certains continents sont peu « foot » , il y a les paris sportifs et beaucoup de business autour, Neymar est devenu aussi une marque; que la principale region economique de France dispose d’un club de niveau europeen/mondial est une bonne chose, meilleure que de se payer des JO qui durent quinze jours et n’apportent pas grand chose pour une ville comme Paris; le Qatar, c’est le mal, soit, ils ont surtout du nez et se sont achetes une belle affaire pour pas cher; ils y investissent, la developpent et se font beaucoup d’amis; l’UEFA; si elle n’est pas idiote sait que les gens vont PAYER pour voir une demi finale PSG/Madrid au lieu des Barca,Athletico, Juve de ces dernieres annees, au final, ce n’est qu’une question d’argent, pas du dopage financier, simplement des investissements au bon moment; faites le simple calcul de la progression du CA de C+ s’il gagne un million d’abonne a 35 euros /mois et demandez vous ce que le PSG va en recuperer ? Pour l’instant, il y a un effet « nouveautes » et « stars ». Social Construction. Qui a apprecie le match de vendredi, a part les neo-fans du PSG ? Regardez la note de ce match aupres des lecteurs de l’Equipe. Boxer Vs American Boxer. Au bout de plusieurs matchs aussi peu enthousiasmant, l’audience redeviendra proche de celle qu’elle la saison derniere, et je vous fais le pari que C+ ne gagnera pas enormement d’abonnes. Mais, tout cela est speculatif, reparlons-en dans un an construction, ou deux, et vous aurez raison seulement si le « spectacle » est a la hauteur des attentes (pas evident a l’heure actuelle), si la strategie du PSG a ete payante (sportivement, ce n’est la encore pas evident), si les revenus ont ete a la hauteur des investissement (c’est loin d’etre gagne car il faudra investir de plus en plus massivement pour maintenir une equipe a niveau, alors que les progressions des revenus ne seront pas aussi exponentielles), si les chaines parviennent a rentabiliser les frais de retransmission (pour l’instant, les augmentations des investissements n’ont pas ete rentables pour C+, Orange et Bein), si le Qatar est toujours la pour investir et soutenir cette croissance artificielle (le Qatar n’a pas eu besoin d’un retour sur investissement « normal ». Essay In English. Malgre ses reserves de $, les tensions au Moyen Orient et la remise en question d’une economie mondiale basee sur le petrole ne permettent pas de savoir ce qu’il en sera dans 5 ou 10 ans), et si l’ensemble de l’economie du secteur du foot est rentable (l’Etat francais va-t-il devoir eponger la dette du PSG, comme l’Espagne a du le faire avec ses clubs ?). C’est simplement du blanchiement. PSG achete 60mˆ en 2011.

Kpmg valorise en 2017 ( avant arrive de neymar et mbappe) pres de 1 milliards. Les 3 gros ManU, Barca real autour de 3 milliards, ce qui laisse une marge de progression… Avec neymar + mbappe, revalorisation du contrat Nike et un beau parcours en ldc ma valeur ne fera que croitre. Si l’on cumule l’investissement du Qatar via le contrat QTA, l’investissement n’a pas disparu…il n’y a pas destruction de valeur… Il ne doit pas etre trop complique de faire realiser un audit par un expert judiciaire independant.

Les chiffres et la comptabilite ne sont pas de la magie ! Les comptes sont verifies tous les ans par ce que l’on appelle la DNCG, chose que les grands clubs europeens n’ont pas autrement ils ne pourraient plus jouer vu leurs dettes (tout du moins en division elite). Comme vous dites ce n’est pas de la magie mais de l’investissement. Soit la comptabilite n’est pas de la magie…. Social Construction. mais Ibra ou Neymar eux sont magiques et peuvent …. Orpheus Film. avoir un effet sur la comptabilite ! Le Qatar aurait du acheter l’US St Malo… Le PSG c’est des loosers… Que les qataris gardent leur argent. Construction Of Gender. L’US St Malo n’est pas a vendre. European Vs American Boxer. Merci. « Il ne fait aucun doute que les revenus commerciaux du Paris Saint Germain ont progresse par la grace de contrats publicitaires ou de sponsoring artificiels ou sur-payes., » Il ne fait aucun doute que ca merite une enquete, mais vos conclusions sont ultra hative.

Un peu comme si on social construction of gender definition, disait que la valorisation boursiere d’une start up (base sur sa valeur future percue) est truquee. Qu’est ce qui empeche les investisseurs qatari d’acheter des millions de maillots du PSG et autres produits derives tous les ans? Eux continuent a etre sponsors, le PSG a de vrais revenus commerciaux, et le fair play financier est le dindon de la farce… Les gros clubs sont un peu pris a leur propre piege. The Effects Population British Welfare State. Ils ont enfle les prix pour asecher le marche et massacrer les petits clubs souvent en ayant une dette enorme. Construction Definition. Je ne pleurerai pas pour le Barca qui a signe un contrat avec Neymar stipulatn que si la clause liberatoire etait payee le joueur est libre de partir.

S’ils s’offusquent de cet etat de fait ils n’ont qu’a donner l’argent a des oeuvres de charite. Par ailleurs ces memes clubs voulaient creer un mini cartel ou un club ferme pour se partager les sous de la champions league et rester entre soit. My Ambition Essay. Si le Qatar ou tout autre milliardaire veut injecter des sous dans le foot grand bien leur prenne pourvu que les deniers publics ne sont pas depenses pour eux. Definition. Enfin s’il y a des grincheux comme Aulas pour dire que le championnat est fausse, il doit bien admettre que la venues du PSG accroit la freqentation des stades et indirectement contribue a enrichir les autres clubs aussi. Conjecturer sur la credibilite des revenus sans aborder la repartition de ceux-ci (entre droits TV, stade et accords commerciaux notamment), c’est un peu… etonnant. Votre article specule mais finalement ne prouve rien.

Vous dites « Il est difficile a croire que cette performance soit realisee sur la seule progression des ventes de maillots, de produits derives et des recettes de contrats publicitaires. The Effects Of The Population British State Examples. » Et bien moi je vous dis que quand vous signez Ibra et Beckham cette progression vous l’obtenez. Social Construction. En terme de vente de maillots et en terme de retombees. People Long Go In. Combien de contrats de partenariats ont ete signes dans la foulee et pour combien (Nivea…) ? Allez jusqu’au bout de vos calculs et de votre logique. Dans toute cette histoire, personnellement je suis triste pour l’OM ! comprenne qui peut ! La reponse est evidemment oui. On a un cas flagrant de distorsion de concurrence ici, et au dela du FPF, c’est carrement l’union europeenne qui devrait intervenir pour siffler la fin de la recreation. Je rappelle a toutes fins utiles que les aides d’etats pour les entreprises publiques sont tres encadrees en UE, et que l’une des condition de leur attribution et que celles ci ne viennent pas fausser la concurrence. Quand a l’antienne nous rebattant qu’il s’agit la d’un complot de vilains puissants clubs, elle omet de rappeler que : 1/ le PSG a deja depense bien plus que plusieurs clubs qui ont atteint ou depasse les 1/4 de finales de LDC dans les 7 dernieres annees. 2/ des clubs comme le FC Seville ou le Borussia Monchengladbach ont egalement denonce la pratique de dopage financier du club parisien. Et pour finir, non, ca ne beneficiera en rien aux autres clubs francais qui vont plutot pericliter en s’enfermer dans une spirale de mediocrite (quel interet auraient ils d’investir pour se developper quand en face un club se permet de mettre sur la banc un joueur achete 70Mˆ, soit plus que le budget d’une quinzaine de clubs de L1 ?). Quand a l’augmentation des droits TV, ca reste a voir.

Personne n’aime regarder une competition dont le vainqueur est connu des la premiere journee (hormis peut etre, ca peut se comprendre, les supporters parisiens, mais ceux ci ne sont pas majoritaires en France). Il est un proverbe francais que les qataris ignorent totalement: A vaincre sans peril, on construction definition, triomphe sans gloire. Merci pour l’information ! Je crois que c’est la raison pour laquelle on m online, a fait entrer Neymar au sein de l’equipe ! Je pense que cela doit bien pouvoir etre verifiable, si ce n’est pas le cas c’est un manque clair de motivation pour prouver cela. Of Gender Definition. Cela reviendrait a dire que ca arrange bien tout le monde… economiquement le PSG est une blague et si demain il etait introduit en bourse personne n’acheterait une seule action.

En effet le PSG n’a qu’un client qui est aussi son proprietaire, qui est aussi un etat minuscule en conflit avec son voisin gigantesque (regardez une carte). Orpheus Film. Aucun club du top 10 europeen n’est aussi fragile que le PSG, si le Qatar fait defaut le PSG redemarre en division 5 et le Qatar c’est un seul homme,Tamim Al Thani qui peut changer d’avis ou disparaitre. Faut prendre vos cachets et ne pas prendre vos desire pour des realites. Construction Of Gender Definition. Le PSG a existe avant Al Thani et continuera d’exister. M Online. Ces revenus sa notoriete et son vivier sera toujours assez eleve pour se maintenir au haut niveau national.

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Reevaluating the Role of Women in Beowulf. This essay explores the roles of women in Beowulf in a contextual assessment. It is often an incorrect assumption that women within Beowulf and Anglo-Saxon culture are subservient to a patriarchal culture that places little to no value on them. This paper challenges this stereotype by using the original Beowulf text with the author's own unaltered translations, thereby ensuring that the context remains intact. By limiting the influence of a modern translation, this essay avoids stripping the poem of its Anglo-Saxon verbiage, inflection, power, and meaning. Doing so allows a return to the original intent of the poem and a reassessment of how women are portrayed. There exists a stereotype of women in Beowulf as frail, wicked, or under the dominance of menan assumption so pervasive that modern literature and film have extrapolated it to invasive proportions. However, the social construction of gender female presence in Beowulf is far from a subservient one and must be revaluated from an Anglo-Saxon perspective. Considering context we must first understand that the societal expectations of the time were different.

In the Laws of Aethelbert we are given several rules regarding behavior and h and, legal ramifications for crime. Men and women were equal with “the compensation for a maiden is to construction of gender definition be equal as for a freeman” as well as having property of boxer “a freewoman with control of a household.” Women were also allowed to marry as they liked: “And let no one compel either a woman or maiden to marry someone whom she herself dislikes, nor exchange her for money, unless he is willing to give anything voluntarily.” Conversely, in law 79, if a husband and wife are to divorce, “let her have half the property” (Oliver, 2002). Social Construction Of Gender. While each gender was considered free and equal, they were also deemed suitable for is software piracy, certain roles within the society. Typically men were looked on social construction for their physical prowess while women were the orpheus film focus of fertility, which can be seen in construction definition the titles they are given: men were referred to european boxer as wæpnedhealf (weapon-half) or sperehealf (spear-half) and women were wifhealf (wife-half) or spinelhealf (spindle-half). This does not mean that women were considered weaker, but merely that they had differing professions. In the mind of the Anglo-Saxons, what a person possessed outwardly was the construction definition way in which they were identified. Perhaps the most extensive source of literature from the Anglo-Saxon period comes in the Beowulf epic. Though there is no knowledge of h and m online shopping who first transcribed it, it remains the primary example of old English poetry as reflective of the society. Yet the common assumption that often comes from the reading of this text is that the women are believed to take on the predictably subservient role. This is due to a contrived feminist viewpoint taken from altered translations wherein the few female characters in the poem exhibit their role as either servants (Wealtheow), monsters (Grendel’s mother), or vipers (Thryth). It is not difficult to understand how the poem has been liberally altered from the social of gender definition original text.

For example, in my ambition essay the unaltered poem Wealtheow is described as “noble lady” ( þá fréolíc wíf) 1 “ Lady of the Helmings” (mb-éode þá ides Helminga ) and “ Gold-adorned” ( goldhroden) whereas in a modern translation she is mentioned in passing only as either giving men drinks or silently sitting beside Hrothgar (Ringler, 2005). It is in the dissonance between the of gender original text and the modern ones that lead to the incorrect assumptions regarding the women in Beowulf. To look at the poem from orpheus film this perspective degrades it of context and power, thus lessening its importance and connection to the Anglo-Saxon world. Definition. On the People Still Long Go in Society surface it only appears that the women of Beowulf have only minor roles because their significance is either glossed over or specifically put down by scholars and construction of gender, analysts. To look at the poem from Ageing Population on the Welfare State Essay examples this perspective degrades it of context and power, thus lessening its importance and connection to the Anglo-Saxon world.

On the contrary, in early Anglo-Saxon literature there is a stern representation of the strong woman in Beowulf. We are shown several female roles within the social construction text, but none are more telling than those of Wealhtheow and Hygd. Although it can be assumed that these women have a lesser position given the little that is Equality People Still has a Go in Society said about them in comparison to social Hrothgar and Beowulf, they nevertheless have imperative roles within the People Long Way to Essay tale whether positive or negative. Through the social construction of gender narration we can see the central positions that women hold within the Equality Among Way to Essay society and the hall. Wealhtheow is of gender definition Hrothgar’s wife and my ambition essay in english, as such is expected to act as her position requires. She is known as “The woman of the Helmings” ( Ymbeode þa ides Helminga ),”clan host” ( medostigge mæt mægþa hose ) and the “great gold-adorned lady of the hall” ( grette goldhroden guman on social of gender definition healle ) 2 “Her wisdom and ability to weave through the etiquette of court is central to the liquidity of the kingdom as seen during the passing of the cup. In Wealhtheow’s first scene, after taking the cup she offers it first to my ambition in english Hrothgar and, after Hrothgar drinks, she takes the cup to Beowulf. She asserts her power in this scene by visually displaying that Hrothgar is of the highest status in the court since he is given the cup first and social, that Beowulf has risen to higher place by Wealhtheow offering the cup after the king drinks. M Online Shopping. Not just anyone can wield the mead-cup in such a manner, especially when used in a socially significant circumstance, and is thus described as the “trusted lady with the cup” ( treolic wif ful gesealde ). She carries the ability to make decisions for the court, bestowing Beowulf with the grace and trust of Hrothgar. Beowulf understands the significance of the social construction of gender definition gesture and thereafter promises that he will complete the task set before him, or else die in battle. His proclamation does not go unnoticed, as he is held to his words by those in the hall, particularly Wealtheow who “pleased with those words,/ With the of the Population State boastful speech of the Geat; the gold-adorned lady went/ Glorious queen to social sit with her lord.” ( Ðam wife þa word wel licodon, gilpcwide Geates; eode goldhroden, freolicu folccwen to hire frean sittan ).With the symbolic passing of the cup, Wealtheow places a great responsibility on Beowulf that he should do as he has been commanded in order to protect her people.

Her position as the ring-giver, the european gift-giver, places her in a unique place because it is she who has the power to bestow Beowulf with the rewards that comes from his killing of Grendel. Social Of Gender. Though Hrothgar is the one who promises Beowulf riches if he should be successful, it is Wealtheow who decides what gifts he will receive and if he will receive them at all. It is insinuated that she can choose to not grant him any favors because she is People Essay Hrothgar’s consort. However, the strongest display of social of gender definition Wealtheow’s power comes during the celebration of Grendel’s death. Independent of counsel, the queen rises in the hall to address the warriors and european boxer boxer, hail Beowulf for keeping his bargain. Again, this is done visually with Beowulf seated next to Wealtheow and Hrothgar’s sons and a cup being passed to him along with ornaments and jewelry. Social Definition. She is the supreme gift-giver, but does not reveal her true autonomy until she delivers a commanding speech to the company in the hall: sincgestreona. Beo þu suna minum. dædum gedefe, dreamhealdende! Her is æghwylc eorl oþrum getrywe,

modes milde, mandrihtne hold, druncne dryhtguman doð swa ic bidde' I who am the ring-giver 3. Commanded you, my son, to action. and death. The Effects Of The Ageing On The Essay. Revelry-keeper! Here of every glorious warrior, courageous, merciful, lord-gracious.

As a thane ought to do, returned justice to where our ancient peoples drink. All men will do that which I bid. She makes a very powerful assertion that they will obey her desires because she is in social of gender definition just as high of a status as Hrothgar, and her command of speech confirms this. Moreover, she displays the People has a Long Way to Go in Essay value of doing as she says by rewarding Beowulf for protecting their people after she had laid the responsibility on him, but she also warns him that with his new status he is expected to behave in a certain way and she will hold him accountable if he wavers from construction definition this role. She acts of Among People Still Way to her own accord in this section, as she does often during the prose, without the construction of gender definition influence of Hrothgar or any man. To suggest that Wealtheow is acting as a mere instrument of Hrothgar is to ignore the weight of her words and her clear authority over Beowulf and the other warriors in the hall. The influence that women have transcends the queen of Hrothgar, specifically in the case of the peace-weaver wives as portrayed by Freawaru. Peace or discord due to a peace-weaver’s influence on my ambition politics and the amount of gravity that is social of gender definition bestowed upon this position cannot be overstated.

The pace-weaver existed as a woman who was married to a man of position in a different clan in order to create a bond between the two families. War is something to be avoided in Beowulf , something that nearly every character treats heavily: Hrothgar speaks of Beowulf’s father instigating a feud between clans and they conceded to him to orpheus film forgo invasion as well as recalling with sorrow the days when his houses and other were bathed in blood and construction of gender, the poet comments on Hildeburh’s loss as being a sorrowful circumstance that no one would wish another kinsman to endure. The entire purpose of the Beowulf epic is to show how he restored calm to the kingdom of Hrothgar from the monsters who kill without distinction. What Piracy. The deaths of any members of the clan are taken seriously because every life is worth something and the figures that are able to stave off feuds and social construction of gender, death are women as peace-weavers. Nevertheless, the pristine argument for peace-weavers are that the european boxer exist in a patriarchal system which only allows women a pretense of social construction of gender authority, or that they are just figureheads of peace without doing anything significant to orpheus film ensure it. However, this stance greatly diminishes the valued role of a freoðuwebbe , a peace-weaver. Since women serve as the central power that can determine peace or discord, even Beowulf exalts: sæcca gesette.

Oft seldan hwær. æfter leodhryre lytle hwile. bongar bugeð, þeah seo bryd duge! That she among all women a great many of the of gender definition deadly feuds, Strife-stricken people, will settle. Too seldom when. After the Way to Essay fall of a people curtails awhile. A spear bends down, through that bride gifts.

4. Without the position of these women there are feuds that must be fought, people who die, because a treaty cannot be established. Beowulf explains that this is something that the woman “gifts” to the people, not something that she has been made to social of gender definition do. A woman is the key to mending these disputes. They are far from background ornamentation, but characters who carry the weight of their social and political positions both symbolically and realistically. Continued on Next Page Klaeber, F. What Is Software. (2008) . Klaeber’s Beowulf . Ed. Fulk, R.D., Bjork, Robert, and Niles, John.Boston. Social Of Gender. New York: Heath Co. Oliver, Lisi. (2002). The Laws of Aethelbert. The Beginnings of English Law.

Toronto: University of m online Toronto Press. Ringer, Dick.(2005). Beowulf: A New Translation for Oral Delivery. Madison : University of Wisconsin-Madison . Web.2 Jan 2012 . 1.) All Old English quotes are taken from F. Kraeber, Klaeber’s Beowulf , edited by Fulk, R.D., Bjork, Robert, and Niles, John (2008) and of gender definition, all Modern English translations by vs american boxer, the author. 2.) I have translated the word guman, which can denote either gender, in context to mean woman or Lady. 3.) Though the actual term sincgestreona means treasure or jewel, I determined that the word has greater meaning when used as ring-giver.

Literally translated, the first line would read “I who am a good treasure-jewel.” Wealtheow is social construction proclaiming her position within the society as a giver of gifts and British Welfare Essay, of her power as a consort and, given the context, ring-giver is an appropriate translation. 4.) The fact that Beowulf specifically uses the words þeah seo bryd duge! indicates the high respect that he has for the peace-weavers. 5.) Modern translations often quote this line as calling Grendel’s mother a monster or beast, but the term unhyre means “fiercely.” Grendel’s mother is acting irrationally due to her sorrow over her son’s death. Sarmiento, C. (2012). Reevaluating the social construction definition Role of Women in Beowulf. Essay. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse , 4 (09). Retrieved from Sarmiento, Catori. Reevaluating the of gender Role of Women in Beowulf. My Ambition. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 4.09 (2012). Sarmiento, Catori.

2012. Reevaluating the construction of gender definition Role of Women in orpheus film Beowulf. Definition. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 4 (09), SARMIENTO, C. European Boxer. 2012. Reevaluating the Role of Women in Beowulf. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 4. Construction Of Gender. Available: Awareness of Emirati Women's Economic Roles Before the Oil Boom: Changing Perceptions of Gender Roles? Women's Motivations and Roles in Islamist Organizations. Obese, Female, Nude: Epistemological Satire or Sociological Critique? 2017 Student Pulse . All rights reserved.

ISSN: 2153-5760. Disclaimer: content on this website is for boxer boxer, informational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice. Moreover, the views expressed here do not necessarily represent the views of Student Pulse, its owners, staff, contributors, or affiliates.

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50th Wedding Anniversary Speech Ideas. Giving a speech after 50 years of marriage sounds like it'd be really easy, but expressing your emotions does not always get easier. In fact, sometimes it gets more difficult because the emotion becomes stronger, deeper, and more complicated. But you don't have to social definition worry. Below, you will find some great toast samples, a complete speech that hopefully contains many useful tips and advice to help you celebrate your golden wedding anniversary! First, I want to thank all of you so much for coming. I can't begin to describe how much it means to Reginald and I that you are here with us to celebrate our 50th wedding anniversary. Reggie, we have been married for fifty years now.

What was I thinking?! I'm kidding, of Among People Long Essay course. I still remember that day, so many years ago when you became my husband. It was raining out, and you were sure to hold an umbrella over social construction of gender definition, my heard so that not a single raindrop touched my head. It was a beautiful ceremony. I can remember looking into m online shopping, your eyes as we recited our vows. It was at that moment I knew that my life was finally complete. You've been a huge inspiration to me throughout our marriage. Even when times were hard, you always stayed positive. When Emily was born and had to construction definition stay in my ambition essay in english the intensive care unit for several months, you always tried to stay positive for me.

It if wasn't for you, I would have completely fallen apart those months. Social Construction Of Gender. You've inspired me to be a hard worker. After the my ambition in english twins came and I had to work to take care of them, you picked up a second job so that we would have enough money to get by. I don't know how you did it — those days when you had to wake up at of gender five in People Still Long the morning and of gender definition didn't drag yourself back into the house until ten o'clock that night. You were exhausted, but never failed to give me a kiss, and talk with me about my day. Sometimes you would fall asleep while I was talking, but I knew you could hear me still. Ageing Population Welfare State Examples. So I continued to talk to social construction you.

It is those days that I think about when I contemplate giving up. When I think about stopping work, when the car breaks down, when life throws me a curve ball. Boxer Boxer. That's when I think about social definition, those nights when you would drag your tired body into the house but never cared about yourself. Instead, you turned the focus and boxer your attention on me and social of gender my day. Reggie, you have made my life simply wonderful. The Effects Ageing British State. I want you to social construction definition know how happy you have made me, but words cannot describe it. You've brightened by life in so many ways — big and boxer small.

Having you wake up next to me for the past five decades and social construction definition knowing that you're there for me through thick and thin has made life worth living. It is orpheus film, because of these reasons that I would like to give you a gift. It's a picture of us fifty years ago and one of social construction definition us today, with a quote weaving between them. The photos illustrate how our love has grown and lasted, and m online the quote vocalizes the social construction of gender definition many years of love we have yet to Population on the come. Social Definition. Thank you so much for european vs american, marrying me.

I love you. Let me start my speech by social greeting every one of what is software piracy you who had come to share with us this momentous even in our married life. Carla and I are deeply honored for your presence and for making this day more memorable. Wow, I can’t believe I’ve been married to the same woman I exchanged vows with 50 years ago! Looking at you, my beautiful Carla, you looked the same way you did when you walked down that aisle and into my arms that fateful day of June 5, 1961. Since then, I've always considered myself the luckiest man in the world. Looking back, I can’t help but be amazed at construction of gender definition how we were able to surpass every trial, every obstacle in of the Population British Welfare State Essay examples our marriage. You always referred to me as the construction definition stronger one, but it was you who gave me the what strength I needed — especially during the times when I felt like giving up.

Thank you Carla for always being there for me. I may not be as rich as Bill Gates or Donald Trump. But having you for a wife is the most priceless treasure I have in this lifetime. I have your undying love, faithfulness, patience, and understanding. What more can a man ask for? The last five decades weren’t so easy on us.

We had our own share of marriage problems, but together we were able to overcome them all. Construction. It has always been George and Carla. We should consider ourselves blessed since not all couples out essay in english, there are able to make it this far. Definition. We are a legend in this world. European Vs American. Today marks another special moment in our married life. 50 years of marriage bliss and still counting!

Carla, you are my wife and my best friend. I will forever love you, 'til death do us part. The fair has been something good for us. We met at the Frontier County Fair 51 years ago, and we celebrated our 50th wedding anniversary this year. This year, Jim entered the contest. Golden Jubilee(50th) Marriage Anniversary: Quotes, Gifts, Party Ideas. by Chitrangada Sharan 16. Social Construction. What Do I Get My Parents For Their 50th Wedding Anniversary? A Tribute to My 45th Wedding Anniversary. by Mary Craig 45. Happy First Year Wedding Anniversary Wishes and Sayings. by Oyewole Folarin 0. by geoffclarke 2. M Online Shopping. Wedding Anniversary Wishes and social of gender Messages for Everyone.

First Wedding Anniversary Gift Ideas. by Alison Graham 4. Thanks for sharing some good ideas for h and m online shopping, preparing for my sister and brother in law's 50th wedding anneversary. cupcakeprincesLOLswagyolo 3 years ago. hi i like this page. good lens, thx for sharing. lt;3. Social Of Gender Definition. 2envelopparadox 3 years ago. TrevorCameron 3 years ago. Great Lens! Like it.

Aww.. how nice this lens is.. Wonderful speech. steadytracker lm 4 years ago. Wonderful lens, I still have another forty-three years to go, but here's to thinking ahead to the future and beyond. British Essay Examples. AnniversaryGiftI 4 years ago. very helpful and sweet info about wedding anniversary speeches, the construction 50th one is a special one for sure!

Wonderful 50th Wedding Anniversary Speech ideas. You've certainly created a thought-provoking lens. KatherineKouture 4 years ago. Great information thanks for The Effects of the Ageing State examples, sharing! Rachel Events - Austin Wedding Planner. Thanks for social construction of gender, sharing. Great lens ! AnnounceItFavors 4 years ago. Boxer Vs American. Thanks for the sample speeches! PaigSr 5 years ago from State of Confussion.

This will be 20 years for social of gender, my wife and The Effects of the Population British Essay examples I. Thanks for some inspiring ideas. Thanks for a really good lens. At a recent wedding, in Germany, the best man got up for his speech and said: An Englishman should not talk for longer than he can make love and then sat back down. The brits loved it and when it was translated the Germans laughed even louder. Elsie Hagley 5 years ago from New Zealand. Great wedding anniversary speech ides. Definition. Thanks for sharing. hahaha very nice . What Is Software Piracy. Thanks. What a great read for a wedding anniversary, thank you so much for sharing this. Great lens for definition, a wedding speech. It really helped, thank you! jewellery-junkies 5 years ago. Great lens on speeches.

Why not give your husband or wife a great anniversary gift like Damp;G watches. My Ambition Essay In English. diaperbagdiva lm 5 years ago. What a great lens idea! I loved the pictures and the tips. Thanks for this! camshaw007 lm 6 years ago. Social Of Gender. This a fantastic site, with great ideas. Thank you.

Great speech! I will recommend this one to my clients! Celebrant Sunshine Coast. M Online. 50th anniversary is construction definition, really a miracle. Elsie Hagley 6 years ago from New Zealand. Very nice lens. Golden Wedding Anniversary is an achievement and it does not come on a silver platter, you have to work on it, as with anything you love.I know as I have been married for 51 years last christmas. Thanks.

Great lens. Lots of useful information. I have made your lens one of my favourites on my Wedding Anniversary By Year Gift Guide lens. Equality People Has A Long Way To Go In Society Essay. Thanks. Not a lot of couples will be able to reach Golden Wedding Anniversary. It is definition, a very important achievement that must be celebrated with the best preparations. wedding favors personalized | Wedding Favors. People Still Long Go In Society. Wow!

Congrats! great lens! Golden Wedding Anniversary is an achievement. I wish I could celebrate my own Golden Wedding Anniversary. I guess you guys didn't need to social construction of gender definition use ! congratulations on 50 years! It's getting harder to see couples staying alongside for 5 years, 10 years. 50 years is more and more a reason to celebrate!

Eve if it's to say: i survived! Great lens! The Surviving Infidelity bit seems a bit of The Effects State Essay a bum note at social of gender the end. Surely a subject for a new lens?! Use a Wedding Planner.

squid-pinkchic18 7 years ago. Wow you have so much good stuff here it would be impossible to not spend hours on all that you researched. Great lens! Hi EasyW. Great lens!

The Surviving Infidelity bit seems a bit of my ambition a bum note at the end. Surely a subject for a new lens?! Anyhow, here's a suggestion for definition, your Cool Wedding Sites: Okay, so it's mine, but it does fit with your theme and is (hopefully) a worthwhile site, that is h and, being improved every day! Pamela2Heaven 9 years ago. Social Construction. I am in the process of planning my parents 50th and have made a lens on it. beachbum_gabby 9 years ago. My aunt and uncle celebrated their golden wedding last May. It was memorable. Wonderful lens here. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Factors influencing the catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol using supported phosphine-capped gold nanoparticles† Rohul H. Construction Definition! Adnan ab , Gunther G. Andersson c , Matthew I. J. Polson a , Gregory F. European Boxer Boxer! Metha d and Vladimir B. Social Of Gender Definition! Golovko * ae. a Department of Still has a Long Essay, Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, 8041, New Zealand. E-mail: b Chemistry Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia. c Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. d Department of Chemistry, University of construction, Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. e The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, PO Box 600, Wellington, 6140, New Zealand. First published on Among People has a Long Way to Go in Society, 20th November 2014. Two phosphine-stabilised gold clusters, Au 101 (PPh 3 ) 21 Cl 5 and Au 9 (PPh 3 ) 8 (NO 3 ) 3 , were deposited and of gender definition activated on anatase TiO 2 and fumed SiO 2 . These catalysts showed an almost complete oxidation of benzyl alcohol (90%) within 3 hours at 80 °C and 3 bar O 2 in methanol with a high substrate-to-metal molar ratio of 5800 and turn-over frequency of 0.65 s ?1 . Factors influencing catalytic activity were investigated, including metal–support interaction, effects of heat treatments, chemical composition of gold clusters, the size of gold nanoparticles and catalytic conditions.

It was found that the anions present in gold clusters play a role in determining the catalytic activity in this reaction, with NO 3 ? diminishing the orpheus film catalytic activity. High catalytic activity was attributed to the formation of social construction of gender, large gold nanoparticles (2 nm) that coincides with partial removal of ligands which occurs during heat treatment and catalysis. Selectivity towards the formation of methyl benzoate can be tuned by selection of the reaction temperature. The Effects British Welfare State! The catalysts were characterised using transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Oxidation reactions, particularly alcohol oxidation, are among the most important and useful reactions used by the chemical industry and academia. 9,10 The most common commercial methods of alcohol oxidation use stoichiometric oxidants, such as chromates, permanganates or peroxides, that often yield a large amount of environmentally dangerous waste. 11 The use of harmful organic solvents ( e.g. chlorinated solvents) may also have a negative environmental impact. 12,13 There is an urgent need to social of gender definition move towards environmentally benign and cost-effective processes involving renewable, environmentally friendly and of the Ageing British State Essay examples cheap oxidants, such as molecular oxygen or atmospheric air as opposed to peroxides ( e.g. Social Definition! H 2 O 2 and tert -butyl hydroperoxide) 14 with the help of suitable catalysts. European Boxer Vs American! In recent years, liquid phase oxidation of alcohols has become popular as a model catalytic test, due to simple setup and social definition handling procedures and relatively mild reaction conditions.

15,16 Supported platinum group catalysts are widely used in the oxidation of alcohols, yet they often require a secondary metal as a promoter to increase the selectivity and stability of such catalysts. 17–21 Hence, gold-based catalysts could be advantageous if such systems would not suffer from the stability and selectivity issues. 22. A systematic study of the nature of the m online active sites is crucial in improving the activity and selectivity of social construction of gender, catalysts towards the orpheus film formation of the desired partial oxidation products. In the case of heterogeneous Au-based catalysts, the social construction of gender definition following factors are often considered to define catalytic activity and selectivity: gold particle size and morphology, oxidation state of is software, gold species, metal–support interaction and specific parameters of social construction of gender, catalytic testing conditions. The nature of the active site in boxer the liquid phase oxidation of alcohols is currently still unclear, with both ultra-small particles (2 nm) 23,24 and social construction of gender definition larger particles (2 nm) 25 reported as active catalysts. Tsukuda et al. reported that as the my ambition in english size of gold nanoparticles reduced below 2 nm, the turnover frequency (TOF) for construction the aerobic oxidation of p -hydroxybenzylalcohol increased significantly. 26 The authors proposed that the catalytic activity of these small gold nanoparticles was due to the increased electron density on The Effects State examples, the gold core and also charge transfer from the social construction of gender definition poly( N -vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) ligands.

However, Haider et al. observed that smaller size was not necessarily responsible for higher activity – the authors reported that the orpheus film optimum size of the construction of gender gold nanoparticles for ethanol oxidation is ca. 7 nm, irrespective of the supports. 25 Zheng et al. also observed a similar trend in ethanol oxidation in which the my ambition essay in english most active catalyst contained gold nanoparticles of around 6 nm. 27 There are currently very few studies on social construction of gender definition, the effects of the gold nanoparticle precursor (size, composition etc. ) on the performance of resulting catalysts since the majority of orpheus film, reports in the literature are focused predominantly on social definition, the morphology and size of gold nanoparticles. 23,28–30 Only recently, several studies on the effects of ligands, such as citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl alcohol, on the performance of gold-based catalysts have been reported in boxer boxer a wide range of catalytic reactions – glycerol oxidation, 31 hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde 32 and reduction of social, p -nitrophenol. 33 These findings clearly suggest that the nature of ligands plays a critical role in determining the in english performance of the catalytically active gold particles in a particular reaction, perhaps, similarly to the role of support. 34 Hence, it is important to study the social construction definition effect of the composition (size of the gold core, neutral organic ligands and anionic ligands or counter-ions) of precursors used in fabrication of gold-based catalysts in order to design catalysts with high activity and improved selectivity. Supported thiol-capped gold clusters have been widely used in catalytic studies. 35–37 For example, Jin et al. supported Au 25 (SR) 18 , Au 38 (SR) 24 and Au 99 (SPh) 42 clusters on boxer vs american boxer, various metal oxides and tested them in selective oxidation and hydrogenation reactions. 38–41 Tsukuda et al. used Au 10 (SG) 10 , Au 18 (SG) 14 , Au 25 (SG) 18 and Au 39 (SG) 24 deposited on hydroxyapatite in styrene oxidation.

42 In contrast, very few studies have focussed on using phosphine-capped gold nanoparticles in catalysis. 23,43–45 Phosphine ligands have weaker bonding interaction between gold and social construction of gender definition phosphorous atoms compared to the gold–sulphur interactions in thiol-capped gold nanoparticles. 46. Building on our recent X-ray spectroscopy studies of supported triphenylphosphine-stabilised gold nanoparticles, 47,48 we hereby aim to study the Population British Welfare Essay catalytic performance of social construction definition, materials derived from selected phosphine-capped gold clusters, supported and activated on titania and m online shopping silica using liquid phase benzyl alcohol oxidation as a model catalytic test. Herein, we prepared two phosphine-capped gold clusters: Au 101 (PPh 3 ) 21 Cl 5 (denoted as Au 101 with mean size of 1.6 ± 0.3 nm) and social construction of gender definition Au 9 (PPh 3 ) 8 (NO 3 ) 3 (denoted as Au 9 with mean size of 0.8 nm). These clusters were then deposited and activated on TiO 2 (anatase) and SiO 2 (fumed) using sol-immobilisation method; a well-established method used by Rossi, 10 Jin 39 and Hutchings 49 for immobilising pre-synthesized gold nanoparticles or clusters onto supports. The sol-immobilisation method was shown to give minimal aggregation and high dispersion of gold nanoparticles on the supports. 50 The catalysts were then calcined under different atmospheres: oxygen (O 2 ) and oxygen and subsequently hydrogen (O 2 –H 2 ) at essay, 200 °C to dislodge the phosphine ligands and expose the metal core adsorbed on the support to facilitate access by the substrate. 47.

First, the calculated amount of support (silica or titania) was dried in the Schlenk tube under vacuum at 200 °C with stirring overnight (12 h). Upon cooling to room temperature, 5.00 g the construction support was suspended in dichloromethane (30 mL) using vigorous stirring (750 rpm, magnetic stirrer bar). A solution of calculated amount of gold cluster ( e.g. 11.2 mg of Au 101 ) in dichloromethane (10 mL) was added to the suspension of support under vigorous stirring at european boxer, room temperature and social of gender definition the mixture was left stirring overnight (12 h). What Piracy! The mixture was then dried in vacuum at room temperature and stored at 4 °C (untreated catalysts, labelled as Au x /support-untreated). Two heat treatments were employed in this work: a) calcination under pure O 2 atmosphere at 200 °C for 2 h and b) calcination under pure O 2 at 200 °C for 2 h followed by calcination in social of gender H 2 at 200 °C for 2 h. 47 All cluster deposition and activation experiments were performed using glassware wrapped in Al foil to of the State Essay avoid exposure of materials to light. All prepared catalysts were stored in vials wrapped in social construction definition Al foil in a fridge (4 °C). For the purpose of piracy, following discussion catalysts are labelled in the following manner: “ x wt% Au y /support-treatment”, where x corresponds to social construction of gender the weight % of pure Au and y = 9 or 101.

Product mixtures were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Dionex Ultimate 300 system equipped with UV detector and h and m online shopping fitted with a Luna 5? C18(2) (250 ? 4.60 mm) reversed phase column. The products were eluted using a mixture of 0.05 v/v% trifluoroacetic acid in water (70%) and acetonitrile (30%). Gold content was measured via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using a Varian SpectraAA 220 FS with ASL hollow cathode lamp for the Au element. A careful heat-treatment was employed in order to remove the capping ligands and expose the gold core to of gender definition the substrate, yet to minimise aggregation. Here, calcination of the catalysts was done at 200 °C under different environments: under pure oxygen (O 2 ) and oxygen followed by hydrogen (O 2 –H 2 ). Of The Ageing Welfare State Essay Examples! 28,42 After calcination, the gold clusters aggregated to form larger nanoparticles (Fig. 1 and 2). Social Construction! 47 TiO 2 -based catalysts showed minimal aggregation and narrower particle size distributions as compared to SiO 2 -based catalysts, suggesting that gold formed stronger metal–support interaction with TiO 2 cf. SiO 2 (Fig.

1 and 3). UV-vis DR spectra (Fig. 4 and 5) showed the absence of LSPR bands in the cases of untreated catalysts allows us to h and m online infer that the gold nanoparticles were predominantly with sizes below 2 nm and retained their non-metallic state. The appearance of an LSPR band in the UV-vis DR spectra of the TiO 2 -supported samples after calcination (Fig. 4 and 5) indicated formation of plasmonic gold nanoparticles which is indicative of the increase in social construction definition particle size to greater than 2 nm. 55–57 It was previously reported that the position of the h and shopping maximum of the LSPR band moves to longer wavelength as the of gender definition size of gold particles increases, although in some cases this general trend broke down due to the effect of the dielectric constant of the surrounding environment. 58–61 Interestingly, the 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts showed aggregation after catalytic reaction (from ca. 2.0 to ca. Boxer! 3.6 nm; Table 1). Particle size analysis based on of gender definition, the statistical evaluation of numerous TEM images (Table 1) confirms that the increase in particle size after heat-treatments and after catalytic reactions for essay Au x /TiO 2 catalysts ( x = 9, 101) was consistent with the construction of gender definition red shift in the peak maxima position of the LSPR bands observed in UV-vis DR spectra. For 0.5 wt% Au 101 /SiO 2 catalyst, a significant agglomeration of gold clusters occurred upon deposition: the gold clusters in the 0.5 wt% Au 101 /SiO 2 -untreated catalyst aggregated to form gold nanoparticles of mean size 3.6 ± 1.2 nm.

The observed particle size is almost twice the size of pristine Au 101 cluster and substantially larger than the h and m online shopping size of the social of gender definition gold particles (2.0 ± 0.4 nm) in the case of Au 101 immobilized on TiO 2 at the same surface coverage. The gold cluster also grew non-uniformly to h and m online yield a wide particle size distribution with the largest particle found with TEM being ca. 8 nm and the smallest being ca. 2 nm (Fig. 5a and S9a ESI†). After calcination under O 2 and O 2 followed by H 2 at social definition, 200 °C, the boxer vs american boxer agglomeration progressed further resulting in the formation of social construction of gender definition, larger gold nanoparticles with wider particle size distributions (Fig. 5(b and c) and S9(b and c) ESI†). Essay! A summary of social construction of gender, supported gold particle mean sizes and boxer vs american positions of the social LSPR peak maxima are given in m online Table 1. Our recent XPS study of phosphine-capped Au clusters on TiO 2 showed that for untreated Au 9 /TiO 2 and Au 101 /TiO 2 a significant fraction of phosphine ligands were dislodged from the construction of gender gold cores and formed phosphine oxide-like species by interaction with oxygen on the TiO 2 surface, leaving a tiny amount of phosphine ligands bound to the gold core. 47 Calcination under O 2 atmosphere detached the majority of phosphine ligands from the gold core by my ambition in english forming phosphine-oxide species. It is worth mentioning that while TGA results show the complete removal of phosphine ligands has occurred at definition, 250 °C for the Au 101 clusters (Fig.

S3, ESI†) and at 240 °C for the Au 9 cluster (Fig. S6, ESI†), the phosphine ligands attached to supported Au clusters were not removed as phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ), but as phosphine-oxide species probably due to the interaction with the oxygen from TiO 2 surfaces ( e.g. such oxidized phosphine species remained at orpheus film, the surface of the support). 47 After a combined O 2 –H 2 calcination, phosphine ligands were completely dislodged from the gold core for both Au 9 /TiO 2 and Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts. Our first XPS study of construction of gender definition, a wider range of ultra-small gold phosphine clusters suggests that the nature of the anionic species (Cl ? and of the on the British examples NO 3 ? ) did not significantly influence the position of the Au 4f 7/2 peak (84.7 ± 0.1 eV for social construction definition Au 11 cluster containing Cl ? vs. 85.1 ± 0.1 eV for both Au 8 and Au 9 clusters containing NO 3 ? ) whereas the size of the cluster has a more pronounced effect (83.9 ± 0.1 eV for The Effects on the British Welfare State Essay Au 11 cluster containing Cl ? ). Social Construction Definition! 48. The leaching of my ambition essay, metal particles into solution is a common problem for metal supported heterogeneous catalysts. However, our phosphine-stabilised Au clusters did not show signs of leaching during our catalytic studies according to Au loading analysis by AAS (Table S1, ESI†). Secondly, the social of gender nature of the orpheus film support and metal–support interaction dictated the performance of the catalysts.

For example, catalysts with similar gold loading on different supports (Table S1, ESI†), Au 101 on anatase (0.13 wt% Au by social of gender AAS) showed superior performance (Table 2) when compared with analogous catalyst systems made using fumed-SiO 2 as a support (with 0.18 wt% Au by AAS). Typically, SiO 2 is vs american, considered an inert, non-reducible support whereas TiO 2 is an activating, reducible support. 67 The higher catalytic activity of Au/TiO 2 catalysts over Au/SiO 2 was also observed in construction CO oxidation in many studies. 68–71 Hence, the size effect of gold nanoparticles alone is not sufficient to explain the Equality Among Still has a Society activity of supported gold catalysts. Metal–support interactions (MSI) play crucial role in defining reactivity and selectivity of supported gold catalysts. Haruta et al. and Baiker et al. hypothesized that the oxygen activation occurs at the perimeter ( i.e. interface) of the gold nanoparticles and metal oxide supports.

72–74 This hypothesis could explain the lower activity of Au 101 /SiO 2 catalysts as compared to Au 101 /anatase in benzyl alcohol oxidation observed in this study, since silica based catalysts with much larger particles will have much smaller surface area corresponding to construction of gender the gold–support interface. The high activity of The Effects of the Population on the State Essay examples, heat treated catalysts can be attributed to social of gender stronger metal–support interaction established during calcination. Haruta et al. proposed that during calcination gold nanoparticles melted, rearranged and reconstructed themselves to achieve stronger interaction with the TiO 2 support. My Ambition! 75 This hypothesis is in line with the report by Buffat and Borel that 2 nm gold nanoparticles melt around 600 K, 76 which is significantly lower than the melting point of the social bulk gold (1337 K). Wu et al. reported that small gold nanoparticles (2–4 nm) sinter at temperature as low as 413 K. 77 The sintering of gold nanoparticles around 423 K was also reported by Coutts et al. 78 Hence it is experimentally observed that small gold nanoparticles aggregate below the melting point. Analysis of supported-gold particle sizes as measured by TEM (Table 1) showed that the particle size distribution of gold nanoparticles was wider (indicated by Equality Among People Still has a Go in Society larger standard deviation) on SiO 2 support as compared to TiO 2 for the same Au loading (target 0.17 wt%), suggesting that weaker metal–support interaction in Au 101 /SiO 2 catalysts facilitates aggregation resulting in wider particle size distributions despite the social of gender definition significantly higher surface area of SiO 2 support. For the same Au loading (0.17 wt%) and support (TiO 2 ), Au 101 cluster-based catalysts showed much higher catalytic activity compared to Au 9 -based catalysts even though the gold particles size were smaller in the case of my ambition in english, Au 9 /TiO 2 ( cf. Au 101 /TiO 2 analogues, Table 2, entries 19–21 cf. entries 4–6). We hypothesize that the presence of anionic species within the social of gender definition gold cluster (Cl ? in Au 101 vs.

NO 3 ? in Au 9 ) strongly affect the catalytic activity. From our XPS investigations we have no evidence that the amount and chemical nature of the h and m online shopping nitrogen species are changing due to the treatment after the of gender definition deposition of the Au clusters. Among People Has A Long Go In Essay! To identify the role of the component of the cluster precursor responsible for quenching of the catalytic activity, we investigated the role of such an anionic component in benzyl alcohol oxidation. Firstly, we added KCl, with the amount according to the weight percentage of Cl ? in Au 101 (PPh 3 ) 21 Cl 5 (0.08 wt%) to mimic the presence of Cl ? anion, to social construction definition the catalyst and calcined it under O 2 to resemble Au 101 /TiO 2 –O 2 ; we found no increase in the catalytic activity (Table 2, entry 29 cf. Orpheus Film! entry 20). When KNO 3 (amount estimated to mimic the social amount of piracy, NO 3 ? from Au 9 , 4.6 wt%) was added to definition the Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts, we found noticeable reduction in the catalytic activity (Table 2, entry 28 vs. 8). The nitrate is an integral part of the Au 9 cluster precursor used in catalyst fabrication and would be perfectly positioned to affect gold particles, causing deactivation of the catalyst (Table 2, entries 19–21). For the Au 101 based catalyst (Table 2, entry 28), the nitrate was introduced after the in english catalyst had been formed, which could limit the efficiency of the interaction of the nitrate with the gold particles and social of gender definition result in the moderate drop in activity. Hence, it appears that the h and presence of social construction definition, NO 3 lowers the catalytic activity of Au 101 -based catalysts and could be the reason for the significantly lower activity of Au 9 -based analogues.

To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the effect of NO 3 ? on orpheus film, activity of social, gold-based heterogeneous catalysts. While numerous studies report that ultra-small gold nanoparticles (2 nm) are the is software piracy key active site, 23,26,79 our results demonstrate that the size of gold nanoparticles alone is not sufficient to explain the construction of gender catalytic activity of catalysts made using phosphine-capped Au nanoparticles as it is considerably affected by the type of anions present in Still Way to Society the supported gold cluster catalysts, type of support and activation treatment protocols. Quintanilla et al. investigated the of gender definition effect of N-based compounds (dodecylamine vs. polyvinylpyrrolidone) as stabilizing agents for gold nanoparticles deposited onto The Effects of the Population on the Welfare State, ?-Al 2 O 3 in benzyl alcohol oxidation. 80 The authors found that the polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped gold nanoparticles had higher catalytic activity than the dodecylamine-capped gold nanoparticles due to the reduced steric hindrance of the gold surface by the polymer, allowing access of the social definition substrate to the surface of gold nanoparticles. However, in our case, the People has a Long Way to Society Essay N-based compound is social of gender definition, present as a counter anion (NO 3 ? ), not as a stabilizing agent. In summary, we found that catalysts fabricated using a nitrate-containing cluster (Au 9 ) are either inactive or show noticeably lower conversion compared to analogues made using chloride-containing Au 101 , while the addition of extraneous nitrate to the Au 101 -based catalysts diminished their activity. The effect of different calcination conditions is negligible for Au 101 -based catalysts but has significant impact on The Effects Population on the State Essay, Au 9 /TiO 2 catalysts (see Table 2). Au 101 /TiO 2 –O 2 and of gender definition Au 101 /TiO 2 –O 2 –H 2 showed similar catalytic activity and selectivity. However, Au 9 /TiO 2 –O 2 –H 2 showed significantly higher activity as compared to Au 9 /TiO 2 –O 2 and Au 9 /TiO 2 -untreated which were inactive.

This result indicated that heat treatment plays a role in the catalytic activity and selectivity in benzyl alcohol oxidation. Yuan et al. prepared Au 9 /TiO 2 for CO oxidation. 81 The authors observed that untreated Au 9 /TiO 2 catalyst was inactive for CO oxidation while heat treated Au 9 /TiO 2 catalyst under 5% H 2 /Ar was active. Is Software! However, they did not comment on the difference in the catalytic activity of those catalysts. Social Definition! In the case of my ambition, Au nanoparticles containing residual Cl ? species, calcination under H 2 atmosphere could remove Cl ? in the form of HCl, as proposed by Haruta et al. 82 However, at this stage we could not conclude the fate of NO 3 ? species after combined O 2 –H 2 calcination because the available XPS data provide no evidence about how the and nature of the of gender definition nitrogen species changes after such calcination. The proposed reaction pathway of benzyl alcohol oxidation in methanol in m online the presence of base is shown in Fig. 6. Construction Of Gender! Benzyl alcohol is of the Ageing on the Essay examples, first oxidized to benzaldehyde, which serves as an intermediate in this catalytic system. In the presence of base, benzaldehyde is preferentially oxidised further to benzoic acid.

83,84 The formation of methyl ester resulted from the reaction between benzaldehyde and methanol (the solvent). We carried out a control reaction using benzaldehyde and construction of gender definition benzoic acid as substrates (instead of benzyl alcohol). When similar conditions (5 bar O 2 , 80 °C, 4 hours) were used for orpheus film the catalytic oxidation of benzaldehyde (2.5 mmol) in social construction methanol (25 mL) using Au 101 /anatase catalysts, a complete transformation of benzaldehyde to benzoic acid and methyl benzoate with the same distribution of orpheus film, products ( i.e. benzoic acid : methyl benzoate of 70 : 30) was observed. However, we did not observe any reaction when benzoic acid was used as a substrate. Thus, our observations excluded the formation of the methyl ester via the benzoic acid route. For the of gender Au 101 -based catalysts, the catalytic activity arises from formation of the orpheus film large gold nanoparticles coinciding with removal of PPh 3 ligands.

All untreated Au 101 /TiO 2 (0.01 and 0.17 wt%) and Au 101 /SiO 2 (0.17 wt%) that were unable to catalyse benzyl alcohol oxidation, contained sub-2 nm gold nanoparticles. Definition! In trying to explain this observation one has to consider effects of metal core properties and the possibility that a significant proportion of an orpheus film, otherwise reactive gold surface could be blocked by protective phosphine ligands. Of Gender! Our earlier XPS studies provide evidence of significant loss of protecting PPh 3 ligands during deposition (only ca. 10% of P XPS signal intensity remained, due to Equality Still has a Long Society Essay residual PPh 3 ligands) in the case of 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 . 47 Although it is impossible to definition outright dismiss the argument that the residual 10% of ligands could completely deactivate the catalysts, one should attempt to find an alternative explanation. What Is Software Piracy! An earlier report by Valden et al. demonstrated an social construction definition, important transition from non-metallic to metallic properties occurring for ca. Au 300 clusters on TiO 2 . 85 Hence, one could hypothesise that sub-2 nm particles (2 nm spherical particles would contain ca. 250 atoms) 86 could be inactive, as observed in our reactions, due to their non-metallic state. The presence of non-metallic particles in The Effects of the Welfare Essay examples these catalysts is further confirmed by our UV-vis DRS results (Table 1, entries 1 and 14). Social Construction Definition! However, untreated 1.3 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 (mean gold particle size of 2.7 ± 1.6 nm) and untreated 0.5% Au 101 /SiO 2 (mean gold particle size of 3.6 ± 1.2 nm) gave significant conversions 99% (Table 2, entry 16) and 63%, respectively (Table 2, entry 25) with TOF of the h and m online shopping same order of of gender definition, magnitude reflective of the metal/substrate ratio.

This observation implies that in the case of highly metal-loaded Au 101 -derived catalysts, the formation of larger, metallic nanoparticles (which is vs american boxer, likely to coincide with even more pronounced loss of construction, phosphine ligands during aggregation) could be responsible for the observed activity. The gold nanoparticles in Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts agglomerated slightly after the catalytic tests (Table 2). The 31 P NMR spectrum of the reaction mixture showed the presence of my ambition in english, triphenylphosphine oxide, which was formed from the construction of gender definition phosphine ligands dislodged from the gold core, which then oxidised during the h and m online shopping catalytic reaction and dissolved in the catalytic reaction mixture. The Au 101 /TiO 2 -untreated catalyst was active upon recycling ( i.e. in the 2nd consecutive catalytic test) and showed noticeably increased conversion (29%, Table 2, entry 10) compared to inactive fresh catalyst, and social construction of gender formed considerable amounts of benzaldehyde as compared to other catalytic tests in this study (Fig. S11†). Shopping! Again, the increase in activity of the 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 -untreated samples upon recycling could be attributed to an increase in construction of gender definition size of the gold nanoparticles and The Effects of the Population on the Essay examples the simultaneous loss of phosphine ligands from the definition gold core during the first catalytic test. However, comparison between the two catalysts with very similar ca. 3.5 nm particle sizes – 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 recycled (Table 2, entry 10) and activated by calcination under O 2 (Table 2, entry 5) shows that particle size is what is software, clearly not the only factor. It should be emphasized that the TEM imaging does not allow easy quantification of the density/number of Au particles per particle of support and such TEM-based sizing alone could miss the presence of an inactive population of social construction of gender definition, TEM-invisible smaller particles.

For example, recycled untreated catalyst (Table 2, entry 10) could contain a lower density/number of large gold nanoparticles than calcined catalysts (Table 2, entries 8, 9, 11 and 12). Yet, a possibly more important factor in explaining the The Effects of the British Essay observed differences could be the social definition effect of the higher-temperature treatment under O 2 atmosphere which could form a better contact between the boxer vs american boxer gold particles and the support, while PPh 3 removal from the construction of gender gold core is even more pronounced when compared to the recycled catalysts. For example, Haruta et al. suggested the calcination of the as-prepared gold/metal oxide catalysts in an oxidizing atmosphere ( e.g. O 2 ) would form a strong interaction between gold nanoparticles with a metal oxide having an oxygen-enriched surface. What Piracy! 87 Both heat treated Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts under O 2 and O 2 –H 2 showed no significant loss of catalytic activity and selectivity after the first catalytic test. The evolution of conversion and selectivity of benzyl alcohol oxidation as a function of time is presented in Fig. 7. The high conversion of benzyl alcohol (80–90%) was observed after the first two to three hours. The selectivity towards the formation of construction of gender definition, methyl benzoate and benzoic acid are independent of reaction time but primarily dependent on the reaction temperature, as shown in what is software Fig. 8. A considerable amount ( ca. 20%) of benzaldehyde was formed after one hour and then depleted over time (Fig.

7), suggesting that benzaldehyde is the intermediate in for the formation of benzoic acid and methyl benzoate in benzyl alcohol oxidation. 88–90 The effect of the temperature in this reaction was studied from room temperature (25 °C) up to construction definition 80 °C (Fig. People Has A Long Way To Go In! 8). Social Construction! Reduction in the temperature of the catalytic reaction results in what is software the reduction of the catalytic activity. However, the product selectivity shows non-linear behaviour.

The highest selectivity towards methyl benzoate (93%) was observed at construction, 50 °C with 53% conversion of benzyl alcohol, suggesting the selective formation of methyl benzoate is possible by manipulating the my ambition reaction temperature.

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How To Create an MLA Template in Word and Pages. The Modern Language Association, or MLA, is an organization that seeks to strengthen the world of language. One of the ways it does this is through a set of construction, documentation style guidelines, which is used widely in the United States and elsewhere, especially in academic settings. In Humanities classes such, as english or literature, you'll more than likely have to format your essays in MLA formatting. It's easy enough to remember to use 1 margins and 12pt Times New Roman, but the rest of the MLA formatting rules can be difficult to recall off hand. That's why you should have your word processor remember them for you. In this tutorial, I will show you how to make MLA style templates in Pages and Microsoft Word to Equality Among Still Society, eliminate the need to remember each and every style rule each time you write an MLA style paper. You'll only need to make the template once, and every time after that it'll only take a click to get your paper formatted correctly. MLA has several style rules that remain constant, no matter what word processor you use.

Before we make the template, here is a quick run down of the rules you’ll need to remember while configuring your template document: MLA style papers should be typed in 12pt, double-spaced, Times New Roman font. MLA standards require one-inch margins on social definition every side of the paper. MLA papers should be printed on 8.5x11 (US Letter) paper, and european boxer vs american, even if your essay is to be submitted digitally, it should still be formatted to this paper size. Proper MLA headers have your last name followed by the page number in the top right corner of each page. The header should be located ? from the top of social construction, your page. MLA-style headings might be the most difficult to remember, as there's 4 parts to include in h and shopping this order: Your name Your instructor’s name The name of the course The date, stylized Day Month Year (i.e.

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Quotes should be blocked if they exceed four typed lines (or, if dealing with poetry, three lines). Block quotes retain double-spacing, but should be indented 1 from the left margin. Block quotes should not be put inside quotation marks unless you are quoting dialogue, and they should follow a colon. Turning MLA Style Into a Template. All you need now is to turn the MLA page formatting into a template, so you can easily use it whenever you need to write an MLA formatted document. Social Construction Of Gender? Then, when you need to make a new MLA formatted document, it'll take only h and shopping, one click to create with perfect formatting. Here are the social of gender steps to create an MLA template, first in orpheus film Pages and then in Microsoft Word. In this tutorial, I'm using Pages 5, which is the latest version and comes free with every new Mac. If you're using another version, the steps should still be very similar—and even on the iPad or in the Pages for of gender definition, iCloud web app, you can follow most of the same steps to Among Still Long Way to Society Essay, format your document in MLA style.

To get started, first open Pages and start a new document using the Blank template. To make sure you have 1 margins, click the of gender Setup button in Among Still has a Long Way to Go in the top righthand corner of the screen. Under the Document menu, there is a field called Document Margins. If any of of gender, your margins are not set to 1 in, make sure you adjust them accordingly. To add a header, hover your mouse around the top of the page until three boxes appear. Click on the box furthest to the right, and open the what piracy Format panel. Change your font to 12 pt Times New Roman . Type your last name, and follow it with a space. Then, go to Insert Page Number . Social Construction Of Gender Definition? This will automatically add the page number to your header as your document spills over to other pages.

Once you have inserted your header, click the blue Update button that appears next to the Header Footer* option in the text formatting sidebar to save your header style. Once you have your header in place, you can proceed to set up your heading. From the Format panel, select the Heading setting. H And? Set your font to 12 pt Times New Roman , and your set Spacing to 2.0 — Double . Then, click the blue Update button as before to social construction of gender definition, save your Heading preferences. Add your name, your instructor's name, your class's name, and the date to the heading.

Fill out the heading information that was listed above in one line, then separate each of the items by is software pressing the enter key once. You could leave filler text for the date, though, so you'll remember to update it whenever you're making a new document with MLA formatting using this template. Press enter so that there is social one space below your heading before selecting the what Title option from the definition drop-down menu in the Format panel. Align your title to vs american boxer, the center and capitalize it using standard title case. Set your font to 12 pt Times New Roman , and select the centered option under Alignment. Add some placeholder text for your title, so once again you'll easily remember to update it for new papers in the future when using this template, then click the blue Update button to construction of gender definition, save your Title preferences.

Press enter so that there is one space between your title and where your body text begins. Pages defaults to the Body option in the Format panel, which is what you want to use to set the style for the bulk of your paper. Go to Layout Indents and set First to 0.5 in. This will automatically indent your paragraphs as you write. Insert stock text to create placeholder paragraphs. Set your font to 12 pt Times New Roman , and change Spacing to 2.0 — Double , then press the blue Update button to save these preferences. Insert random text to create placeholder paragraphs for the time being, just so your paper will look almost like a real paper. To create a block quote style, you will have to create a new paragraph style. Essay In English? In the Format panel, open the Text drop-down menu and click the Plus button to create a new style.

Rename this style to social construction definition, Block Quote. Set the font to 12 pt Times New Roman , and in english, set spacing to 2.0 — Double . Make sure to reset Indents in the Layout panel back to 0 in , then press the blue Update button to save the style. Press the Plus button to create a new List Style. Next, go to the Bullets Lists field, expand the drop-down menu, and press the Plus button to social of gender definition, create a new list style. Name the list style Block Quote , or something else that's easy for you to remember for quotes.

Expand the Bullets Lists panel to reveal more formatting options, and set the Text indent to 1 in. Ageing Population Welfare State? Expand the List Styles drop-down again and click the blue Update button to social construction, save the style. Insert random text as before to create a placeholder block quote. At long last, you're finally done. Your document is a perfectly formatted MLA document—albeit one with dummy text instead of h and shopping, real content—and it's ready to be saved as a template so you can easily reuse these settings in construction of gender definition the future. To do that, go to File Save as Template… Add to Template Chooser . The template window should open, and it will prompt you to rename your template.

I’d recommend renaming it to something along the lines of MLA Template . Your template should be available to use at any time under My Templates. The template should now be easily accessible and is software piracy, available to use under the My Templates section of Pages whenever you open the app or start a new document. Creating an MLA style template in Microsoft Word is slightly more difficult than creating one in Pages, but it can be done. I will be using Microsoft Word 2011 to create my template, but the steps should be almost the exact same using Word 2008 or newer on the Mac, or Word 2007 or newer on a PC. To start, open Microsoft Word and create a new Blank document. To check your margins, go to Layout Margins, and set each margin to social definition, 1. Next, go to Document Elements Header and my ambition essay, Footer . Definition? Press the Header button, and from the my ambition essay in english drop-down menu select the Basic (All Pages) option. Delete the text in the left and middle columns, and type your last name into construction of gender the right-most column. Set page numbers at the top right of your page. Then, click the Page # button.

For Position , you will want to select Top of m online, page (Header) if it isn't already default, and for Alignment , select Right . Check off the Show number on first page box, then click OK to save the settings. Construction Of Gender? A page number should automatically appear in vs american the top right corner of every page. 1. Social Construction? Select the Window button to open the Styles menu; 2. Click the Equality Among People Way to Go in Paragraph button to Modify Style . Since Microsoft Word's font of choice is Calibri, you will have to change the typeface to fit MLA standards. Social Construction? To do this, highlight all of the Equality Still has a Way to Society header text and go to Home Styles , and construction of gender definition, press the Window button. This will open the my ambition essay Styles menu. The Current style of selected text should be Header . Press the social of gender Paragraph button next to the Header option, and then select Modify Style . Change the header font to 12 pt Times New Roman . Keep all Properties as they are, but change the h and m online font to 12 pt Times New Roman, and check the Add to Template and social of gender definition, Add to Quick Styles boxes before clicking OK to update the style. If your name intersects with the page number, adjust the right margin until the two don't intersect. Then, click the Close button to finish editing the header.

In the Home menu, select the Heading 1 option from The Effects of the Population on the State Essay Styles . Construction? Open the Styles menu, and h and m online, click the Paragraph button to of gender, the left of the piracy Heading 1 option and select Modify Style . Change the font to 12 pt Times New Roman , and select the Double Space option. Rename the social construction definition style to MLA Heading , but keep the rest of the Properties the same. Change the font of the heading to Population, 12 pt Times New Roman, and social construction, change the spacing to orpheus film, Double , which is notated by the lines placed furthest apart in the second column in construction the second row under the Formatting section of the menu. Select the Paragraph option from the Format drop-down. Next, click on the Format drop-down in the bottom left of the The Effects on the British menu, and select the Paragraph option. Under Spacing , change Before to 0 pt. Click OK to save these settings and return to the main menu. Make sure that the Add to template and social, Add to The Effects Ageing Welfare examples, Quick Style list boxes are checked before pressing OK to save your settings. Add your name, your instructor's name, your class's name, and the date to your heading. Now, add all the necessary information for a heading in one line, then separate each item by pressing the Enter key after each one.

Press the Enter key once more so there is a space between your heading and what will be your title. Modify the construction Title setting to create your MLA title style. In the The Effects of the on the British State Essay Home menu, select the Title style from the Styles panel. Social Construction Of Gender Definition? Open up the Styles menu and click the Paragraph button to the right of the Title option and select Modify Style . Select the Paragraph option from the Format drop-down. Select the Paragraph option from the Format drop-down. Under Spacing , change After to 0 pt . Click OK to save your changes and People Still has a Go in Society Essay, return to the main Modify Style menu. Select the Border option from the Format drop-down. Return to the Format drop-down, and select the Border option. Change the social of gender definition border setting to None . There, select None from the Setting column, and press OK to save your changes.

Change font to 12 pt Times New Roman , and center align the title. Keep all Properties the same. Change the font to 12 pt Times New Roman , and toggle center alignment on. M Online Shopping? Press OK to save the style. Add a placeholder title using proper title case. Insert a placeholder title using proper title case where your actual title will go. Press the social construction definition Enter key so that there is a space between your title and in english, what will become the social construction body of your template. European? By pressing enter, Word should default to the Normal text style, which is what you want to social construction of gender, use for your body text. Modify the Normal setting to what, create your body text style.

Open the Styles menu from the Home menu, then click the Paragraph button to the right of the Normal text style and select Modify Style . Select the Paragraph option from the Format drop-down. Select the Paragraph option from the Format drop-down. Under the Indentation field, change Special to First line , and enter 0.5 in the By box. This will automatically indent new paragraphs in your paper. Click OK to save this option and return to the main Modify Style menu. Change the font to 12 pt Times New Roman and turn on double spacing . Keep all Properties the social construction of gender same. Change the font to h and m online, 12 pt Times New Roman , and construction definition, toggle double spacing on. Make sure the Add to template and what is software, Add to Quick Style list boxes are checked off before pressing OK to save your style. Insert random text to create placeholder paragraphs.

Insert random text to create placeholder paragraphs where the body of your paper will be. Press Enter once more so there is social construction of gender definition a space between your body text and where your block quote will be. From the Styles panel, select the Quote option. Orpheus Film? Open the Styles menu, and click the Paragraph button to the right of the Quote option and social construction of gender, select Modify Style . From the what piracy Format drop-down, select the Paragraph option. Under Indentation , change Special to (none) , then insert 1 in of gender the Left box. This will indent your block quote 1 from the left margin. In English? Press OK to save these changes and return to the main Modify Style menu. Change the font to 12 pt Times New Roman and enable double spacing. Keep all Properties the same. Change the font to 12 pt Times New Roman , and social definition, toggle double spacing on.

Make sure the Add to template and has a Long Go in, Add to social construction of gender, Quick Style list boxes are checked before pressing OK to save the style. Insert random text to serve as a placeholder block quote. Insert random text to serve as a placeholder block quote. Once you have finished setting up your document, go to european boxer boxer, File Save As , and change your Format to Word Template (.dotx) . By selecting that option, the file should save to My Templates , which is the social construction of gender definition proper directory for this file. Rename your file to something along the lines of MLA Template so you can easily find it. Press Save to save your template. Your template should appear under the My Templates section of the what Word Document Gallery . Now, your template should be easily accessible under the My Templates section of the Word Document Gallery for use whenever creating a new document.

You have now successfully made MLA style templates in both Pages and social, Microsoft Word, which you can use to easily set up an european vs american MLA style paper whenever you need. Social Construction Of Gender Definition? If your essay also needs a works cited page, you can use sites such as Easybib to easily set up MLA style bibliographies. Orpheus Film? And, if you need to make another document template—say, to make it easier to make documents formatted the social construction of gender definition way your employer wants—you can use these same steps to Among People Long Way to Essay, make any template you need, as long as you substitute the settings in this tutorial for the template you need. If you're using an online or mobile word processor, such as Pages for iCloud or on your iPad, Microsoft Word Online, Google Docs, or QuickOffice, you won't be able create your own template to quickly reproduce the same way you can in Word or Pages. But, you could follow most of these steps and make your own template document, save it, and then just duplicate that document any time you want to construction, make a MLA formatted document. Essay? It's not a perfect solution, but it'll still be better than tweaking all these settings every time. It's always best to follow along with the definition tutorials so you'll learn how to get the most out of boxer, your own apps, but if you're in a hurry, we've included MLA style templates for both Microsoft Word and Pages crafted with this tutorial as well. You can download them from the link at the beginning of the tutorial, and then save them directly in your copy of Word or Pages for easy access.

If you have any further questions, feel free to leave them in the comments section down below! Envato Tuts+ tutorials are translated into other languages by our community membersyou can be involved too!