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Tony Blair Iraq essay full text: We have to liberate ourselves from the notion that #039;we#039; caused this crisis. We haven#039;t. The former Prime Minister that led Britain in the 2003 invasion says it is 'a bizarre reading to claim that but for the removal of Saddam, we would not have a crisis' The Independent Online. Tony Blair with troops in Iraq in 2003 PA. The civil war in Syria with its attendant disintegration is having its predictable and malign effect. Iraq is now in mortal danger. The whole of the Middle East is under threat. We will have to re-think our strategy towards Syria; support the Secrets Iraqi Government in beating back the insurgency; whilst making it clear that Iraqs politics will have to change for any resolution of the current crisis to essays, be sustained. Secrets Essay! Then we need a comprehensive plan for the Middle East that correctly learns the lessons of the to maslow’s when past decade. Secrets To Finances Essay! In doing so, we should listen to and work closely with our allies across the region, whose understanding of these issues is crucial and micro and macro who are prepared to work with us in fighting the root causes of this extremism which goes far beyond the crisis in Iraq or Syria.

It is inevitable that events in Mosul have led to a re-run of the arguments over the decision to The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, remove Saddam Hussein in Criminal Portrayed, 2003. The key question obviously is what to do now. But because some of the commentary has gone immediately to claim that but for that decision, Iraq would not be facing this challenge; or even more extraordinary, implying that but for the decision, the to Finances Middle East would be at peace right now; it is necessary that certain points are made forcefully before putting forward a solution to what is happening now. Three or four years ago al-Qa'ida in Iraq was a beaten force. The country had massive challenges but had a prospect, at economics inelastic, least, of overcoming them. It did not pose a threat to its neighbours. Secrets To Finances Essay! Indeed, since the removal of Saddam, and help writing essays despite the bloodshed, Iraq had contained its own instability mostly within its own borders. Though the challenge of terrorism was and is very real, the sectarianism of the Maliki Government snuffed out what was a genuine opportunity to build a cohesive Iraq.

This, combined with the failure to use the oil money to re-build the country, and the inadequacy of the Iraqi forces have led to the alienation of the Sunni community and the inability of the Iraqi army to repulse the attack on Mosul and the earlier loss of The Amish to Finances Essay Fallujah. Theory Behavior! And there will be debate about whether the withdrawal of US forces happened too soon. However there is also no doubt that a major proximate cause of the takeover of Mosul by Isis is the Secrets to Finances Essay situation in Syria. To argue otherwise is wilful. The operation in between micro and macro, Mosul was planned and organised from Raqqa across the Syria border. To Finances Essay! The fighters were trained and battle-hardened in the Syrian war. It is true that they originate in Iraq and according to maslow’s when a need is satisfied: have shifted focus to Iraq over the past months. But, Islamist extremism in all its different manifestations as a group, rebuilt refinanced and re-armed mainly as a result of The Amish to Finances its ability to grow and gain experience through the war in Syria. As for how these events reflect on the original decision to remove Saddam, if we want to have this debate, we have to do something that is rarely done: put the counterfactual ie suppose in 2003, Saddam had been left running Iraq. According To Maslow’s Theory, When A Need! Now take each of the arguments against the decision in Secrets Essay, turn. The first is there was no WMD risk from Saddam and therefore the casus belli was wrong.

What we now know from Syria is that Assad, without any detection from the micro and macro sociology West, was manufacturing chemical weapons. We only discovered this when he used them. The Amish Secrets! We also know, from the writing essays final weapons inspectors reports, that though it is true that Saddam got rid of the The Amish Secrets to Finances physical weapons, he retained the expertise and capability to manufacture them. Is it likely that, knowing what we now know about Assad, Saddam, who had used chemical weapons against both the Iranians in the 1980s war that resulted in over one million casualties and against his own people, would have refrained from economics inelastic returning to Secrets to Finances, his old ways? Surely it is at least as likely that he would have gone back to them.

The second argument is that but for the invasion of 2003, Iraq would be a stable country today. Leave aside the treatment Saddam meted out to the majority of his people whether Kurds, Shia or marsh Arabs, whose position of stability was that of appalling oppression. Consider the post 2011 Arab uprisings. Put into the equation the counterfactual that Saddam and his two sons would be running Iraq in 2011 when the uprisings began. Is it seriously being said that the revolution sweeping the Arab world would have hit Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Syria, to say nothing of the smaller upheavals all over the region, but miraculously Iraq, under the most brutal and tyrannical of difference and macro all the regimes, would have been an oasis of calm?

Easily the most likely scenario is Secrets to Finances that Iraq would have been engulfed by precisely the same convulsion. According! Take the hypothesis further. To Finances! The most likely response of Saddam would have been to fight to stay in power. Help Writing! Here we would have a Sunni leader trying to retain power in the face of a Shia revolt. Imagine the consequences. The Amish Secrets To Finances! Next door in Syria a Shia backed minority would be clinging to power trying to stop a Sunni majority insurgency. Theory Behavior! In Iraq the opposite would be the The Amish case. The risk would have been of a full blown sectarian war across the region, with States not fighting by proxy, but with national armies. So it is a bizarre reading of the cauldron that is the problem with structural description of object Middle East today, to claim that but for the removal of The Amish Secrets Saddam, we would not have a crisis.

And it is here that if we want the right policy for economics, the future, we have to learn properly the lessons not just of Iraq in 2003 but of the Arab uprisings from 2011 onwards. The reality is that the whole of the The Amish to Finances Essay Middle East and beyond is the social of intergroup behavior going through a huge, agonising and protracted transition. We have to liberate ourselves from the Secrets notion that we have caused this. We haven't. We can argue as to whether our policies at points have helped or not; and whether action or inaction is the best policy and there is a lot to be said on both sides. But the fundamental cause of the crisis lies within the region not outside it. The problems of the Middle East are the product of bad systems of politics mixed with a bad abuse of religion going back over inelastic a long time. Poor governance, weak institutions, oppressive rule and a failure within parts of Islam to Secrets, work out a sensible relationship between religion and Government have combined to create countries which are simply unprepared for the modern world. Put into that mix, young populations with no effective job opportunities and education systems that do not correspond to the requirements of the future economy, and you have a toxic, inherently unstable matrix of factors that was always repeat always - going to lead to Criminal Profiling Real and Movies Essay examples, a revolution. But because of the Secrets way these factors interrelate, the revolution was never going to economics, be straightforward. This is the true lesson of Iraq.

But it is also the lesson from the whole of the so-called Arab Spring. The fact is that as a result of the way these societies have developed and because Islamism of various descriptions became the focal point of opposition to oppression, the removal of the dictatorship is only the beginning not the end of the challenge. Once the regime changes, then out come pouring all the tensions tribal, ethnic and of course above all religious; and the rebuilding of the country, with functioning institutions and systems of to Finances Essay Government, becomes incredibly hard. The extremism de-stabilises the country, hinders the attempts at development, the sectarian divisions become even more acute and the result is the mess we see all over the region. And beyond it.

Look at Pakistan or Afghanistan and theory behavior the same elements are present. Understanding this and analysing properly what has happened, is absolutely vital to the severe challenge of working out The Amish Secrets to Finances, what we can do about it. So rather than continuing to theories, re-run the debate over Iraq from over Secrets to Finances Essay 11 years ago, realise that whatever we had done or not done, we would be facing a big challenge today. Indeed we now have three examples of inelastic Western policy towards regime change in the region. In Iraq, we called for the regime to change, removed it and put in troops to The Amish Secrets Essay, try to rebuild the country.

But intervention proved very tough and today the country is at risk again. In Libya, we called for the regime to change, we removed it by airpower, but refused to put in help, troops and now Libya is racked by instability, violence and has exported vast amounts of trouble and weapons across North Africa and The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay down into sub- Saharan Africa. In Syria we called for the regime to problem structural of object recognition, change, took no action and it is in the worst state of all. And when we do act, it is The Amish Secrets often difficult to discern the Portrayed Life, and Movies Essay governing principles of action. Gaddafi, who in The Amish Secrets Essay, 2003 had given up his WMD and cooperated with us in the fight against terrorism, is removed by us on the basis he threatens to kill his people but Assad, who actually kills his people on a vast scale including with chemical weapons, is left in power. So what does all this mean? How do we make sense of it? I speak with humility on this issue because I went through the post 9/11 world and know how tough the decisions are in respect of it.

But I have also, since leaving office, spent a great deal of time in the region and have studied its dynamics carefully. The beginning of understanding is to appreciate that resolving this situation is immensely complex. This is a generation long struggle. It is not a war which you win or lose in writing essays, some clear and clean-cut way. There is no easy or painless solution. Secrets To Finances! Intervention is hard.

Partial intervention is hard. Non-intervention is hard. Ok, so if it is and macro sociology that hard, why not stay out of it all, the current default position of the West? The answer is because the outcome of this long transition impacts us profoundly. At its simplest, the jihadist groups are never going to leave us alone. 9/11 happened for a reason. That reason and the ideology behind it have not disappeared. However more than that, in Secrets Essay, this struggle will be decided many things: the fate of individual countries, the future of the Middle East, and between and macro sociology the direction of the relationship between politics and the religion of Islam. This last point will affect us in Secrets to Finances, a large number of the social ways. It will affect the radicalism within our own societies which now have significant Muslim populations.

And it will affect how Islam develops across the world. If the extremism is defeated in the Middle East it will eventually be defeated the world over, because this region is its spiritual home and Secrets to Finances Essay from this region has been spread the extremist message. There is no sensible policy for the West based on according to maslow’s theory, is satisfied: indifference. This is, in part, our struggle, whether we like it or not. Already the security agencies of Europe believe our biggest future threat will come from returning fighters from Syria. To Finances! There is a real risk that Syria becomes a haven for terrorism worse than Afghanistan in the 1990s. But think also of the effect that Syria is help having on the Lebanon and Jordan. There is no way this conflagration was ever going to stay confined to Syria. I understand all the reasons following Afghanistan and Iraq why public opinion was so hostile to The Amish Secrets to Finances, involvement. Action in Syria did not and need not be as in those military engagements. But every time we put off action, the action we will be forced to take will ultimately be greater.

On the immediate challenge President Obama is help right to put all options on Secrets Essay the table in economics, respect of Iraq, including military strikes on the extremists; and right also to insist on a change in The Amish, the way the Iraqi Government takes responsibility for the politics of the country. The moderate and sensible elements of the description of object is that Syria Opposition should be given the support they need; Assad should know he cannot win an outright victory; and the extremist groups, whether in Syria or Iraq, should be targeted, in coordination and with the agreement of the Arab countries. Essay! However unpalatable this may seem, the alternative is worse. But acting in Syria alone or Iraq, will not solve the challenge across the region or the Profiling in Television, Real Life, Essay wider world. We need a plan for the Middle East and for Secrets to Finances Essay, dealing with the extremism world-wide that comes out of it. The starting point is to identify the nature of the battle. It is against Islamist extremism.

That is the fight. People shy away from the starkness of that statement. But it is because we are constantly looking for ways of avoiding facing up to this issue, that we can't make progress in theory, is satisfied:, the battle. Of course in every case, there are reasons of history and tribe and territory which add layers of complexity. The Amish To Finances! Of course, too, as I said at Profiling in Television, Life, and Movies Essay examples, the outset, bad governance has played a baleful role in exacerbating the The Amish challenges.

But all those problems become infinitely tougher to resolve, when religious extremism overlays everything. Then unity in a nation is impossible. Stability is impossible. Therefore progress is impossible. Government ceases to according a need is satisfied:, build for the future and manages each day as it can.

Division tears apart cohesion. Hatred replaces hope. We have to unite with those in the Muslim world, who agree with this analysis to fight the extremism. Parts of the Western media are missing a critical new element in the Middle East today. There are people many of them in the region who now understand this is the battle and are prepared to wage it. We have to stand with them. Repressive systems of Government have played their part in the breeding of the extremism. A return to the past for the Middle East is neither right nor feasible.

On the contrary there has to be change and there will be. However, we have to have a more graduated approach, which tries to help change happen without the Secrets to Finances Essay chaos. We were naive about the Arab uprisings which began in 2011. Evolution is preferable to revolution. I said this at the time, precisely because of what we learnt from Iraq and Afghanistan. Sometimes evolution is not possible. But where we can, we should be helping countries make steady progress towards change.

We should be actively trying to encourage and help the reform process and using the full weight of the international community to do so. Where there has been revolution, we have to be clear we will not support systems or Governments based on sectarian religious politics. Where the extremists are fighting, they have to be countered hard, with force. This does not mean Western troops as in Profiling Portrayed examples, Iraq. There are masses of responses we can make short of that.

But they need to The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, know that wherever they're engaged in terror, we will be hitting them. Longer term, we have to make a concerted effort to reform the education systems, formal and informal which are giving rise to the extremism. It should be part of our dialogue and partnership with all nations that we expect education to be open-minded and respectful of help writing essays difference whether of faith culture or race. We should make sure our systems reflect these values; they should do the same. This is the very reason why, after I left office I established a Foundation now active in the education systems of over The Amish Secrets to Finances 20 different countries, including in the Middle East, promoting a programme of help writing religious and The Amish cultural co-existence. We should make this a focal point of cooperation between East and West. China, Russia, Europe and the USA all have the same challenge of extremism.

For the avoidance of doubt, I am neither minimising our differences especially over issues like Ukraine, nor suggesting a weakening of our position there; simply that on this issue of extremism, we can and should work together. We should acknowledge that the challenge goes far further afield than the Middle East. Africa faces it as the ghastly events in Nigeria show. The Far East faces it. Central Asia too. The point is that we won't win the fight until we accept the nature of it. Iraq is structural is that part of a much bigger picture. By all means argue about the The Amish Secrets wisdom of earlier decisions. But it is the decisions now that will matter. The choices are all pretty ugly, it is Profiling Portrayed in Television, Essay true. But for 3 years we have watched Syria descend into the abyss and Secrets to Finances Essay as it is going down, it is slowly but surely wrapping its cords around us pulling us down with it.

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Amy Tan and Richard Rodgriguez Essay Sample. Language is the system of words or signs that people use to express thoughts and feelings to each other. The Amish To Finances? Language has an impulse on Criminal Profiling Portrayed Life, and Movies Essay a person that allows them to The Amish to Finances make ties with a certain society, thus giving them a cultural identification. When residents of another country come to America and speak a contrasting language to English, immigrants most likely feel uneasy having to adapt to a completely new culture and learn the English language. During this journey, the individuals cultural identities might fade away as well as losing their efficient fluency on their native language. In Amy Tans, Mother Tongue and Richard Rodriguez Aria: A Memoir of A Bilingual Childhood, both authors experience the difficulties of language barrier and adjusting to a different lifestyle in order to develop as an individual in the United States. Having a cultural identity can cause the Criminal Profiling Life, examples public to view you as different. Due to this matter, the Essay normal individuals will try to avoid any interaction with you. This is one of the difference between and macro sociology obstacles immigrants have to face when adapting to the American culture.

In the essay, Aria: Memoir of a bilingual Childhood written by Richard Rodriguez, Rodriguez experienced the struggles of being a bilingual Hispanic being raised in the American society. The Amish? Rodriguezs family was considered as foreigners on the block and sometimes the neighbors would make them feel unwelcomed. For this reason, Rodriguez felt intimidated and economics felt the need to leave behind his Hispanic culture. He allows the Secrets reader to see his change from standing out to fitting in, from speaking his intimate language Spanish to speaking English and transitioning into the American culture. With Description Is That? Rodriguez accentuates you must be fluent in a public language in order to belong and be able to take in social or political advantages in able to The Amish amass a public language. Rodriguez continues to affirm that, The social and political advantages I enjoy as a man result from the day that I came to believe that my name is indeed Rich-head Road-ree-guess. Rodriguez pleas that the is satisfied: public language, which for this situation is English, will provide better opportunities for to Finances, those who are able speak the essays public language. For Rodriguez the public language exposed him to greater opportunities that he would not be have been able to have access to if he did learn the English language. In an admirable essay that describes language deeper than just words, accent marks, punctuation, and letters, but to show us depth of a persons worth. Amy Tan discusses limited or broken English a language she uses with her Chinese immigrant mother who isnt fluent with the English language.

The language that Tan describes as limited is very personal to her. In the essay, Tan says, It#8217;s my mother tongue. Essay? Her language, as I hear it, is vivid, direct, full of observation and imagery. That was the help language that helped shape the way I saw things, expressed things, made sense of the world. Tan tries to show us that her mothers limited or broken English is Secrets Essay, equivalent to economics inelastic the right English, but it shaped her into the person that she is today. Secrets To Finances Essay? In Tans text, she suggests that our first or main language that we learned has an effect on how an individual will look from the outside looking in. The spoken communication we use plays a major role on the social theory the person we develop into Secrets Essay, and how different our perspective can be for certain situations our personal individuality is identity, linked to our language.

Tan shows the readers that immigrants like her mothers who are not fluent in English tend to be discriminated for the lack of intelligence they have due to them being from Secrets to Finances a different country. For this situation, their public image is perceived to others as unintelligent which is often incorrect. Tan shares personal experiences about how her mother was treated. People in department stores, at to maslow’s theory, is satisfied: banks, and at The Amish Secrets Essay restaurants did not take her seriously, did not give her good service, pretended to not to Portrayed Real Life, Essay examples understand her, or even acted as if they did not hear her. There was also a situation where an arrogant hospital staff claimed they lost her test results and denied her requests. She was treated in a disrespectful manner due to the fact that she spoke broken English. Secrets To Finances? When Tan demanded her mothers test results speaking her correct English, the hospital staff apologized and fulfilled her mothers requests.

This shows the economics inelastic power of Secrets to Finances language, one can be identified as an according to maslow’s a need is satisfied: odd one out, and to Finances often unreasonably treated as an help writing essays inferior. I am not an immigrant, but from personal experience my parents were once aliens to this country. After 20 years, they still sometimes struggle trying to understand the American culture. I remember when I was younger, also like Tan, Id be embarrassed hearing my mother speak on the phone with a representative trying to pay a light bill, or hearing my father talk to the cashier at a grocery store. The Amish Secrets To Finances? But as I grew older, I am finally realizing to embrace my culture. Economics? I love being able to speak and fully understand two complete different languages. I realized this is who I am, this is where I come from, and this language shaped me into the person that I am today. Both Rodriguez and Tan express that they and their families over came a battle with being immigrants and entering into Secrets, the United States.

Language is the system of communication used by a particular community or country. It is also crucial aspect to our public identities. The two authors taught us to never forget and embrace our cultural identities. Tan, Amy. Between And Macro Sociology? #8220;Mother Tongue#8221;#8221; English 1301 Course Site, n.d. The Amish Essay? Web.

09 Oct. 2014. Between Micro And Macro Sociology? Rodriguez, Richard. #8220;Aria: A Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood.#8221; English 1301 Course Site, n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2014. Is this the perfect essay for you?

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college essay taboos Literary Terms and Definitions: P. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. P TEXT, THE (Also called the P Document ): In biblical scholarship, the common editorial abbreviation for the Priestly Text (see below, or click here for more detailed discussion.).

PAEAN : Among the earliest Greeks, the word paean signifies a dance and Essay hymn with a specific rhythm which is endued with an a major description, absolving and healing power (Burkett 44). In later usage, any song of praise to The Amish to Finances, a deity is called a paean. PALATAL : In linguistics, any sound involving the hard palate--especially the tongue touching or moving toward the hard palate. PALATAL DIPTHONGIZATION : A sound change in help writing essays which either the ash or the The Amish, /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants. For instance, Modern English cheese comes from Old English ciese , which is a cognate of Latin caseus . Scholars can tell the problem with structural, word in Old English must have been adopted after the time of Essay palatal diphthongization--otherwise it would have a simple /e/ sound rather than the diphthong /ie/ . Thus, palatal dipthongization is Profiling in Television, useful for philologists who wish to date a borrowed word in Old English. PALATALIZATION : In linguistics, the The Amish Secrets, process of making a sound more palatal --i.e., moving the blade of the tongue closer to the hard palate.

PALIMBACCHIU S: Also called an anti-bacchius , this is a three-syllable foot in which the first two syllables are stressed and the third syllable unstressed. It is very rare in English prosody, though Gerard Manley Hopkins and Ezra Pound make occasional use of it. PALIMPSEST (Grk, rubbed away): A surface such as a piece of parchment or vellum in which one text had been written, but then later became partially or completely erased when a subsequent scribe or bookmarker recycled the according to maslow’s theory,, page and used a knife or edged tool to scrape away the original surface. This process would remove or fade the original writing sufficiently for the later scribe to to Finances, write over the older material. It was a very common practice in medieval times since paper was so expensive. Often, modern codicologists can rediscover the original writing by using UV light filters or chemicals to make the erased text visible again. PALINDROME : A word, sentence, or verse that reads the same way backward or foreward. Certain words in between sociology English naturally function as palindromes: for to Finances instance, civic , rotor , race car, radar , level and so on.

However, when individuals seek to combine several words at once, the result becomes a sort of perverse art. Here are some longer English examples culled from when is satisfied: J. A. Secrets Essay. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory : Madam, I'm Adam. Sir, I'm Iris. Able was I ere I saw Elba. (attributed apocryphally to Real and Movies Essay, Napoleon, who was exiled on Elba, though in historical fact he apparently spoke no English!) A man, a plan, a canal: Panama! Sex at The Amish to Finances, noon taxes. Lewd did I live evil I did dwel. (anonymous 18th-century gravestone) Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on warts! Deliver desserts, demanded Nemesis--emended, named, stressed, reviled. T. Theory Behavior. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad. I'd assign it a name: Gnat dirt upset on The Amish, drab pot toilet. (W. H. Auden) Stop Syrian!

I start at according when is satisfied:, rats in airy spots! The tradition goes back a long ways. Cuddon notes several, including a Greek palindrome inscribed on The Amish to Finances Essay, a vial of holy water in Saint Sophia's church in Constantinople that translates as Wash not only my face, but also my sins . A Latin example is the palindrome, In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni which means We [moths] fly in circles by Criminal Profiling, night and we will be consumed in fire. Probably the most excessive use of palindromes is the 1802 collection by Ambrose Pamperis, in which Pamperis writes 416 palindromic verses celebrating Catherine the Great's military campaigns (See Cuddon 673-74). PALINODE (Greek: singing again): A poem, song, or section of a poem or song in which the poet renounces or retracts his words in an earlier work. Usually this is meant to apologize or counterbalance earlier material.

The first recorded use of the palinode is The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay a lyric written by the Greek author Stesichorus (7th century BCE), in which he retracts his earlier statement claiming that the Trojan War was entirely Helen's fault. Ovid wrote his Remedia Amoris as a palinode for to maslow’s a need is satisfied: his scandalous Ars Amatoria --a work that may have caused Caesar Augustus to banish him to the Black Sea. As a theme, the palinode is especially common in Secrets Essay religious poetry and to maslow’s theory, a need is satisfied: love poetry. The use of the palinode became conventional in patristic and The Amish Secrets medieval writings--as evidenced in Augustine, Bede, Giraldus Cambrensis, Jean de Meun, Sir Lewis Clifford, and the social identity theory others. More recent examples of palinodes include Sir Philip Sidney's Leave me, O love which reachest but to dust. Here, his palinode renounces the poetry of sexual love for that of Secrets to Finances divine grace. Likewise, Chaucer's Legend of Good Women includes a palinode in which the author takes back what he said about unfaithful women like Criseyde in theory, when a need Troilus and Criseyde . At the end of the Canterbury Tales , Chaucer goes so far as to The Amish Secrets Essay, write a retraction for all his secular literature.

See also retraction . PANDECT (Grk. pan everything + dektes reciever): A book that purports to contain all possible information on a subject. The term was first used as a title for writing essays Emperor Justinian's 50-volume encyclopedia of Roman law. Cf. summa . PANEGYRIC : A speech or poem designed to praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of public speaking, with established rules and conventions found in The Amish to Finances Essay the works of Menander and Hermogenes. Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on Emperor Trajan and Isocrates' oration on the Olympic games of 380. PANGLOSSIAN (Grk. pan everything + Lat. glossare to explain or comment upon): The word is an eponym based on the fictional Dr. Help Writing. Pangloss from Voltaire's satire, Candide . The Amish Secrets. Dr.

Pangloss is a naively optimistic pedant who upholds the doctrine that all is for the best, and that we live in the best of all possible worlds, claiming that a benevolent deity creates all things for inelastic positive purposes, and The Amish Essay if we could only economics decipher cause/effect accurately, we would see this. His arguments are a parody of Alexander Pope's claim that Whatever is, is RIGHT. Voltaire uses Pangloss as a straw-man in Candide , and Voltaire tries to The Amish Secrets Essay, show through the problem with structural theories of object, more inane Panglossian arguments that, in Secrets fact, the world is a highly flawed place and it does not live up to its ideal possibilities. PANTHEON (Greek, all the Portrayed in Television, Real and Movies, gods): (1) A pantheon is a collective term for all the gods believed to exist in a particular religious belief or mythos . Thus, we can talk of the Hittite pantheon, the Greek pantheon, etc. (2) The Pantheon is a great temple in Rome dedicated to all the Olympian gods, not to be confused with the Parthenon , the great temple dedicateSd to the virgin goddess Athena, which is Secrets to Finances situated on top of the Acropolis in Athens. PANTUN : A verse form from Malaysia. The pantun is a poem of no specific length, composed of quatrains using internal assonance. The rhymes are interlinked much like terza rima in the sense that the second and fourth lines of each stanza become the first and third lines of the following stanza. In the Criminal Portrayed in Television, Real Life, and Movies Essay examples, last quatrain, the The Amish Secrets to Finances, first line of the poem appears again as the last, and the third line as the second, forming a circle for closure. Economics. (Alternatively, the The Amish Secrets to Finances, poet may end the work with a simple couplet). Ernest Fouinet introduced the genre to French literature in description theories of object recognition is that the 1800s. Victor Hugo, Baudelaire, and Leconte de Lisle later also experimented with it in The Amish Secrets to Finances French verse. Although rare in English poetry, Austin Dobson used it in the social identity of intergroup his work, In Town . PARABASIS (Greek, stepping forward or going aside): A moment at the end of a Greek tragedy in which the chorus would remove their masks and Secrets to Finances step forward to address the writing, audience directly in speech rather than song.

The parabasis usually contained the final thoughts or opinions of the playwright on Secrets, some matter of government, theology, or philosophy. The concluding words of the chorus in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex serve as one example. PARABLE (Greek: throwing beside or placing beside): A story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. Rather than using abstract discussion, a parable always teaches by comparison with real or literal occurrences--especially homey everyday occurrences a wide number of people can relate to. Well-known examples of parables include those found in the synoptic Gospels, such as The Prodigal Son and The Good Samaritan. Problem Theories. In some Gospel versions, Christ announces his parables with a conventional phrase, The Kingdom of God is like . The Amish Secrets Essay. . . . Technically speaking, biblical parables were originally examples of Profiling Life, examples a Hebrew genre called meshalim (singular mashal ), a word lacking a close counter-part in Greek, Latin or English. Meshalim in Hebrew refer to mysterious speech, i.e., spiritual riddles or enigmas the speaker couches in story-form. Thus, in Matthew 13:11 and Mark 4:11-12, Christ states that he speaks in parables so that outsiders will not be able to The Amish Secrets to Finances, understand his teachings. It is the social theory of intergroup only late in the Greek New Testament that these meshalim are conflated with parables or allegorical readings designed for ease of Secrets understanding.

Non-religious works can be parables as well. For example, Melville's Billy Budd demonstrates that absolute good--such as the writing essays, impressionable, naive young sailor--may not co-exist with absolute evil--the villain Claggart. The Amish Secrets. Cf. fable , allegory , and symbolism , or click here for a PDF handout discussing the differences between these terms. PARADIGMATIC CHANGE (also called associative change ): In linguistics, these are language changes brought about because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word. Algeo provides the following example: PARAGRAPH (Greek, side writing): (1) Originally, a short stroke below the start of a line running horizontally to separate that material from earlier commentary. It was common in Greek manuscripts to show a break in the sense or a change of subject (Cuddon 679). (2) In modern English composition, it is a passage, section or subdivision of a longer essay, usually indicated by indenting the first line of the section. Conventionally, a paragraph deals with one particular idea or aspect of a larger subject-matter. For the sake of reader comprehension, the writer typically includes some sort of description recognition topic sentence to tie the paragraph together, and the writer might also include a transitional sentence before or after the paragraph to smooth the flow of ideas.

PARALANGUAGE : The non-verbal features that accompany speech and help convey meaning. For example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and tone can help convey additional meaning to The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, the spoken word; these are all examples of communication through paralanguage. PARALLELISM : When the writer establishes similar patterns of grammatical structure and length. The Social Identity Theory. For instance, King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and equitable. The previous sentence has parallel structure in use of adjectives. However, the following sentence does not use parallelism: King Alfred tried to make clear laws that had precision and The Amish to Finances were equitable. If the writer uses two parallel structures, the result is isocolon parallelism : The bigger they are, the harder they fall. If there are three structures, it is tricolon parallelism : That government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the micro and macro sociology, earth. Or, as one student wrote, Her purpose was to impress the ignorant, to perplex the dubious, and to startle the complacent. The Amish To Finances. Shakespeare used this device to good effect in Richard II when King Richard laments his unfortunate position: PARATAXIS : Rhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to to maslow’s theory, a need, each other in terms of co-ordination or subordination; i.e. a loose association of The Amish Secrets to Finances clauses as opposed to hypotaxis . A common form of parataxis is asyndeton , in which expected conjunctions fail to appear for artistic reasons.

For example, Shipley points out how the Roman playwright Terence writes tacent; satis laudant (they are silent; that is praise enough). The normal structure with a conjunction would be tacent, et satis laudant (they are silent; and that is praise enough.) See Shipley 422-23 for difference between micro sociology this discussion and Secrets Essay a comparison among Greek and Latin and English writers. Modern paratactic style is typically short and micro and macro simple--like Hemingway's writing. PARATEXT (also French peritext ): In Gérard Genette's work, Paratext: Thresholds of The Amish Secrets Essay Interpretation , Genette introduces the idea of Profiling Portrayed Life, and Movies Essay examples paratext, i.e., anything external to the text itself that influences the way we read a text. These paratexts can be almost infinite in number, but they might include a list of Secrets to Finances other works the author has published on the front cover of a book, the gender of the author as indicated by his or her name, reviews written about the help writing essays, book, and editorial commentary about the work. The Amish To Finances Essay. For example, suppose the text we are reading is theory, when a need a fictional story about a European woman who falls in love with a Persian graduate student. That Persian student is later viciously murdered by The Amish Essay, the European woman's xenophobic father. If we see the author's name is Susan Jones we might interpret the text differently than if we saw the the social, author's name was Achmed bin Jaffah, for The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay instance. If the same author wrote a number of murder mysteries, we might be especially prone to of intergroup behavior, read this new text as influenced by to Finances, that early genre work, or even expect the current text to be (rightly or wrongly) yet another murder mystery.

If we read a review calling attention to the theme of lust in a work, we might experience the book differently than if we had read a different review focusing on the theme of intolerance. All of these external cues, however, are not actually in the narrative itself we are reading. Thus, they are paratextual. A New Critic from the 1930s would probably argue that all paratexts are irrelevant to determining the meaning of literary art, and the paratextual should be ignored accordingly. Genette might counter that such paratexts inescapably influence our interpretation, so it would be appropriate to identify and the social theory of intergroup behavior discuss them rather than try to sweep them away.

PARCHMENT : Goatskin or sheepskin used as a writing surface--the medieval equivalent of paper. A technical distinction is The Amish to Finances usually made between parchment and vellum , which is made from the hide of young calves. As Michelle P. Brown notes in Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts , the difference between and macro, process for creating vellum or parchment is quite complicated: To produce parchment or vellum, the Secrets to Finances Essay, animal skins were defleshed in a bath of lime, stretched on a frame, and scraped with a lunular knife while damp. they could then be treated with pumice, whitened with a substance such as chalk, and cut to size. Differences in preparation technique seem to have occasioned greater diversity in appearance than did the type of skin pused.

Parchment supplanted papyrus as the most popular writing support material in the fourth century, although it was known earlier. Parchment was itself largely replaced by paper in difference sociology the sixteenth century (with the rise of printing) but remained in use for Secrets Essay certain high-grade books. (95) PARDONER : An individual licensed by the medieval church to sell papal indulgences (i.e., pardons), official documents excusing the recipient from certain acts of penitence and alleviating the the social theory of intergroup, sinner's punishment while in purgatory . The Amish Secrets Essay. The Catholic Encyclopedia defines an indulgence as the extra-sacramental remission of the a need is satisfied:, temporal punishment due to a sinner. Protestant students might wish to peruse the Secrets, Catholic Encyclopedia's discussion of indulgences to avoid common misconceptions and distortions. The practice of selling these pardons as a means of fund-raising for the church or as a means of rewarding those who offered the church some service rose in prominence after the a major problem structural recognition, council of Clermont in 1095. There, Pope Urban II announced sweeping indulgences would be given to any individuals willing to go on Crusade. By the fourteenth century, the practice had developed extensively, and Secrets Essay pardoners were lay officials authorized by help essays, the pope to sell indulgences in exchange for financial donations. Ecclesiastical abuses become commonplace problems. These abuses included unauthorized sales, the sale of forged pardons, extortion, and to Finances deliberate misrepresentation of the scope of an indulgence (i.e., treating the help, indulgence as a get-out-of-hell-free card).

Chaucer's Pardoner in The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay The Canterbury Tales represents the worst excesses of pardoners during this period. PARDONS : Another term for papal indulgences. Between. See discussion under pardoner . PARNASSIAN POETS : An aestheticist, mid-19th-century, Russian and French school of poets that advocated art for its own sake and Essay emphasized sensual and vivid imagery divorced from emotional content (Harkins 275). The term Parnassian refers to Mount Parnassus in Greece. The toponymic name alludes to the way they often adopted themes from micro classical Greek mythology and philosophy (275). PARODOS : In Greek tragedy, the ceremonial entrance of the chorus. To Finances Essay. Usually the chorus at this time chants a lyric relating to Portrayed in Television, Essay, the main theme of the The Amish Secrets to Finances, play.

PARODY (Greek: beside, subsidiary, or mock song): A parody imitates the serious manner and difference between micro sociology characteristic features of a particular literary work in order to make fun of those same features. The humorist achieves parody by exaggerating certain traits common to the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of a person by magnifying and calling attention to the person's most noticeable features. The term parody is often used synonymously with the more general term spoof , which makes fun of the general traits of a genre rather than one particular work or author. Often the subject-matter of a parody is comically inappropriate, such as using the The Amish Secrets, elaborate, formal diction of an epic to describe something trivial like washing socks or cleaning a dusty attic. Aristotle attributes the first Greek parody to Hegemon of Thasos in The Poetics , though other writings credit the playwright Hipponax with the first creation of theatrical parody. Aristophanes makes use of parody in The Frogs (in which he mocks the style of Euripides and Aeschylus). Plato also caricatures the style of various writers in between micro and macro sociology the Symposium . In the Middle Ages, the first well-known English parody is The Amish to Finances Essay Chaucer's Sir Thopas, and Chaucer is himself the basis of parodies written by to maslow’s a need, Alexander Pope and W. W. Skeat. Cervantes creates a parody of medieval romance in Don Quixote . Rabelais creates parodies of The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay similar material in Gargantua and Pantagruel. Erasmus parodies medieval scholastic writings in Moriae Encomium . Criminal Profiling Life, Essay Examples. In Shamela (1741), Henry Fielding makes a parody of Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela by Secrets Essay, turning the virtuous serving girl into a spirited and sexually ambitious character who merely uses coyness and false chasteness as a tool for snagging a husband. In Joseph Andrews (1742), Henry Fielding again parodies Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela , this time by replacing Richardson's sexually beleaguered heroine, Pamela, with a hearty male hero who must defend his virtue from the sexually voracious Lady Booby. In Television, Life,. In the Romantic period, Southey, Wordsworth, Browning, and Swinburne were the victims of far too many parodies in far too many works to list here.

See also mock epic , satire , and spoof . PAROLE (French, speech): In Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of semiology, parole is the use of language--i.e., manifestations of actual speech and to Finances Essay writing. Parole contrasts with langue , the invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible. PARONOMASIA : The technical Greek term for what English-speakers commonly refer to as a pun. See extended discussion under pun , below. PART (Latin partum , a piece): An actor's role in a play, the character the actor portrays or pretends to between and macro sociology, be. The term comes from Renaissance drama.

Since it was too expensive in Shakespeare's day to print playbooks for every single actor involved in a play, penny-pinching acting companies would only give each actor a roll of paper called a part; the part would list the dialogue for one character and all the cues belonging to that character (Greenblatt 1140). The term role , synonymous with part, is similarly derived from such rolls of paper ( ibidem ). PARTIYNOST (Russian, Party-Spirit): In Communist Russian, the requirement that literature must identify and be compatible with the methods and goals of the dominent political party, as Lenin advocated (Harkins 275). Any other literature, according to the Communist Russian censors, was merely bourgeois decadence in art (275). PARTITIVE : One of several possible numbering systems in a language's grammar. For a discussion of partitives, see multiplicatives . PARTS OF SPEECH : The traditional eight divisions or categories for words as described by the Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus around 350 CE, which he is turn borrowed from earlier Greek categories. In English, these are slightly modified: English Parts of Speech: Interjections are usually treated as a separate category from the other parts of speech. Donatus' Latin Parts of Speech : PARTIBLE SUCCESSION : The opposite of primogeniture , partible succession is the practice in which all the Secrets, children share equally in an inheritance. Under this legal system, if a property-owner or king dies, the deceased's lands, money, or kingdom would be split into equal shares for each surviving child.

While this policy is in some ways more fair than primogeniture, in which eldest child takes all, it does result in the fragmentation of estates or sometimes entire kingdoms. In the late medieval period, primogeniture was the according to maslow’s a need is satisfied:, common practice in much of Europe and Britain, but in Secrets to Finances the early dark ages, partible succession was notoriously common among some Celtic tribes in England and the Merovingian and between sociology Frankish tribes of France and Germany. The Amish Secrets To Finances. This practice is behind King Lear's sycophantic games in the first act of economics King Lear , as the play is set in ancient Celtic times, though the subplot about Edgar involves the much later later practice of primogeniture. PASSUS (Latin, step): William Langland uses the The Amish to Finances, term passus to refer to each numbered subdivision of identity theory behavior his poem, The Vision of Piers Plowman . The idea is each section is a step toward salvation or spiritual truth. Cf. canto and The Amish fit . PASTORAL (Latin pastor , shepherd): An artistic composition dealing with the life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence. It usually idealized shepherds' lives in order to create an image of peaceful and uncorrupted existence. Criminal In Television, Life, Essay. More generally, pastoral describes the simplicity, charm, and serenity attributed to country life, or any literary convention that places kindly, rural people in nature-centered activities. Secrets To Finances. The Greek Theocritus (316-260 BCE) first used the convention in his Idylls , though pastoral compositions also appear in Roman literature, in Shakespeare's plays, and in the writings of the Romantic poets. Profiling Portrayed Real And Movies Essay. Typically, pastoral liturgy depicts beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and rural songs and Secrets Essay dances.

Conventional names for the shepherds and nymphs come from bastardized Latin nicknames such as Mopsy, Flopsy, and economics Dorcas (from Mopsius , Doricas , etc.). See also pastoral elegy under elegy . PATHETIC FALLACY : A type of The Amish to Finances often accidental or awkward personification in which a writer ascribes the human feelings of his or her characters to inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in the natural world. Difference Between Micro. J. A. Cuddon (692) notes the phrase first appears in John Ruskin's Modern Painters , Volume 3, Part IV, an 1856 publication. The Amish To Finances Essay. For Ruskin, the term is derogatory. An example might be Coleridge's Christabel , in which we read of a dancing autumn leaf: The one red leaf, the last of its clan. That dances as often as dance it can.

For Ruskin, only the greatest of the social identity theory of intergroup behavior poets can get away with it. Aside from the negative connotations, the Secrets to Finances Essay, term is more or less synonymous with personification . PATHOS (Greek, emotion): In its rhetorical sense, pathos is a writer or speaker's attempt to economics, inspire an The Amish to Finances Essay, emotional reaction in economics an audience--usually a deep feeling of suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of a dozen other emotions. The Amish Secrets To Finances Essay. You can read more about rhetorical uses for pathos here. In its critical sense, pathos signifies a scene or passage designed to evoke the feeling of pity or sympathetic sorrow in a reader or viewer. PATRISTIC PERIOD (from Latin Pater , father): The time of the church fathers, i.e., the time of the early Church and a major problem with the Church's first theologians, running through the last days of the apostles through the time of Saint Augustine's conversion and Saint Jerome's compilation of the The Amish Secrets, Bible in the fourth and fifth centuries after Christ. Between Micro And Macro Sociology. The patristic period appears on the tail-end of the Classical Roman Period, and it marks the beginning of the The Amish Secrets Essay, Medieval Period. Click here to a major problem with structural theories of object recognition, download a PDF handout that puts these periods in chronological order. PATROLOGIA GRAECA : See discussion under Patrologia Latina , below. PATROLOGIA LATINA : A famous (or perhaps in famous) scholarly collection of 228+ fat volumes of biblical and theological commentary that has been both a boon and bane to twentieth-century medieval scholarship. The Patrologia Graeca reproduces a series of Greek writings from the patristic and medieval Christian writers, while the Patrologia Latina covers the same sort of material in Latin sources. The Amish Secrets Essay. These works are often not available in print in any other texts.

This collection, known familiarly as the PL or the Migne (after one of its French editors), includes vast quantities of theological interpretations, Biblical exegesis, typological and anti-typological discussion, medieval treatises on with description theories of object recognition is that, hagiography , medieval medicine, lapidary lore, and oodles of Secrets to Finances relevant materials necessary for students seeking to understand the medieval world and medieval literature. Unfortunately, the material is all in Latin, with facing French translations, which makes it less useful for English-speakers hindered by linguistic inabilities. Micro. Additionally, a series of The Amish editors compiled the volumes of the difference micro and macro sociology, PL and they did not follow the same system of cataloging and organization as their predecessors. The result is a confusing mishmash that requires four volumes of indices and to Finances an additional index to the indices. Four generations of scholars have blessed the PL as an economics, astonishing and ambitious collection of The Amish Secrets Essay medieval lore, while simultaneously cursing it as a devilish, misorganized amalgam riddled with errors, typos, and blunders in Portrayed Real examples pagination. The PL is being displaced from its throne by the Corpus Christianorum , an electronic collection superseding the older half-edited material. However, major research libraries at this time are more likely to have an old, dusty set of shelves devoted to the PL than to have an expensive, computerized copy of the The Amish, Corpus Christianorum . For a student of medieval literature who can speak Latin, the best starting spot is the index to the indices, and from there work one's way backward. If any readers find a library that is about to throw away or sell its copies of the PL, please contact me at kwheeler@cn.edu.

I would like to have a copy myself, provided I can find a room large enough to store all 228 of these books. PATRONAGE (from Latin pater , father): The act of giving financial or political support to difference and macro sociology, an artist. A person who provides financial support for an artist is known as a patron regardless of his or her gender. Sometimes patrons might seek to glorify their families or their countries. For instance, the Emperor Augustus was a patron for Virgil. Virgil wrote The Aeneid with the to Finances, deliberate goal of rousing Roman patriotism for problem with structural the Augustan regime. Patronage was also a common way for aristocrats or wealthy merchants to flaunt their wealth and simultaneously give something of value to their community. The De Medici family in Florence, for instance, provided patronage to famous Italian sculptors, poets, architects, and painters.

In England, John of Gaunt and Richard II both served as patrons for Chaucer at various points in The Amish his career. Many literary works are dedicated to with structural description is that, a patron. For instance, Shakespeare's early printed anthologies of sonnets are dedicated to a mysterious patron, W. H. In Renaissance drama, acting companies were required to have an important noble or royal family member as a patron, for actors not in the service of such illustrious individuals were punishable as vagabonds and tramps. Authorized acting companies were thus referred to as their patrons' Men or Servants. For most of Shakespeare's dramatic career, his acting company was first known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men. After Queen Elizabeth died, the The Amish Secrets, name was changed to the King's Men in 1603, when King James I ascended the throne and took up patronage of the company. PEACE-WEAVER : In Anglo-Saxon culture, a woman who is married to a member of an enemy tribe to establish a peace-treaty or end a blood-feud without paying wergild . With. This was a vital role for women in The Amish Secrets Essay Anglo-Saxon custom--but probably also a stressful and dangerous responsibility. Hildeburh and Freawaru in Beowulf and to maslow’s theory, a need the speaker of The Wife's Lament are probably examples of characters in The Amish Old English literature who are peace-weavers. PEASANTS' REVOLT : Also known as Wat Tyler's Rebellion , this uprising occurred in 1387 when lower-class Londoners and the social workers from the The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, surrounding areas, fed up with repressive government measures such as the Labor Statutes of 1351, marched on London and incinerated the Savoy palace belonging to John of theory, when Gaunt and damaged property belonging to other noblemen, appealing directly to the young king, Richard II, for his intervention. The rebels burned unfavorable contracts and records of The Amish Essay debt.

They also lynched a number of competing foreign workers from Flanders along with government officials whom they blamed for their economic woes. Economics. According to legend, they chanted, When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then the gentleman? (i.e., when Adam and Eve first existed, who was an aristocrat?) The revolt is commonly associated with Lollards, with John Ball's proto-communist doctrines, and with other disruptive religious groups in The Amish to Finances England. At the between micro and macro sociology, time of their march on London, they passed directly beneath Chaucer's residence. References to this rebellion appear directly or obliquely in several Middle English writers' works, including Gower and Langland. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL : Also called a refereed journal , a juried publication , a scholarly journal , or a critical journal , a peer-reviewed journal is a periodical publication with strict standards for accuracy and clear thinking. Only peer-reviewed journals are considered suitable sources for academic research by college students. Secrets. Most are published two to four times a year. Criminal Profiling Portrayed Real Life, And Movies Examples. These publications are held in such high esteem because, when an article is Secrets to Finances Essay submitted for publication, it is passed on to two or three other experts in the field; they in turn critique the author's thinking and check the economics inelastic, article's claims and facts to make sure it is as accurate as possible and (theoretically) free from distorting political, religious, ideological bias; citation errors; logical fallacies; and misattributions. Secrets Essay. This contrasts with a book, in which only a copy-editor or two will check for typos, but nobody challenges the author's ideas, and it contrasts even more starkly with a web page like this one, in help essays which no official structure is consistently available to ensure scholarly accuracy let alone find all the typos. Good college students learn to use peer-reviewed journals; they do not rely on Google and web-browsing for their primary information. Some of the most important peer-reviewed journals for to Finances Essay medieval literature students in English include The Journal of economics Medieval and Renaissance Studies , Medievalia et Humanistica , Medium Aevum , Arthuriana, Medieval Studies , Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , the PMLA , Philological Quarterly , Reading Medieval Studies , Speculum , Chaucer Review , and The Amish Studies in the Age of Chaucer . The tell-tale signs of a scholarly journal are its typically copious footnotes, the absence of advertisements or glossy photographs, often its plain, unadorned cover, its guidelines in the back or front for scholarly submissions, and its pages, which are typically on expensive acid-free paper to ensure archival survival.

Often libraries do have these journals available in Criminal Portrayed in Television, and Movies electronic databases (such as JSTOR) that can be searched as easily and as efficiently as webpages, so students have no excuse for not using them. The Amish To Finances Essay. If you need help, contact your teacher or a reference librarian. Bribe this helper with chocolate. PEJORATION : A semantic change in of intergroup which a word gains increasingly negative connotation. For instance, the Secrets Essay, word lewd originally referred to according to maslow’s theory, a need, laymen as opposed to Secrets Essay, priests.

It underwent pejoration to mean ignorant, then base and finally obscene, which is the writing, only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. The opposite Essay of pejoration is amelioration , in which a word gains increasingly positive connotation. Note that some older sources follow the Latin etymology, and thus spell the word peioration, and pronounce the word pee-yore-a-shun, but increasingly modern dictionaries use a j and theory, a need pronounce the letter consonantally. PEN NAME : Another term for nom de plum e . Secrets To Finances Essay. The word indicates a fictitious name that a writer employs to between and macro sociology, conceal his or her identity. For example, Samuel Clemens used the pen name Mark Twain. William Sydney Porter wrote his short stories under the pen name O. Secrets To Finances. Henry. Mary Ann Cross used the pen name George Eliot to hide that she was a female writer, just as science-fiction writer Alice Bradley Sheldon used the pen name James Tiptree, Junior. C.S. Lewis used the Profiling Portrayed Life, and Movies examples, pen name N.W. (Anglo-Saxon, Nat Whilk, or I know not whom) in The Amish to Finances some writings, including the first edition of A Grief Observed , and then played upon that by quoting the medieval authority Natvilcius in Profiling Portrayed Real Life, examples Perelandra (Duriez 147). Likewise, Ben Franklin used a variety of pen names such as Silence Do-good, Jonathan Swift once used the name Lemuel Gulliver, and so on.

Writers might choose to use a pen name as a way to keep a certain name associated with certain types of work, so that a writer might use one name for westerns and another name for Secrets science fiction novels. Other authors might seek to hide their identity to avoid negative repercussions (such as hate-mail, imprisonment, lynch-mobs, or even execution--all of these misfortunes can and do occur to authors, especially those writing in totalitarian regimes). PENNY DREADFUL : A sensational novel of crime, adventure, violence, or horror. The term is an English archaism referring to cheaply printed books bound in paper at only a few pennies' cost. English schoolboys also called them bloods, apparently in reference to the violent content. The equivalent term in American slang is dime-novel, again referring to the cheap price, or pulp fiction, referring to the cheap wood-pulp pressed to make the paper. My personal favorite penny dreadful from pre-1800 writing is Varney the Vampire: Or, The Feast of Blood! The title gives some indication of the with description theories of object, content. The Amish Secrets To Finances Essay. See also dime novel . PENTAMETER : When poetry consists of five feet in each line, it is written in pentameter . Each foot has a set number of syllables. Iambs, spondees, and help writing trochees are feet consisting of The Amish to Finances Essay two syllables.

Thus, iambic pentameter, spondaic pentameter, and difference micro sociology trochaic pentameter lines would have a total of ten syllables. Anapests and dactyls are feet consisting of Secrets Essay three syllables. Thus, anapestic pentameter and dactylic pentameter lines (if such lines were common) would have a total of fifteen syllables. See foot and meter . Economics Inelastic. You can click here to download a handout discussing meter in greater detail. PENTATEUCH : The first five books of the to Finances, Hebrew Bible--i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. PEREVAL (Russian, The Pass): A group of according to maslow’s theory, when is satisfied: Russian writers led by the critic Voronsk in 1923 and associated with the journal Red Virgin Soil (Harkins 279). The Amish Essay. This group of writers opposed the according when is satisfied:, concept of enforced proletarian literature and the oppression of Communist conformity on writers--but the Russian authorities dissolved the to Finances Essay, group in 1932 and inelastic forced its members to merge with the Union of Soviet Writers (Harkins 279-80).

PERFECT RHYME : Another term for exact rhyme or true rhyme. See exact rhyme . PERFECTING : In the Renaissance printing industry, the term perfecting refered to printing on the second side of a sheet of paper after the first side of Secrets to Finances Essay that sheet had already been printed to make a double-sided copy. In the 1500s, printers would typically do the recto side of the according when a need is satisfied:, sheet in the morning and Secrets Essay the verso side in the afternoon or evening. By the 1700s, it became common to help, use two presses consecutively--one side done on the first press and the other side done on the second press. PERICOPE (Grk, section; the to Finances, last two syllables rhyme with dopey): (1) In biblical studies, a story, brief passage, or selection from gospel narrative or passage found embedded inside another story, narrative, or passage. Inelastic. (2) Passages of gospel text inserted at Essay, the head of a homily or sermon in medieval texts. See frame narrative . PERIPHRASIS (Grk. roundabout speech): The act of intentional circumlocution, expressing a short idea with many more words than is absolutely necessary, or expressing indirectly an idea that one could express briefly and between micro sociology simply. J.A. Cuddon cites an example the sentence, Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience, instead of her nose was blocked (701).

While writers after the The Amish Essay, modern period have generally considered concision and directness admirable traits in style, some rhetorical situations may call for periphrasis. For example, writers may use periphrasis in order to avoid breaking a social taboo, in which case the periphrasis fulfills the same purpose as a euphemism . E.g., one might write he went to between micro and macro, his final rest instead of he died, which is The Amish Secrets both periphrasis and a euphemism. In the 18th century, periphrasis was often considered valuable for its own sake as a means of displaying a writer's erudition or facility with language, so such writings of the time might refer to the scaly breed for reptiles or the feathered kind for birds in a manner akin to economics, Germanic kennings (Shipley 429). If a writer or speaker uses periphrasis with the deliberate goal of tricking, misleading, or confusing the audience, that act is The Amish Secrets called ambage . If periphrasis appears to have no purpose, or appears awkward and unsuitable, or detracts from the impact of the writing, rhetoricians refer to it as perisologia , a stylistic blemish. If the economics inelastic, blemish originates in unnecessary repetition, the fault is The Amish Secrets to Finances called macrologia . An example of macrologia would be they returned home into their own country from whence they had come (Shipley 365). This sentence would be briefer as they returned home.

A sample passage of difference micro sociology periphrasis is called a periphrase , not to be confused with the honophone paraphrase (Shipley 429). PERIODIC ESSAY : The forefather of modern periodicals like magazines and The Amish literary journals, these publications contained essays appearing at regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, and so on). The subject-matter varied from according to maslow’s current events, literary criticism, social commentary, fashion, geographic and architectural features of London, childhood memories, and whatever other reverie entered the author's head. The essays often began with a Latin epigraph as a rhetorical flourish illustrating the good taste and education of the gentleman author, a practice that has fallen out of Secrets to Finances Essay favor in more fiercely democratic and egalitarian times. The first literary periodicals were French. They included Journals des Scavans (1665). Economics. Italian ones followed such as Giornale de Letterati (1668). English imitators included Mercurius Librarius (1668), the Athenian Mercury (1690), and The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay the Gentleman's Journal (1692). The early 1700s was a time when the English periodic essay flourished in particular. The Social Theory. This time was especially important in the development of the modern periodical and in the growing acceptance of the essay as a valid genre . The Amish. Writers like Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Boswell either contributed frequently to Criminal Profiling in Television,, these magazines or edited and produced their own.

The Tatler (1709), the Spectator (1711), and the Guardian (1731), all established by Addison and Secrets Essay Steele, became profoundly influential in shaping the writing habits and publication customs of the modern world. Between Micro And Macro. Most of Secrets to Finances these publications ran for only two or three years before vanishing, but some lasted for decades. The Gentleman's Magazine first came out in 1731 and the last issue appeared in 1907, for instance, and the Quarterly Review (1809) was still being published as of 1991, when I last subscribed. PERIODIC SENTENCE : A long sentence that is not grammatically complete (and hence not intelligible to the reader ) until the according a need is satisfied:, reader reaches the The Amish to Finances, final portion of the sentence. An example is this sentence by Bret Harte: The most common type of periodic sentence involves a long phrase in which the verb falls at the very end of the sentence after the direct object, indirect object and other grammatical necessities. For example, For the Criminal Profiling Portrayed in Television, Real Life, Essay examples, queen, the lover, pleading always at the heart's door, patiently waits. In a non-periodic sentence , we would normally write, Always pleading at Secrets, the heart's door, the lover waits patiently for the queen. The Social. The non-periodic sentence is clearer in English. It tends to follow the subject-verb-object pattern we are accustomed to.

The periodic sentence is more exotic and arguably more poetic, but initially confusing. Periodic structure is particularly effective in synthetic languages (i.e. The Amish Secrets To Finances. languages in which meaning does not depend on the order of between micro words). In such languages, a periodic sentence creates suspense or tension in a reader eagerly awaiting the outcome of a grammatical action. In classical Latin or Greek, periodic sentences were accordingly considered the height of The Amish Secrets Essay dramatic style. In English, however, the result can become confusing or comic if the writer loses control, as evidenced in the work of Victorian novelist George Bulwer-Lytton, which has been much mocked by a major problem description theories of object is that, modern readers.

Milton's employs a periodic style in Paradise Lost because he seeks boldly to imitate the features of a classical epic --including the very grammatical structure of the original Latin and The Amish Secrets Essay Greek works he loves and emulates. Compare to anastrophe . PERIODIC STYLE : A style of writing in which the help writing, sentences tend to be periodic. See discussion under periodic sentence , above. Periodic style in English is usually considered indirect or artificially artsy in Secrets to Finances Essay comparison with the more straight-forward non-periodic style . PERIODIZATION : The division of help literature into chronological categories of historical period or time as opposed to the categorization of Secrets to Finances literature according to genre , i.e., categories based on conventional features shared between works of of object is that similar type. Secrets To Finances. For instance, if I were organizing my bookshelf, and I placed all the books from the with structural theories of object is that, early 1800s on one shelf, and all the books written in the Victorian period on the next shelf, and all the The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, twentieth-century books on the last shelf, I have organized my literature by micro and macro sociology, periodization . If, however, I placed all the books containing tragic drama together on The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, one shelf, ands placed all my Western novels on the social identity theory of intergroup behavior, another shelf, and put all the poetry collections on The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, the last shelf, I have organized my books according to genre . (Other possible organizing principles might be alphabetical or thematic.) Periodization is not always clear.

A particular author's life span might overlap with both the Victorian period and Criminal Real Life, and Movies the twentieth century, for instance. Other periods--such as the to Finances Essay, postmodern and modern periods--have no clearly defined ending or beginning point. Still, the intellectual exercise can be useful for thinking about Portrayed in Television, Life,, how particular literary artists fit (or don't fit) into an era and for thinking about the zeitgeist or spirit-of-the-age in which they live. PERIODS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE : The common historical eras scholars use to divide literature into Secrets, comprehensible sections through periodization . Dividing literature into writing essays, these sometimes arbitrary periods allows us to better compare and contrast the The Amish, writing, poetry, and inelastic drama produced in different ages, to more easily trace chains of influence from one writer to another, and to to Finances Essay, appreciate more readily the difference, connection between historical events and The Amish Secrets intellectual trends. A few common divisions include the following: the difference between and macro, Anglo-Saxon period, Middle English period, Renaissance period, Restoration period, Neoclassical period, Romantic period, Victorian period, Modern period , and Postmodern period. The Amish Secrets To Finances. No universally accepted scheme exists for the divisions.

For instance, some editors or anthologists might lump both the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods together as the micro sociology, Medieval period. Another might subdivide the Renaissance into the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, and so on. Click here for a PDF handout listing the periods in more detail. PERIPETEIA (Also spelled peripetea , Greek for sudden change): The sudden reversal of Essay fortune in a story, play, or any narrative in which there is an Criminal in Television, Real and Movies, observable change in direction. In tragedy, this is The Amish to Finances often a change from stability and happiness toward the destruction or downfall of the protagonist. PERIPETY : Another term for peripeteia . Between And Macro Sociology. See above.

The word was particularly common in Essay older English writing. PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, continuous song): Ovid's twist on Life,, Callimachus' sarcastic description for his literary adversaries' work. The Amish Secrets. Originally, in Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the term to lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to Callimachus' own work, which focuses on brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Ovid, however, takes the term and applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into a single, lengthy, epic-length work. PERSONA (Plural, personae or personas ; Latin,mask): An external representation of oneself which might or might not accurately reflect one's inner self, or an economics inelastic, external representation of The Amish Essay oneself that might be largely accurate, but involves exaggerating certain characteristics and minimizing others. One of the most famous personae is difference between sociology that of the speaker in Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal.

Here, the Irish author Swift, outraged over to Finances, Britain's economic exploitation of Ireland, creates a speaker who is the social theory of intergroup behavior a well-to-do English intellectual, getting on in years, who advocates raising and eating Irish children as a means of The Amish Secrets economic advancement. Another famous persona is Geoffrey Chaucer's narrator in The Canterbury Tales , who presents himself as poetically inept and somewhat dull. Contrast with alter ego and poetic speaker . PERSONAL ENDING : In linguistics and essays grammar, a verb inflection that shows if the to Finances Essay, subject is first person, second person, or third person. PERSONIFICATION : A trope in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions. Personification is particularly common in poetry, but it appears in nearly all types of artful writing. Examples include Keat's treatment of the vase in Ode on a Grecian Urn, in between and macro which the urn is treated as a sylvan historian, who canst thus express / A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme, or Sylvia Plath's The Moon and to Finances Essay the Yew Tree, in which the moon is a face in in Television, Life, its own right, / White as a knuckle and Secrets to Finances terribly upset. / It drags the Portrayed Real and Movies Essay, sea after it like a dark crime. When discussing the ways that animistic religions personify natural forces with human qualities, scientists refer to this process as anthropomorphizing , sometimes with derogatory overtones. A special sub-type of personification is The Amish Essay prosopopoeia , in difference between sociology which an inanimate object is given the ability of human speech.

Apostrophe (not to be confused with the punctuation mark) is The Amish Secrets to Finances a special type of help writing personification in which a speaker in a poem or rhetorical work pauses to Secrets to Finances Essay, address some abstraction that is economics inelastic not physically present in the room. See also prosopopoeia , apostrophe therianthropic , and The Amish Secrets to Finances theriomorphic . PETRARCHAN CONCEIT : A conceit used by the Italian poet Petrarch or similar to those he used. Between. In the The Amish Secrets to Finances, Renaissance, English poets were quite taken with Petrarch's conceits and recycled them in difference between micro their own poetry. The Amish Secrets Essay. Examples include comparing eyes to the stars or sun, hair to golden wires, lips to cherries, women to goddesses, and so on. His oxymora , such as freezing fire or burning ice, were also common. PETRASHEVSKI CIRCLE (aka Petrashevski Conspiracy ): A secret society of problem description Russian Utopian socialists who formed in 1845 and The Amish Secrets met at the home of M. B. Butashevich-Petrashevski to read illegal socialist literature, including among its members the author Dostoyevski and the poet Pleschcheyev (Harkins 287). In 1849, Czar Nicholas I had the according to maslow’s theory,, circle arrested and to Finances staged a mock drama and writing execution--only revealing at the last moment the to Finances Essay, group had been issued a reprieve. Instead of execution, the difference micro and macro, members of the The Amish to Finances, group were sentenced to exile in Siberia or military service (287). PETRINE DOCTRINE : Roman Catholics (and pretty much all medieval Christians in western Europe) have traditionally believed the Petrine doctrine . Identity Theory Of Intergroup Behavior. The Petrine doctrine is the belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by The Amish Secrets, Christ that has since passed on essays, to each Pope. In the Gospel narratives, Matthew 16:18-19, Christ states, You are Peter [ petrus ], the Rock [ petros ], and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against it.

To you I will give the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven. What you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and what you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. (A similar verse is found in John 21:15-17.) Medieval and modern Catholics believed the Archbishop of Essay Rome (i.e., the Pope) was in direct apostolic lineage back to Saint Peter. That means the Archbishop who anointed the Criminal Profiling Life, and Movies, Pope had been annointed by others all the way back to Saint Peter. Thus, the Pope inherited the same special authority Saint Peter had. The Orthodox Greek church did not share this belief. They thought of the Pope as being the first among equals, an archbishop like any other. He did not have authority to command the whole church. The two halves of the medieval church in the West and to Finances Essay the East argued about this, but that was the to maslow’s theory, when a need, sum of the dispute for several centuries. The differences between the two halves of the old Roman empire was exacerbated by the differences in language as well (Western Europe spoke Latin, but the Secrets Essay, Eastern half of the empire spoke Greek.) See also schism . PHALLIC (from Greek phallos , penis): A phallic symbol or phallus is a sexualized representation of male potency, power, or domination--particularly through some object vaguely reminiscent of the penis. Common phallic symbols include sticks, staves, swords, clubs, towers, trees, missiles, and rockets. Theory,. Contrast with a yonic symbol.

See also herm . PHANOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of three techniques to create charged language. In this case, phanopoeia is a word that creates visual imagery, or as Pound states, You use a word to throw a visual image on to the reader's imagination (37). See also melopoeia and logopoeia. PHATIC COMMUNICATION : Exchanges or conversation designed primarily not to The Amish, transmit information, but rather to reinforce social bonds, signal the beginning or end of a conversation, or engage in ritual activities. For instance, if we pass a stranger in the hallway and say, Hi, howya doing? and pass on after a nod, the linguistic exchange was not an actual request for data, but merely a politeness acknowledging the other's presence. Similarly, thanks for stopping by or you're welcome, come again are all social lubricants to ease the transition to and from ritual activity rather than attempts at factual communication. Phatic communication is the term for this phenomenon. PHILOLOGY (Greek, Love of words): Not to be confused with philosophy (see below), philology was an important but now somewhat dated field of study in the 19th and early 20th century. It covered the topics of literary studies, linguistics, folklore, and mythology. A Major Structural Description Recognition Is That. Philologists were the ones who reconstructed proto-Indo-European, developed comparative mythology, deciphered the The Amish Secrets, relationships between modern languages, and compiled records of economics regional folklore, fairy tales, and mythology before they vanished into modernity. This large and unwieldy field eventually split apart and Secrets to Finances become the according to maslow’s when is satisfied:, academic fields we know today as separate entities (i.e., the distinct degrees of literature, lingustics, folklore, and The Amish Essay so forth).

Few colleges offer degrees in philology today (Oxford being a notable exception), but in the first half of the twentieth century, J.R.R. Tolkien was the primary philologist in the Inklings , which sometimes became a source of a major theories recognition is that tension. C. S. Lewis apparently distrusted philology's obsession with source texts, and in his diary, when Lewis first met Tolkien, Lewis wrote, he [Tolkien] is a philologist. No harm in him: only needs a good smack or two. PHILOSOPHY (Greek, Love of wisdom): The methodical and systematic exploration of what we know, how we know it, and why it is important that we know it. Too frequently, students use the term somewhat nebulously. They often mistakenly state, My philosophy about X is . . . The Amish Secrets To Finances Essay. when they really mean, My opinion about X is . With Theories Of Object Recognition. . . or My attitude toward X is . . . The Amish To Finances. Traditional areas of Western philosophic inquiry include the following areas. PHOBOS (Grk, fear): The emotional purgation of negative feelings known as catharsis involved, according to economics, Aristotle's Poetics , two emotions: eleos (pity) and phobos (fear). If the audience did not feel pity for Secrets Essay the tragic hero in a major structural description theories a play, or feel fear at his downfall, the play failed in its purpose.

See discussion under catharsis . PHONEME : The smallest sound or part of a spoken word that serves as a building block in a larger syllable or word, and which cannot be broken down further into smaller constitutive sounds. Phonetic transcription always indicates the spoken rather than the The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, written word. This term contrasts with graphemes (the letters or smallest written symbols that count as a unit of an economics inelastic, alphabet) and morphemes (smallest units that have meaning-- either written or spoken). For instance, in the word rerun , the morphemes are re- and to Finances run . Help Essays. Though the u- or the r- by themselves are not meaningful sounds like a full morpheme, they cannot be broken down or reduced into The Amish Secrets Essay, any smaller sounds, and thus they are phonemes--the smallest possible sounds in English. Difference Between And Macro Sociology. Linguists often transcribe English words into phonetic markings to indicate subtle differences in accent, pronunciation, etc., which may or may not correspond to the graphemes (the markings we use to symbolize sounds--i.e., the written word).

When they do so, they often enclose the phonetic symbols in slashes /laik ∂ Is/ and The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay enclose the theory behavior, graphic markings in The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay chevrons like this so the reader can tell whether that linguist is Criminal Profiling in Television, Real and Movies Essay discussing the spoken form of the Secrets, word or the difference between and macro, written form of the word. Contrast with grapheme and morpheme . PHONETIC FULCRUM: Jake Carrick's term for a sentence with two parts of opposite sounds, with a pivot in to Finances the middle separating the two sections. An example from Bram Stoker's Dracula : Broken battlements showed a jagged line across the essays, moonlit sky. The distinction here is the first half of the sentence uses hard consonance, but after jagged, the The Amish Secrets Essay, sentence's alliteration shifts to liquid and soft consonance (Carrick). Economics Inelastic. In poetry, such a shift often falls in the caesura, though the effect is not limited to Essay, alliterative verse. PHONETICS : The study of phonemes, or units of sound in spoken language. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION : Written symbols that linguists use to represent speech sounds. Help Writing. One common transcription system is the Essay, IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). Identity Of Intergroup. To see samples in PDF format, you can download IPA vowels and IPA consonants. PHONOGRAM : A written symbol that indicates a spoken sound. Students should not confuse this term with a gramophone (an antique record-player).

PHONOLOGY : According to The Amish Secrets to Finances, Algeo, The units of sound (phonemes) of a language with their possible arrangements and varieties of vocal expression (329). More generally, the study of sounds and sound-systems in a language. PICARESQUE NARRATIVE : Any narrative (including short stories) that has the same traits as a picaresque novel. See discussion under picaresque novel . PICARESQUE NOVEL (from Spanish picaro , a rogue or thief; also called the picaresque narrative and the Räuberroman in German): A humorous novel in which the plot consists of Profiling Portrayed in Television, Real and Movies a young knave's misadventures and escapades narrated in comic or satiric scenes. This roguish protagonist--called a picaro --makes his (or sometimes her) way through cunning and trickery rather than through virtue or industry. Secrets Essay. The picaro frequently travels from writing place to place engaging in a variety of jobs for several masters and getting into to Finances Essay, mischief. The picaresque novel is usually episodic in nature and realistic in its presentation of the seamier aspects of society. The genre first emerged in economics inelastic 1553 in the anonymous Spanish work Lazarillo de Tormes , and later Spanish authors like Mateo Aleman and Fracisco Quevedo produced other similar works.

The first English specimen was Thomas Nashe's The Unfortunate Traveller (1594). Probably the The Amish to Finances, most famous example of the genre is writing French: Le Sage's Gil Blas (1715), which ensured the genre's continuing influence on Secrets, literature. Other examples include Defoe's Moll Flanders , Henry Fielding's Jonathan Wild , Smollett's Roderick Random , Thomas Mann's unfinished Felix Krull , and Saul Bellow's The Adventures of Augie March . The genre has also heavily influenced episodic humorous novels as diverse as Cervantes' Don Quixote and Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn . PICKUP SYLLABLE : Another term for the unstressed syllable in difference between and macro anacrusis . PIDGIN : A simplified, limited language combining features from many languages and used among persons who share no common language amongst themselves. The Amish Essay. By definition, a pidgin language is theory, when a need not a native language--but rather it is one used between ethnic groups rather than within any particular single ethnic group. However, artificial conditions (such as the enforced assimilation on slave plantations) can cause children to grow up with little use for their native tongues. This can cause the pidgin language to develop into a much richer creole . PIECE-BIEN-FAIT : The French term for the dramatic genre called the well-made play. See discussion under well-made play . PIETAS (Latin, reverance): In Roman times, pietas is the quality of revering those things that deserve reverence. The word is the source for our modern English words piety and piousness (reverence toward the divine), but the Latin term is far more all-embracing--indicating not only devotion to the gods, but also devotion to one's gens (family) and patria (homeland or country). The Amish To Finances Essay. Thus, it also means patriotism and familial responsibility. In Virgil's Aeneid , one epithet frequently applied to Aeneas is Criminal Life, Essay examples pius Aeneas , implying that Aeneas particularly embodies this quality so valued by to Finances Essay, the Romans. PILGRIMAGE : An act of spiritual devotion or penance in which an individual travels without material comforts to a distant holy place.

The journey often has spiritual overtones--it may symbolize a journey to of intergroup, the celestial city of heaven or repeat the to Finances Essay, journey of a saint or biblical hero. Pilgrimage has become a prominent symbol in both Western Christian writings and Middle-Eastern Islamic writings. Difference Micro Sociology. John Bunyon's Pilgrim's Progress and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are two literary examples using the pilgrimage motif . P'ING HUA : A Chinese yarn or tall tale. Secrets Essay. The genre typically involves a strong narrative presence and colloquial or idiomatic Chinese. The tone is realistic, but the content is typically fantastic or hyperbolic. Contrast with the Russian skaz . PIT : In indoor theaters during the Renaissance, the most expensive and prestigious bench seating was the pit--an area directly in front of the stage. The Blackfriar's theater was one such architectural example containing a pit. In later centuries, the musical orchestra would be moved to this position. PITCH : In linguistics, a semi-musical tone or quality used in some languages to distinguish meaning. PLACE OF ARTICULATION : The point in the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is most important for a particular sound. PLACE POEM : A poem whose subject is a specific location, such as a building, a city, a regional geographic feature like a river or hill, or a particular area of the countryside.

Examples include Percy Bysshe Shelley's Mont Blanc, William Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, or the Galician poems of Rosalia de Castro. Contrast with occasional poem . PLAGIARISM : Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an original idea, phrase, or section of writing from someone else and presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the source via appropriate explanation or citation. Click here for more information. PLATONIC : In common usage, people often use the a major with description theories is that, word platonic to mean intellectual rather than physical. Thus, a Platonic love-affair is one in which the couple is Secrets Essay attracted to each other for mental or psychological qualities rather than bodily attributes. More specifically, however, Platonic philosophy is Plato's idea that behind (or above or outside) the imperfect physical world, another intangible world of abstract ideas has its own existence. These abstract-but-perfect ideas (called Platonic forms ) appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in difference micro the physical world. The Amish Secrets To Finances Essay. For instance, Plato argues that traits such as Justice, Beauty, and identity theory of intergroup Goodness theoretically exist in perfect forms.

Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the Secrets to Finances, abstract quality of Beauty itself, can only enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty--such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the unenlightened do not realize is according to maslow’s theory, a need is satisfied: that it is not these specific objects they should admire, but the The Amish to Finances Essay, quality of beauty behind them--the form of absolute Beauty that is eternal and according to maslow’s a need is satisfied: unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and yearly snowfalls melt away. Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste every day. His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is The Amish Essay that the physical world is the illusion or dream, and the world of the mind is the social theory behavior closer to the real world of the eternal forms. Platonic thinking had profound influence on medieval theology and philosophy. In C. S. Lewis's The Last Battle . Professor Digory Kirke interprets the New Narnia of Heaven's relationship to Narnia and England as being one of The Amish Secrets Essay Platonic forms (spiritual) and Platonic shadows (material) , and Aslan refers to the land of England and Narnia as being Shadowlands, i.e., the world of material shadows rather than spiritual realities. See also Cave, Plato's . Platonic thinking profoundly influences Plotinus, Boethius, Saint Augustine, Castiglione's The Book of the according to maslow’s theory,, Courtier , Spenser's Hymn in Honor of The Amish to Finances Essay Beauty, Shelley's Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, and according to maslow’s theory, a need is satisfied: Wordsworth's Ode on Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood . PLATONIC FORM : The permanent and Secrets perfect ideas, images, or patterns of which physical reality is but an imperfect or transitory symbol or expression. See discussion under Platonic for full details. PLAY : A specific piece of drama, usually enacted on a stage by diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to make them resemble the character they portray. See drama . PLEONASM : A bad habit of speech or writing in which an idea repeats itself in a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy. For example, tiny little town is a pleonasm, as opposed to tiny town or little town.

Likewise, Shipley points out With mine own ears I hear his voice (429) as a pleonasm. Most modern style books, perhaps influenced by Hemingway, discourage pleonastic constructions as being wordy or repetitive. I also steer students away from them. However, pleonasms have been fashionable in other centuries. Structural Theories Is That. Geoffrey of Vinsauf favored them in Secrets to Finances his twelfth-century style manual, the to maslow’s theory, when, Poetria Nova. Secrets To Finances Essay. The New Testament book of Mark happily used them, as David Smith points out (8).

Consider Mark 13:33, Blepete, agrupneite! (Watch out! Be aware!) in economics which the author emphasizes alertness by Secrets to Finances, using a pleonasm. PLOT : The structure and relationship of theory, a need actions and events in a work of fiction. Secrets. In order for a plot to essays, begin, some sort of catalyst is necessary. While the temporal order of Secrets events in the work constitutes the story, we are speaking of plot rather than story as soon as we look at how these events relate to one another and how they are rendered and organized so as to achieve their particular effects.

Note that, while it is most common for events to unfold chronologically or ab ovo (in which the first event happens first, the second event happens second, and so on), many stories structure the plot in such a way that the reader encounters happenings out of help order. A common technique along this line is to begin the story in the middle of the The Amish Secrets, action, a technique called beginning in medias res (Latin for in the middle[s] of things). Some narratives involve several short episodic plots occurring one after the other (like chivalric romances), or they may involve multiple subplots taking place simultaneously with the main plot (as in many of Shakespeare's plays). PLUCK BUFFET : Anthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in a variety of cultures share the game of pluck buffet. In this game, one child trades blows on the arm or chest with another to see who is bravest or toughest. Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to any game in which two individuals challenge each other to with structural theories recognition is that, some contest (often archery) and to Finances Essay the loser must receive a strike from the winner. For instance, the poem Garland depicts Richard the between and macro, Lion-Hearted and Robin Hood having an archery contest, and the loser must Beare a buffet on his hede. This exchange becomes an important theme in The Amish Secrets ballads like Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne . Pluck buffet may also lie at the heart of a Celtic motif known as the is satisfied:, trade of blows in which one warrior agrees to trade strikes with another; in the case of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , pluck buffet takes a potentially lethal turn when Gawain and the green elf-knight play the game using giant axes. POETIC DICTION : Distinctive language used by Secrets Essay, poets, i.e., language that would not be common in their everyday speech.

The most common signs of poetic diction include involve archaisms , neologisms , rhyme , and unusual figures of speech. Teachers often point to problem with of object recognition, Spenser's use of words like gentil and tobraken , or Shakespeare's use of abysm and climature , or Emily Dickinson's use of thee and thine . When they ask students, why did this poet write in such a way? students often mistakenly reply, Because that's the The Amish to Finances, way people talked back then. On the contrary, in the 1500s, Spenser is resurrecting language that was common in Chaucer's day in the 1300s--not the language of his own time. The Social Theory Behavior. The words abysm and climature are made-up words Shakespeare invented from abyss/chasm and climate/temperature , not words he would hear in Secrets to Finances everyday use on the London streets. And Movies. Likewise, the pronouns thou/thee/thine faded in the 1600s, long before Emily Dickinson's heyday in the 1800s. These poets chose such language precisely because it is unusual for their time--because it is different from humdrum ordinary speech. (That's what makes it striking poetry, after all.) The concept of literary decorum (and its requirement for certain genres and characters to use lofty, elevated language) also generated thick poetic diction. As M. H. Abrams notes in volume I of The Norton Anthology , the results were phrases such as the finny tribe for fish and the the bleating kind for sheep (2958). Secrets To Finances. To modern poets, such phrasing might seem overblown. The point, however, is that poetic diction is vastly different from daily speech.

POETIC LICENSE : The freedom of a poet or other literary writer to depart from the norms of common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in order to create a special effect in or for Profiling Essay examples the reader. When applied to Secrets to Finances Essay, prose writers, the term is the social identity of intergroup behavior often called artistic license. The Amish Secrets. Contrast with verisimilitude . POETIC JUSTICE : The phrase and recognition is that the idea was coined by Thomas Rymer in the late 1600s. He claimed that a narrative or drama should distribute rewards and Secrets Essay punishments proportionately to the virtues and villainies of each character in the story. Thus, when a particularly vicious character meets a despicable end appropriate for his crimes, we say it is help poetic justice. This formula for Secrets to Finances Essay resolving plots has fallen into disfavor in later centuries, and no widely influential critics today advocate such a formula without qualifications.

POETIC SPEAKER : The narrative or elegiac voice in a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of his or her situation or feelings. It is identity theory a convention in The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay poetry that the speaker is not the same individual as the help, historical author of the poem. For instance, consider the poet Lord Byron's mock epic Don Juan . Lord Byron wrote the poem as a young man in his late twenties. However, the speaker of the poem depicts himself as being an elderly man looking back cynically on the days of youth. Clearly, the voice talking and narrating the story is not identical with the Secrets to Finances, author.

In the Criminal Life, and Movies Essay examples, same way, the speaker of the poem My Last Duchess characterizes himself through his words as a Renaissance nobleman in Italy who is cold-blooded--quite capable of murdering a wife who displeases him--but the author of the poem was actually Robert Browning, a mild-mannered English poet writing in The Amish to Finances Essay the early nineteenth-century. Many students (and literary critics) attempt to the social theory behavior, decipher clues about the author's own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or biographical details through the words in a poem. However, such an activity must always be done with caution. Shakespeare may write a sonnet in which the poetic speaker pours out The Amish Secrets his passion for a woman with bad breath and the social theory wiry black hair (Sonnet 130), but it does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare himself was attracted to halitosis, or that his wife had black hair, or that he had a fling with such a woman. In fact, it is to Finances Essay a convention in some genres , such as the medieval visio or dream vision, that the poetic speaker is a dull, imperceptive caricature of the author. A Major Structural Is That. See also authorial voice and dream vision , above.

POETRY : A variable literary genre characterized by The Amish Secrets Essay, rhythmical patterns of economics inelastic language. These patterns typically consist of patterns of meter (regular patterns of high and The Amish Secrets Essay low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in each line of text), rhyme , alliteration , or combinations of writing these elements. The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and Secrets Essay the poem may bend (or outright break) the conventions of Profiling Real Life, and Movies Essay normal communicative speech in to Finances the attempt to embody an original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the to maslow’s theory, when, dominant feature separating poetry from prose (non-poetic) writings. However, rhyme is actually a fairly recent addition to poetry. In classical Greece and Rome, meter was the trait that separated poetry from prose. POEISIS (from Greek poieo , to make): In Plato's Symposium , this term refers to Secrets Essay, act of between micro and macro sociology creating or making something--both in the biological act of procreation and in Essay the realm of the economics inelastic, mind. It covers the action itself as well as the moment of transition where one thing becomes something new, and encompasses, as the character Diotima argues in The Symposium, all of the following (1) natural poiesis or reproductive sexuality, (2) poiesis in a city through the to Finances Essay, attainment of worthy fame, and between micro and macro sociology (3) poiesis in the soul through virtuous habits and moral education. The word is related to the root of the modern English word poetry . POINT OF VIEW : The way a story gets told and to Finances who tells it. It is the method of narration that determines the position, or angle of vision, from a major problem with structural of object which the story unfolds.

Point of view governs the reader's access to The Amish, the story. Problem Structural Theories Recognition. Many narratives appear in the first person (the narrator speaks as I and the narrator is to Finances Essay a character in the story who may or may not influence events within it). Another common type of narrative is the third-person narrative (the narrator seems to be someone standing outside the story who refers to all the characters by Profiling Life, examples, name or as he , she , they , and so on). The Amish Secrets To Finances. When the narrator reports speech and action, but never comments on the thoughts of other characters, it is the identity theory, dramatic third person point of view or objective point of view. The third-person narrator can be omniscient --a narrator who knows everything that needs to be known about the The Amish Essay, agents and economics inelastic events in the story, and is free to move at will in time and The Amish to Finances Essay place, and who has privileged access to a character's thoughts, feelings, and motives. The narrator can also be limited --a narrator who is confined to what is experienced, thought, or felt by a single character, or at most a limited number of characters. Finally, there is the unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in the story, but seems to make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to a careful reader).

Unreliable narration often serves to characterize the narrator as someone foolish or unobservant. See also authorial voice . POINT OF VIEW CHARACTER : The central figure in a limited point of view narration, the the social theory, character through whom the reader experiences the author's representation of the world. See point of view , above. POLIS (Greek, City): The Greek city-state, a small, independent government consisting of The Amish Secrets Essay a single town and its immediate environs. Some of Criminal Profiling Portrayed Real Life, and Movies Essay examples these city-states were democracies in which every male citizen voted on every government action. Others were oligarchies in The Amish Secrets Essay which a few rich or aristocratic families cooperated and shared powers. Others were dictatorships in which a single military leader came to power. Real And Movies Examples. The two most influential city-states were Athens and Sparta.

They eventually rose to Secrets, power over their neighbors through combinations of Criminal Profiling Portrayed Real Life, examples alliances and conquests. Athens was famous for its culture and art and The Amish Secrets intellectual life. Sparta was famous for its toughness and its martial lifestyle. POLYGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually unrelated to each other. A Major Problem Description Recognition. Each one arose independently. For an analogy, in both early Mayan architecture and in Egyptian architecture, pyramids are striking engineering features. However, since no contact took place between the two cultures, archeologists believe each group invented the design independently rather than adopting it from a single source (such as one group borrowing it from the other). Circumstances such as the lack of mortar, concrete, or flying buttresses ensured that both Mayans and Egyptians would come up with a wide-base structure to support any large edifice--leading to pyramid designs by default.

In the same way, similar legends appear across the world even when each group has no contact with others. Many cultures that master metallurgy create legends or myths about crippled smiths (witness Hephaestus or Vulcan in Greco-Roman myth, Weiland in Norse and Germanic legend, and Silverhand in Celtic stories). Cultures that do not master metal-smithing do not create crippled craftsmen-gods in their pantheons. This lack can be explained by The Amish Secrets Essay, the theory of polygenesis. Men who are crippled cannot join the hunters in gathering food or join the farmers in digging irrigation ditches, so they tend to Profiling Real Life, and Movies Essay examples, stay in the village and work as craftsmen, developing skills that ultimately seem magical to the untrained without these years of The Amish Essay experience. However, the archetype of the crippled craftsman/god does not appear in cultures without the technology of metal-working.

In the same way, flood-narratives appear across many cultures--Noah's flood in help the Judeo-Christian tradition as well as in Welsh, Chaldean, and The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay Greek legends. Description Theories Of Object Recognition. Fundamentalist Christian interpretations accordingly see this as evidence of a literal flood occurring world-wide. Scholars of The Amish Secrets myth would argue that myths of a universal flood appear only in cultures that experience flooding regularly as a natural disaster. Theory, When. Aborigines in the Australian outbreak or desert-dwelling tribesmen do not share such a legend, for instance. This leads to the idea that these flood-narratives arose independently in different places through polygenesis. The Amish. See also archetype . Contrast with monogenesis . POLYSYLLABIC : Having more than one syllable. POLYSYNDETON : Using many conjunctions to writing, achieve an overwhelming effect in a sentence. For example, This term, I am taking biology and English and history and math and music and physics and sociology. To Finances Essay. All those and s make the student sound like she is completely overwhelmed.

It is the opposite of asyndeton . Both polysyndeton and asyndeton are examples of rhetorical schemes. For a literary example of a major problem theories of object polysyndeton, click here. POLYTHEISM : The belief in multiple deities--usually non-omniscient and non-omnipotent--in contrast with the idea of a single all-powerful deity. POMP É : In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by a pompé . A pompé was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and religious procession. Worshippers would don special garb, line up in rows by the thousands, and then travel through the city or from one holy site to another (such as from the Parthenon to the site of the Eleusinian mysteries). The most important pompé in Athens celebrated Athena's birthday. On this day, her shrine would be cleaned and scrubbed, and the cult statue would be physically carried or carted in a procession leading to the Aegean, where it would be cleansed with sea-water and given a new peplos (woman's cloak) to wear for the upcoming year. POOH-POOH HYPOTHESIS : In linguistics, the idea that language began as emotional outbursts or surprised exclamations; contrast with the bow-wow theory , the ding-dong theory , and the yo-he-ho theory . PORTRAIT EN CREUX : A rhetorical or literary device in which a writer mentions an absence to evoke the counterpart presence. This is the to Finances Essay, verbal equivalent of difference negative space in sculpture or painting.

POSTMODERNISM : A general (and often hotly debated) label referring to the philosophical, artistic, and literary changes and tendencies after the 1940s and 1950s up to the present day. We can speak of postmodern art, music, architecture, literature, and poetry using the same generic label. The tendencies of postmodernism include (1) a rejection of traditional authority, (2) radical experimentation--in some cases bordering on gimmickry, (3) eclecticism and multiculturalism, (4) parody and to Finances Essay pastiche, (5) deliberate anachronism or surrealism, and (6) a cynical or ironic self-awareness (often postmodernism mocks its own characteristic traits). In many ways, these traits are all features that first appeared in Criminal Portrayed in Television, and Movies modernism , but postmodernism magnifies and The Amish Secrets Essay intensifies these earlier characteristics. It also seems to help essays, me that, while modernism rejected much of tradition, it clung to Secrets to Finances, science as a hopeful and objective cure to the past insanities of history, culture and superstition. Economics. Modernism hoped to tear down tradition and longed to build something better in The Amish Secrets to Finances its ruins. Postmodernism, on the other hand, is often suspicious of scientific claims, and a major with structural description theories of object often denies the possibility or desirability of establishing any objective truths and shared cultural standards. It usually embraces pluralism and spurns monolithic beliefs, and it often borders on solipsism.

While modernism mourned the passing of unified cultural tradition, and wept for its demise in the ruined heap of civilization, so to speak, postmodernism tends to dance in the ruins and play with the The Amish Secrets Essay, fragments. Some of the new literary movements growing from economics postmodernism include the to Finances Essay, darker or horrific tales of science fiction, neo-Gothic literature, late twentieth-century horror stories, concrete poetry, magic realism , Theater of the according to maslow’s when, Absurd, and so on. Finally, postmodernism is The Amish Essay often used loosely and according when a need interchangeably with the critical movements following post-structuralism--the growing realms of Marxist, materialist, feminist, and psychoanalytical approaches to literature that developed during and after the to Finances Essay, 1970s. To see where postmodernism fits into a chronology of literary movements, click here for a PDF handout. POSTPOSITIVE : A function word--often a preposition--that must come after its object rather than before it. By definition, a postpositive word or phrase cannot begin a sentence. Several words in Latin and Greek are postpositives.

POST-STRUCTURALISM : A collective and loose term for any of the literary theories appearing after the structuralist movement in linguistics--including Derrida's infamous concept of deconstruction . The more radical poststructuralists attempt to subvert, question, or eliminate common concepts accepted before the structuralist movement--like individual identity, the subconscious mind, rules for social interaction, and writing so on. PREFIX : A morpheme added to The Amish to Finances Essay, the beginning of a word. For instance, the prefix re- can be added to theory of intergroup, the word play to create the word replay . PREQUEL (formed from the prefix pre - and The Amish Essay the root word sequel ): A novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the difference micro and macro sociology, popular success of an earlier work but set before the events in that successful earlier work, and The Amish Secrets incorporating characters, settings, and situations with which the audience is already familiar. Help. Contrast with sequel and to Finances series . PRE-RAPHAELITE : Pre-Raphaelitism, or the Pre-Raphaelite movement, begins in 1848 as a protest against conventional art and literature. A band of young London artists, poets, and intellectuals formed a brotherhood dedicated to re-creating the help writing essays, type of medieval art existing before the Renaissance . Hence, they took their name from Raphael (1483-1520), the earliest major Renaissance artist in Italy. Like the The Amish to Finances Essay, Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to regain the spirit of simple devotion and adherence to Portrayed Essay examples, nature.

Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and urbanization. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an interest in chivalry , courtly love , ballads , archaic diction, pictorial qualities and visual imagery. The first Pre-Raphaelites included Dante Gabriel Rossetti (the ringleader), William Holman Hunt, William Michael Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, and Frederick George Stephens initially. To Finances. The movement later grew to include or influence Dante Rossetti's sister, the poet Christina Rossetti; William Morris, the craftsman and writer; the author Swinburne, and Burne-Jones the artist. In 1850, they formed their own literary journal, The Germ , to propagate their views and identity behavior writings. Click here to The Amish, download a PDF file of Christina Rossetti's poem, A Birthday, to sample the diction and style of Pre-Raphaelite poetry. PRE-ROMANTICISM : The first phase of the Romantic movement in European literature of the inelastic, late 1700s and early 1800s. The Amish Essay. Harkins labels its main traits as greater freedom in expression of personal feelings, a new interest in landscape, the the social theory behavior, cultivation of medieval, chivalric themes as well as . . . the supernatural, and the melancholy mood of The Amish Secrets Essay 'graveyard' poetry (309). See Romanticism for further details.

PRESCRIPTIVIST : A grammatical treatise or a lexicon is micro and macro sociology said to be prescriptivist if it has the goal of fashioning guidelines or rules for grammar, spelling, and word use, as opposed to describing unjudgmentally how a group of people tend to use language. Contrast with descriptivist . PRESS VARIANT : Unlike a deliberately revised edition printed at a later date, a press variant is a minor and usually unintentional variation among books printed in the same edition or print run. Greenblatt notes they usually result from corrections made in the course of printing or from slipped type (1142). PRIESTLY TEXT (Also called the P Text or the Priestly Document ): In biblical scholarship, this refers to material in Genesis and the Hebrew Bible that probably appeared during a late period of editing--in contrast with the older J Text and E Text . The name P Text comes from Secrets Essay Priestly Text. Priests probably incorporated this material during or soon after the Babylonian exile of 587 BCE--though possibly as recently as 450 BCE. (Some scholars in a major problem with description of object is that the minority argue that portions of the material might date pre-exilicly from the late eighth/early seventh century BCE during Hezekiah's reign, but this stance is not widely held.) At the to Finances Essay, time of the exile, the Judaic priests were probably desperate to retain their unique monotheistic beliefs in the face of help writing overwhelming Babylonian influence, but they also faced the challenge of harmonizing their world view with that of Babylonian tradition. At this point, many Aramaic (aka Chaldee) loanwords appear in The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay the Hebrew text and they are incorporated into the Hebrew Bible thereafter. This influence explains why today most biblical concordances and dictionaries (such as the 1979 version of according theory, is satisfied: Strong's Comprehensive Concordance of the Bible ) refer to their Hebrew sections as a Concordance of Hebrew and Chaldean, a Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, or a Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary. Christ will still be using some Aramaic terms 400 years later in the New Testament gospels, which show how influential and long-lasting the linguistic effects of the Secrets, Exile were on the Hebrew vocabulary. Biblical scholars think that Genesis 1:1-2:3 and other sections such as Genesis 6 come from the P Text, and these are probably the latest additions to the Genesis account.

The foreign loanwords mean these sections couldn't have been written before coming into with structural description of object is that, contact with the Chaldeans--at least not in the form in Secrets which they come down to us today in surviving manuscripts. Some features of the P text include a stress on ritual observances such as the Sabbath, circumcision, and dietary taboos believed to be late additions to the religious tradition. Other features of the P text--such as the details of the Passover ritual, ordination ceremonies, and descriptions of the tabernacle--appear to have come from problem structural description theories of object recognition is that now lost older manuscript traditions after being updated and modified in the P tradition. Finally, the P text is Secrets marked the prominence it gives to Aaron (as opposed to the dominant role of Moses in the J and E texts), the account of Moses' death in Deuteronomy, the legal materials of Leviticus and help writing Numbers, and to Finances Essay a series of genealogies showing some influence from Mesopotamian sources. If students are reading a study Bible like the Anchor Bible series, the editors helpfully mark which sections come from the help writing, J, E, and P Texts. PRIMARY SOURCE : Literary scholars distinguish between primary sources , secondary sources , and educational resources . Students should also. To understand the difference, click here. PRIMOGENITURE : The late medieval custom of allowing the The Amish Secrets Essay, first born legitimate male child to inherit all of his father's properties, estates, wealth, and titles upon of intergroup behavior the father's death. Primogeniture was a key issue in determining succession to the royal throne, and The Amish to Finances it plays an important part in Edmund's villainy in the social identity theory King Lear , in King Henry V's claim to the French throne in Henry V , and in many other Shakespearean plays. In medieval times, primogeniture lead to huge social problems since Western Europe was producing large numbers of second born militarily trained knights who had no means of to Finances making a livelihood.

Since the firstborn son inherited everything, the only legitimate option for the other sons was becoming celibate and then joining the church hierarchy as clerics or entering monasteries. Economics Inelastic. Since this was not always a preferable option for hot-blooded young men, many involved themselves in Secrets Essay coups to gain the help, family estate, took up lives of brigandage, or became mercenaries and wandered from one war to another seeking their fortunes. When Pope Urban II called the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem, the church saw that part of the solution to Secrets to Finances Essay, this problem was to a major problem with structural recognition, provide a legitimate arena of warfare for these dispossessed knights. The Amish Secrets. The opposite custom of dividing inheritance is help writing known as partible succession . PRINTING PRESS : Chinese and Japanese inventors developed simple printing techniques centuries earlier in monasteries, but in the 1440s and 1450s, Europe developed printing independently. The Amish Secrets To Finances Essay. Even though forerunners of the inelastic, printed book might have existed in Holland, the The Amish Secrets to Finances, most important developments were in Mainz, Germany, where Indulgence was printed in 1454, and the Gutenberg Bible in 1456. John of Gutenberg is credited with the invention by according when a need, fifteenth-century writers, and the invention spread rapidly to Italy, France, Holland, and other countries. William Caxton set up a printing press in Europe (Bruges) in 1475, and there printed the first book in English, The Recuyell of the to Finances, Historyes of writing essays Troye . Returning to England in 1476, Caxton set up his second printing press in The Amish Essay Westminster.

He next printed a number of Latin texts before printing in English the Dicts or Sayings of the Philosophers (1477), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1483), Malory's Le Morte Darthur (1485), and others for about a hundred titles in total. His assistant, Wynkyn de Worde, took over theory,, the business after Caxton's death and published perhaps 800 additional titles. The printing press was a revolution comparable to the modern internet revolution. It made books for the first time cheap enough for mass production and mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and cultural knowledge, and fueling the flames of to Finances religious reformation. PRIVATE SYMBOL : In contrast with an archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is one that an individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Nearly all members of an ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and according to maslow’s when agree upon its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only be discernable in the context of one specific story or poem. Examples of private symbols include the The Amish Essay, elaborate mythologies created by J. R. R. Tolkien in The Silmarillion (such as the One Ring as a symbol of power lust) or William Butler Yeats' use of Constantinople as a symbol to represent poetic artifice in Sailing to Byzantium, or Yeats' use of a gyre to symbolize the cycles of history and the sphinx as an emblem of the Antichrist in The Second Coming. See also token and emblem . PROBLEM PLAY : There are two common meanings to micro, this term. To Finances. (1) The most general usage refers to any play in which the main character faces a personal, social, political, environmental, or religious problem common to his or her society at large. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman is representative of a problem play in that Loman must face the challenges of what the difference micro, author considers false values in a capitalistic society. (2) In a narrower sense, Shakespearean scholars apply the term problem play to a group of Shakespeare's plays, also called bitter comedies, especially Measure for Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and All's Well That Ends Well . These plays explore dark and The Amish ignoble aspects of human psychology without attempting to solve or resolve the plot to the reader's satisfaction beyond a superficial level.

Because of the uneasy endings, the plays do not seem to identity theory behavior, follow the standard conventions of Renaissance comedy . PROCATALEPSIS (Greek anticipation): Procatalepsis is a rhetorical strategy in which the writer raises an objection and The Amish then immediately answers it; by doing so, the rhetor seeks to strengthen his argument by dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. PROFANITY ACT OF 1606 : This law passed under King James I required that any profanity in a publicly performed play or in published material would result in a ten-pound fine for the performer or printer, a substantial sum. Economics Inelastic. Three of Shakespeare's quartos show signs of revision to meet the requirement of the Profanity Act, such as omissions of obscenity, the word God changed to heaven, or Jove, etc. The Amish. Contrast with the Censorship Ordinance . PROLIXITY : A type of wordiness or periphrasis characterized by unnecessary rambling or excessive detail, as Shipley puts it (429). A writer or speaker who has this tendency is said to be prolix. See dicussion under periphrasis . PROLOGUE : (1) In original Greek tragedy, the prologue was either the action or a set of introductory speeches before the with description theories of object recognition is that, first entry ( parados ) of the The Amish to Finances, chorus. Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the play's background events. (2) In later literature, a prologue is a section of any introductory material before the first chapter or the main material of a prose work, or any such material before the difference between micro and macro, first stanza of a poetic work. PROMPTBOOK : A manuscript of a play adapted for performance by a theatrical company--usually with extra stage directions, notes on special effects or props, and last minute revisions or corrections.

In some promptbooks, the characters' names and speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the names of the actors playing those roles. PROMYTHIUM : A summary of the moral of a fable appearing before the main narrative. If the summary is found at The Amish Secrets Essay, the end of the narrative, it is called an epimythium . Contrast with prologue . PRONUNCIATION SPELLING : A new spelling of an old word that more accurately reflects the Criminal Profiling Portrayed Real Life,, current pronunciation than the original spelling does. PROPAGANDA (Latin, things that must be sent forth): In its original use, the Essay, term referred to a committee of cardinals the a major problem with theories of object is that, Roman Catholic church founded in 1622 (the Congregatio de propaganda fide ). This group established specific educational materials to be sent with priests-in-training for foreign missions . The term is today used to refer to information, rumors, ideas, and artwork spread deliberately to help or harm another specific group, movement, belief, institution, or government. Secrets. The term's connotations are mostly negative. When literature or journalism is help propaganda and when it is not is hotly debated. For instance, the The Amish Essay, Roman Emperor Augustus commissioned Virgil to write The Aeneid for specific goals. He wanted Virgil to glorify Rome's greatness, instill public pride in Rome's past, and cultivate traditional Roman virtues such as loyalty to the family, the Empire, and the gods. Of Intergroup. Is this propaganda?

Or patriotism? Typically, readers claim a work is The Amish Secrets propaganda when it sets forth an argument with which they personally disagree. In other cases, readers will call a work propagandistic if they can perceive that the characters or the author advances particular doctrines or principles. Harry Shaw notes: Propaganda is attacked by most critics and general readers because it is an according theory, a need, attempt to influence opinions and actions deliberately, but by The Amish Secrets, this definition all education and most literature are propagandistic (220). PROPARALEPSIS (plural: proparalepses ): A type of neologism that occurs by a major problem with structural description recognition, adding an extra syllable or letters to the end of a word. For instance, Shakespeare in Hamlet creates the word climature by adding the end of the word temperature to climate (1.1.12).

The wizardly windbag Glyndwr (Glendower) proclaims that he can call spirits from the vasty deep in 1 Henry IV (3.1.52). The Amish Essay. We would expect him to speak of the vast deep normally. Inelastic. Proparalepsis is an example of The Amish Secrets Essay a rhetorical scheme. PROPORTIONAL : One of several possible numbering methods in a language's grammar. For a discussion of proportionals, see multiplicatives . PROPS (abbreviation of stage properties): Handheld objects, furniture and similar items on when a need, stage apart from costumes and the stage scenery itself used to The Amish Secrets to Finances, provide verisimilitude , to difference and macro sociology, reinforce the The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, setting , to help characterize the actors holding or wearing them, or to provide visual objects for Criminal Profiling Portrayed in Television, Real and Movies examples practical, symbolic, or demonstrative purposes on the stage. PROSCENIUM : An arch that frames a box set and holds the curtain, thus creating a sort of invisible boundary through which the audience views the on-stage action of a play. PROSE : Any material that is not written in a regular meter like poetry. Many modern genres such as short stories, novels, letters, essays, and The Amish Essay treatises are typically written in prose.

PROSKENION : A raised stage constructed before the skene in classical Greek drama. The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the chorus, and the elevated height made the actors more visible to the audience. PROSODIC SIGNAL : Algeo defines this as the [p]itch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals (327). PROSODY (1) : the mechanics of verse poetry--its sounds, rhythms, scansion and meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and rhyme. (2) The study or analysis of the previously listed material. This is help also called versification . PROSOPOPOEIA (Grk prosopon , face): a form of personification in to Finances Essay which an inelastic, inanimate object gains the ability to speak. Secrets Essay. For instance, in the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Dream of the Rood, the wooden cross verbally describes the death of Christ from its own perspective. Ecocritical writers might describe clearcutting from the viewpoint of the tree, and so on. Theory,. See personification , above. PROSTHESIS : Adding an The Amish, extra syllable or letters to inelastic, the beginning of a word for poetic effect.

Shakespeare writes in his sonnets, All alone, I beweep my outcast state. He could have simply written weep , but beweep matches his meter and is more poetic. Too many students are all afrightened by Secrets to Finances, the use of inelastic prosthesis. Prosthesis creates a poetic effect, turning a run-of-the-mill word into something novel. Prosthesis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. It results in to Finances Essay a neologism . PROTAGONIST : The main character in a work, on whom the author focuses most of the narrative attention. Help Writing. See character . PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN : The reconstructed ancestor of Secrets to Finances all Indo-European languages. Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European. Click here for a major problem structural recognition more information.

PROVIDENCE : The theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty--especially his omniscience--allows complete divine control over to Finances Essay, the universe in the past, present, and future. It connects closely with questions of omniscience, free will and predestination. In John Milton's Paradise Lost , Milton emphasises providence as one of his themes, depicting a universe in which God allows complete free will, but one in which God will ultimately use providence to turn even evil choices and decisions to a greater good in the long run through his own mysterious means. Cf. Augustinian time . PRYS (also spelled pris ): The French noun prys , meaning worthiness, is Criminal Profiling Portrayed in Television, Real Life, examples a cognate with the English word price. Prys was rich in connotations, appearing frequently in French chansons de geste and medieval romances . Secrets Essay. It embodies knightly worthiness on a number of levels. A knight who has prys is help essays loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and perhaps a bit foolhardy and The Amish Secrets Essay arrogant, quick to take anger at an insult and fast to accept a challenge or dual.

Chaucer uses this term to describe the Knight in the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales : PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM : The sense that characters in fictional narratives have realistic interiority or complex emotional and intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and fears they are not aware of. On an outward level, this realism typically involves reacting to external characters and situations in a manner consistent with the expectations of readers ( verisimilitude ). On an internal level, it may involve the revelation of characters' thoughts and internal meditations about themselves and others. Such internal machinations are a standard part of Elizabethan drama in and macro sociology the form of the soliloquy . However, psychological realism is associated most closely with the movement toward realism and naturalism in the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. After psychoanalysis appeared, Freudian ideas influenced many writers who sought to incorporate his theories into The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, their own depictions of the social identity of intergroup behavior characters. Whether or not we can speak of The Amish to Finances Essay psychological realism in writing literary works before the The Amish to Finances Essay, Renaissance is a thorny issue. Medieval saint's lives ( vitae ) , chivalric romances , sagas , and most other pre-Renaissance literary texts pay little attention to psychology, rarely describing a character's internal thoughts beyond a sparse assertion that a character was angry, sad, or lonely (and that assertion often made as part of a stock formula, such as Then King Arthur fared wondrously woode.) Often ancient works are so focused on allegory to the exclusion of psychology that some critics assert pre-Renaissance writers and readers had very little sense of interiority or any unique self apart from between and macro tribe, family, religious caste, occupation, or social standing. The difference is so marked that some scholars like Harold Bloom speak of the invention of the human in the Renaissance. The Amish Secrets. On the other hand, it is difficult to read something like The Confessions of Saint Augustine without getting a sense of a real human being intensely aware of his own psychology. Possibly, the difference is rooted in conventions of Profiling Portrayed Life, examples literature rather than any actual historical change in human self-awareness, but the debate continues. PSYCHOPOMPOS (Greek, soul procession or soul carrier): A spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into the realm of the dead.

Such a character often appears in the motif of the descent into The Amish to Finances Essay, the underworld . Examples of a psychopompos would be deities like Hermes and Charon in Greek mythology, or the characters of Virgil and Beatrice in Dante's Inferno . PULP FICTION : Mass market novels printed cheaply and a major problem description of object recognition intended for a general audience. The content was usually melodramatic, titillating, or thrilling. The earliest samples are the Secrets to Finances Essay, penny dreadfuls or bloods of the theories of object is that, eighteenth century, which were followed in the nineteenth century by so-called dime novels (which were sold for ten cents). Examples included westerns, Horatio Alger novels, soft science fiction series, murder mysteries in The Amish Secrets Essay serialized format, and melodramtic crime stories. The designation pulp comes from the paper quality--these novels are usually printed on the cheapest newsprint available. PUN (also called paronomasia ): A play on two words similar in economics sound but different in meaning. The Amish Secrets To Finances Essay. For example, in Matthew 16:18, Christ puns in Koine Greek: Thou art Peter [ Petros ] and upon this rock [ petra ] I will build my church. Shakespeare, in Romeo and Criminal Profiling in Television, Real Life, and Movies Essay examples Juliet , puns upon Romeo's vile death ( vile = vial , the vial of poison Romeo consumed).

Shakespeare's poetic speaker also puns upon his first name ( Will ) and his lover's desire (her will ) in the sonnets, and John Donne puns upon his last name in Hymn to God the Father. Originally, puns were a common literary trope in serious literature, but after the eighteenth century, puns have been primarily considered a low form of humor. The Amish. A specific type of pun known as the equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings. When A Need. For instance, one epitaph for a bank teller reads He checked his cash, cashed in his checks, / And left his window. / Who's next? The nineteenth-century poet, Anita Owen, uses a pun to side-splitting effect in her verse: They tell sweet lies of Paradise; And in those eyes the Secrets Essay, lovelight lies. And lies--and lies--and lies! Another type of pun is the asteismus , in to maslow’s a need is satisfied: which one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the word in a different sense. For instance, in Cymbeline (II, i), Cloten exclaims, Would he had been one of my rank! A lord retorts, To have smell'd like a fool, twisting the meaning of rank from a noun referring to noble status to The Amish Secrets, an adjective connoting a foul smell.

Yet another form of pun is the paragram , in which the wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word. It is between often considered a low form of humor, as in various knock-knock jokes or puns such as, What's homicidal and lives in The Amish Essay the sea? Answer: Jack the Kipper, or in Chapter Four of C.S. Lewis' The Silver Chair , which is titled A Parliament of Owls (a pun on a major structural description theories of object is that, Chaucer's Parliament of The Amish Secrets Essay Fowles ). Criminal Profiling Portrayed In Television, Real And Movies Essay Examples. In spite of the pun's current low reputation, some of the best writers in English have been notoriously addicted to The Amish, puns: noticeably Shakespeare, Chaucer, and James Joyce. PURGATORY (Latin, purgare , to purge): Donald Logan writes:

The medieval and Catholic doctrine of purgatory stated that Christian souls who had accepted rites of baptism and economics been accepted into the body of the faithful church, but who died unexpectedly with unconfessed sins or minor venial faults, would not be sent to hell, but would rather spend an indeterminate period in a spiritual place of temporal punishment. The same temporary suffering was believed to be the fate of baptised infants who had not yet reached the age of reason where they could choose to Secrets, accept Christian doctrine and make first confession. In this spiritual place, popularly called purgatory, such souls would suffer for a time as an act of penance. This would purify them so they could enter heaven. The Council of Florence (1431 AD) was the first time the church officially embraced purgatory as a doctrine, but the belief in purgatory had long been a part of in Television, Life, Essay church practice going back to to Finances, the patristic period of the fourth century, when Epiphanius mentions the practice of praying for deceased souls in order to lessen their time in economics inelastic purgatory. It is The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay clear, however, that at Criminal Profiling Portrayed Real Life, and Movies, this early point, the issue of The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay hell, purgatory, and the afterlife was still a matter of dispute among proto-Christians, as theologians like Acrius denied the doctrine. The popularity of purgatorial doctrine increased, and by the tenth century, it was practically universally accepted in structural description the church.

In the Middle Ages, some heretical groups like the to Finances Essay, Albigensians, the Waldensians, and the Hussites challenged the belief, but the first serious breach with the the social identity theory behavior, doctrine appears in the sixteenth-century during the Protestant Reformation. At that time, Martin Luther initially considered retaining the doctrine of Purgatory in the Lutheran Church, as witnessed in the Leipzig Disputation, but as the breach between Catholics and Protestants increased, political pressure to make a clean break with popishness decided the issue. The rejection of purgatory became practically universal among the Protestant churches. John Calvin's doctrine was especially sharp in The Amish Essay its break, and Calvinist teaching included the doctrine of infant damnation, in which all children who die in the womb, in a major with structural theories of object recognition is that childbirth, or during infancy were damned for eternity in hell. Calvin went so far as to term the Catholic position exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . . . quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit ( Institutiones , lib.

III, cap. v, 6, quoted in The Catholic Encyclopedia ). The modern Greek Orthodox church has also discontinued the purgatorial doctrine. Click here for a link to The Catholic Encyclopedia 's discussion of The Amish Secrets to Finances purgatory that is much more thorough than mine. The doctrine and imagery of problem with description of object is that purgatory is especially prevalent in medieval literature. It is the focus of Marie de France's Saint Patrick's Purgatory . The Purgatorio , the second book of The Amish Dante's Divine Comedy , involves a spiritual journey through purgatory just after the poet's trip through the essays, Inferno . C. S. Lewis explores the question of purgatory in The Amish to Finances Essay The Great Divorce , where he attempts to have his cake and eat it too by suggesting purgatory does and does not exist simultaneously, arguing that we experience purgatory temporally and perceive it as a real thing, but in Augustinian time , we are able to see that purgatory (and material life on earth) on some level always have been heaven or hell, when we examine the afterlife sub specie aeternitatis . PURIST GRAMMAR (also called Grammatical Purism ): The belief in an absolute or unchanging standard of Profiling and Movies Essay correct grammar. PURITAN : Most familiar to modern Americans as the The Amish to Finances Essay, religious denomination of the Mayflower colonists, the Criminal Profiling Portrayed and Movies, Puritans were a Protestant sect particularly active during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In a positive sense, Americans associate Puritanism with the struggle for religious freedom since the Puritans colonized America to escape religious persecution; however, the idea is to Finances something of a misconception since the Puritans' hope was to create an all-encompassing Puritan culture in the new colony, not to create a cosmopolitan, tolerant society open to other branches of Protestant Christianity, much less Catholicism, Judaism, or other religions. (That sort of religious tolerance comes about in inelastic American culture largely as a result of the Deism fashionable among intellectuals in the eighteenth century during the writing of the Constitution.) In its negative sense, the word Puritan often evokes the idea of dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only black and white; they frowned upon drinking, dancing, and displays of sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and The Amish to Finances closed Shakespeare's playhouses in England because of acting's immorality. These tendencies have led to H. L. Mencken's jest defining Puritanism as the haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy. Puritanism forms the Profiling Portrayed Real and Movies Essay, backdrop of The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible in American literature. Shakespeare uses a Puritan named Malvolio as the party-pooping villain in Twelfth Night . See also Roundhead and Puritan Interregnum . PURITAN INTERREGNUM (Latin, inter + regnum , between reigns): The term refers to The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, both the Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after a civil war against the British monarch and Profiling Portrayed in Television, Life, and Movies Essay examples those years in which that government lasted (1649-1658). This interregnum marks the end of the English Renaissance. It came into being after a long civil war between two political factions, the Roundheads , non-aristocrats who supported Puritan reforms, and the Cavaliers , the aristocratic courtiers loyal to the monarchy.

Ultimately, the Stuart monarch was captured and executed, and his supporters fled to the continent with the heir to the throne, leaving the Puritans in power. The Puritans called their regime the The Amish, Commonwealth, and it was nominally a parliamentarian government but a de facto dictatorship under Cromwell. This government fell apart upon Cromwell's death. At that point, the English royal heir returned to claim the throne, leading to the Restoration . See also Puritan , above. PURPLE PATCH : A section of theory, when a need purple prose or writing that is too ornate or florid for the surrounding plain material, which in turn looks too tranquil or dull by the incongruity of the startling purple patch. The colorful image for this term comes from Horace's Ars Poetica 2.3.14-19, where he refers to the purpureus pannus , the purple piece of royal or princely cloth that is a colorful but irrelevant insertion into a plain-speaking work. PURPLE PROSE : Writing that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of imagery, figures of speech, poetic diction, and polysyllabication. Secrets Essay. These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous. See also purple patch . PUSHKIN PLEIAD : A group of young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323). PYRRHIC : In classical Greek or Latin poetry, this foot consists of two unaccented syllables--the opposite of a spondee . At best, a pyrrhic foot is an unusual aberration in the social identity theory English verse, and most prosodists (including me!) do not accept it as a foot at all because it contains no accented syllable. Normally, the context or prevailing iambs, trochees, or spondees in surrounding lines overwhelms any potential pyrrhic foot, and a speaker reading the foot aloud will tend artificially to stress either the first or last syllable.

See meter for more information.

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facelets ca resume 23 February 2011. This is a tutorial for Secrets to Finances Essay a simple JavaServerFaces Facelets project and Profiling in Television, Real Life, is an extension of the research I did in Secrets to Finances, Facelets Using RichFaces and RichFaces for JSF Use . I assume you've read those articles and know something about JSF already. I also suggest you peruse either the first few chapters of a book on JSF or, at least, the identity, summary I made in the collection of extensive notes I took in The Amish Secrets Essay, A short treatise on JavaServer Faces (JSF): (random notes) , beginning with the section entitled, Categorization and culminating with the short section entitled, On JSP and JSF. Do this only if you think you don't know anything about JSF.

In the inelastic, end, a book written by a real author is best, right? You must have a working Eclipse IDE installed and set up along with a good Sun JDK and Apache Tomcat. If you don't have these, I suggest perusing Setting up Eclipsea Summary to help with this. The elements of a JSF and/or Facelet. It's useful to understand the extent of what components are crucial to a web application that uses JSF or Facelets regardless of whether Eclipse, NetBeans or no IDE is being used. Paradigmatically, and with concrete examples in this tutorial and project, these are: 1. Use File - New to The Amish, invoke the help essays, new Dynamic Web Project wizard. You may name this project anything you like, but you will need to The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, remain consistent. For the Configuration , choose JavaServer Faces v1.2 Project . This nomenclature appears to writing essays, be awkward since we're going to create a JSF 2.0 application, but it's the only choice Eclipse gives us in Helios. (Indigo is about to come out; we'll see if WTP changes anything in that release.) 2. Click New until you reach JSF Capabilities where you'll check the following if they exist.

Don't sweat it if one or more of these is The Amish missing. Between Micro? It's only because this is the first JSF and/or Facelets project you've done. We'll create these libraries in the next step. 3. Once the project has been created, right-click its name and choose Build Path - Configure Build Path , then click the Libraries tab. You can click and remove EAR Libraries and Web App Libraries as we won't be using them. (But, leaving them in The Amish Essay, won't hurt anything either.) At this point, you probably don't have any of the the social identity of intergroup behavior, libraries listed in the previous step. Please go to Appendix: Setting up User Libraries now to Secrets Essay, set them up. When done, you should see what's below although you may have chosen to name your libraries differentlythis is alright as long as the economics, JARs inside are correct. As noted, the JARs were discussed completely in Facelets Using RichFaces: The definitive JAR list . You'll find the Essay, definitive list and also links to download areas there. We'll need a backing bean for our JSF work; this will be written in Java.

First, right-click on the Java source code folder under your project in the Project Explorer view: Java Resources: src . Click New and create the Java package we'll use, jsf.facelets.simple . Create the backing bean. We're going to implement the Portrayed in Television, Life, and Movies examples, very old Guess a number application. For this, we'll need a Java file under the new package. We'll call it UserNumberBean.java . Create this by right-clicking on the new package and choosing New - Class . We're going to use the latest annotations ( ManagedBean and SessionScoped ). We'll explain what this means later. In the meantime, be sure to include the annotations.

Also, in order to do this, obviously, you'll have to have your Java compiler compliance level set at The Amish Secrets least to 1.5 in Eclipse. Most web applications have some resources. In our case, this is only an image, but it could also be various property files or bundles that we'd use for the social theory of intergroup localization. Essay? Under WebContent , you must create the new path (two new folders) resources/images . Here is the image you'll need to copy and drop on this path. Right-click here and save this image to your project.

Duke is the host of our guess-a-number game. When you've set this up, you'll see the following in your project. You've already got a compiling bean and this image as a resource. Next, we'll set up web.xml . Open this file which is on the path JsfFacelets-simple/WebContent/WEB-INF/web.xml . Eclipse already does a good job of this and when you're doing your own applications after this, you can leave it, add to it, delete from between sociology, it, etc., but here we're going to set this up for ourselves. Click here to see this file, then use your browser to view the resulting XML page's source and copy the Essay, contents of this file. Paste them into web.xml in place of what's there. Note: to copy the contents once you're viewing the XML in the browser, simple right-click in the content region of your browser and Criminal in Television, Life, Essay examples choose either View Page Source (Firefox) or View Source (Internet Explorer). Because we used annotations in our backing bean source code, we haven't had to add anything to this file which specifies Faces configuration. To Finances Essay? If we were doing this the old-fashioned way, we'd have to add the XML element below. By using the annotations, we make it so that we don't have to maintain this file; instead this will be done for us. It also means we won't be able to follow best practice in micro and macro sociology, bean-variable naming in The Amish to Finances Essay, the JSF files which is that the bean variable name be identical to theory, the bean classname except for Secrets Essay lower-casing the according a need, first letter and dropping Bean from the end.

This is what is accomplished in our XML below. Instead, since managing our backing bean is done automatically through annotations, when it's launched, it uses reflection to walk through to find classes that contain annotations and set things up accordingly. In this case, the backing bean management is discovered such that its absence from faces-config.xml is The Amish to Finances unimportant. The annotations in the Java code cause an implicit version of to maslow’s theory,, this bean management that would appear as below here which you'll confirm when you see the presentation ( .xhtml ) files later. This type of Secrets to Finances Essay, things is to maslow’s when is satisfied: big in later versions of frameworks like Spring, JPA and REST (all in my own experience; there are many more besides).

Originally, these frameworks all used extensive XML-based configuration. It can be argued whether it's more or less confusing to use annotations (spread all over the code) or XML (all in one, predictable place). Obviously, it's more convenient to the Java developer who creates the code to do it inside the Essay, Java source. But, there is something very important needed in this file. A Major With Structural Description Is That? Without this statement, the The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, application runs, but nothing renders, which is to say, what you get is a blank browser screen and essays doing a View Page Source (or, View Source in Internet Explorer) shows that the page contains nothing at all. So, the following is all we'll have in The Amish Secrets Essay, this file: Oddly, Eclipse doesn't seem to support setting the version to 2.0 without changing the Project Facets to 2.0.

And it's not possible to the social identity of intergroup, change the JavaServer Faces Preferences to 2.0. The Amish Essay? I've not been able to overcome this problem; so far, no one in the Eclipse forums has an answer. The presentation (JSF or xHTML) files. One of the writing essays, advantages of Facelets is that we can leave JSP notations behind and use HTML. This is great because if we were collaborating with graphics- and web-page guys, we'd like them to be able to do their work without having to learn Java or JSP, or ever have to squint at arcane notations in the same files we're trying to maintain. The Amish Secrets Essay? Instead, they just do their whole Dreamweaver thing and we stay out of it. Create two xHTML files with the following names and content.

At this point, you should have the following project: Ensure you've got an Apache Tomcat server set up. (You should already have an Apache Tomcat server associated with your workspace.) 1. Ensure that it is set up to run this project. A Major With Structural Of Object Is That? In the Servers view, right-click Tomcat v6.0 Server at localhost and choose Add and Remove. . 2. . then, ensure that this application, the project by Secrets to Finances Essay, name, is configured to run. To launch the guess-a-number web application, pop open a browser and type: If your host is running something else on to maslow’s when a need is satisfied: port 8080 (as mine is), pick a different port for Tomcat. I'm choosing 9080 instead. To do this, double-click Tomcat v6.0 Server at localhost , then change the port numbers by clicking on them. At this point, you should see:

Internationalization is done in order for Secrets Essay the application to be localized later. This consists of isolating every resource (mostly strings) from the presentation that must be rendered differently for a given locale, i.e.: language or culture. For this, we decide upon on a messages file, messages.properties , which we'll put in with the Java files (only so it will be available in the same package as the bean). In place of the following construct in guessnumber.xhtml . This will force rendering to get the greeting out of is that, messages.properties , using three key-value pairs, instead of to Finances Essay, finding it sitting literally inside the presentation file. One of them contains variable data, let's call them substitution pronouns, where values will be placed at runtime. There's one more task to theory, accomplish before our application is fully internationalized. This is to choose the list of The Amish to Finances Essay, locales (beside en_US) we support. In our case, we're only supporting French.

So, we'll add the following construct to our application. element in faces-config.xml : Now we're on to localization, which is the process by to maslow’s a need is satisfied:, which we make an application work for a locale other than the one for which it was written. A second file, messages_fr.properties , will allow us to to Finances, say how this guess-a-number application should be rendered in French. In fact, if we were providing full French support in all flavors, especially French-Canadian, we'd differentiate by means of inelastic, different files and also we'd add. . to faces-config.xml (in the place you just saw higher up). The magic Eclipse faces-config.xml editor has an Other tab and, under Locale Config , you will see (go ahead and play with it) that French can come in a number of different flavors including Belgian, Swiss and Luxemburgish. In practice, after living in Paris for 6 years, I find that the only really different French occurs in Canada where accommodations are made for North American cultural differences from Continental French. In our case then, we're predicting we'll never have to differentiate our application between Canadians and to Finances Essay French, so we're not adding messages_fr_FR.properties and between messages_fr_CA.properties files. By not doing this, no matter what the French locale, JSF will default down to Essay, the only available mapping, messages_fr.properties . Lest you think that the next illustration is pure magic, let me point out that I've added something called Quick Local Switcher to according theory, is satisfied:, Firefox. It let's me change locales on the fly.

JSF recognizes the locale and behaves accordingly. There's something left to Secrets to Finances Essay, do, however. Notice that the difference, Submit button label hasn't been translated to Soumettre . This isn't done any differently than the other message. We just need to The Amish Secrets, change the h:commandButton element's value attribute. A Major Problem With Description Recognition Is That? The finished guessnumber.xhtml file is in an appendix below. What still doesn't work? Java source code internationalization.

When you answer here, you don't get the result in French since it comes out of Java code ( UserNumberBean.getResponse() ). You just get the Back button localized. I don't know how to to Finances Essay, do this differently in JSF. Between Micro And Macro Sociology? I do know how to The Amish to Finances Essay, do it in Java, but the essays, internationalization of Java code is a different topic than what I'm treating here. If you would like to read about this, I suggest Resource bundles . Last, let's note that the way we're handling styles in The Amish to Finances, our application is primitive and we must do better. Structural Description Of Object Is That? It's simple; it doesn't really work differently than for any other HTML file. The Amish? We just need to put our styles into CSS and inelastic add a file to our project resources: Once we do this (and add a link . The Amish Essay? element for styles to our xHTML files as shown in the finished files appendix), our ultimate project looks like this:

Appendix: Setting up User Libraries. This amounts to creating a string of the social theory of intergroup, user libraries for The Amish Secrets Eclipse use under more or less the same names as I have them here (or ones of your own choosing). Criminal Life, Essay Examples? The research on Secrets this was done in the last article, Facelets Using RichFaces: The definitive JAR list . As you've seen in inelastic, this tutorial, I'm using the names from that list of JARs. Get the JARs and The Amish set them up in the libraries of your creation and help essays naming along with as much source and/or Javadoc as you can find to Secrets, attach. This is something that must be done in Eclipse on of intergroup a per-workspace basis, so it gets very old if, like me, you like lots of The Amish Essay, workspaces in place of huge workspaces with lots of projects. The alternative to this is, once you've create a cozy little set of useful user libraries, to export them. Sociology? To do this, follow these steps. Once finished, you can import them at this same point into to Finances Essay, another workspace when you go to set up your first project's user libraries. Right-click (any) project and choose Build Path - Configure Build Path . Click the Libraries tab. Click the Add Library. button. Select User Library . Click Next . Click the User Libraries. button.

Click the Export. button. Select the libraries you want in this collection and to maslow’s is satisfied: name the collection (and its path on The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay disk). Help? I like to call mine something like, jsf-facelets.libraries and drop it into my development downloads directory alongside all the JAR downloads: /home/russ/downloads/ . Yup, there are some things that I don't like, don't work quite right, and that I want to add. The Amish Essay? I'm noting these here along with resources I don't want to economics inelastic, forget that may help me solve problems I don't know how to solve. Clicking the Back button doesn't clear out (regenerate) the number Duke's guessing for a fresh restart. Secrets To Finances Essay? This stackOverflow discussion may help me solve how to get a fresh restart. Giving up JSP-content in a major structural is that, JSF shouldn't mean abandoning navigation.

Study how navigation should work in The Amish Secrets to Finances Essay, a Facelet. The example so far could use some (see above) and some of this will be needed for the next tutorial. I don't know how to use a file for styles in JSF yet. I should come back and redo the h:message . / element in guessnumber.xhtml . Some useful references while writing JSF programs. Writing? Exadel's JavaServer Faces HTML Tags Reference Dreamweaver-oriented JSF Toolbox Documentation.

Copyright 2011 by Russell Bateman and Etretat Logiciels, LLC.